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Part  I. 









mi:rray'9  handbooks  mat  be  ODTAIMED  01 
Germaa!/,  Holland,  and  Belgium. 





«AH  r.  HHHBTEB. 


loniaa  Island*.  ConttantinojiU. 


SIR    WILLIAM  EDEN,   Bart., 





B  2 

(    4    ) 


The  Publisher  of  the  *  Handbook  for  Travellers  in  Spain  *  requests,  that 
traveliers  who  may,  in  the  use  of  the  Work,  detect  any  faults  or  omissions 
which  they  can  correct  from  personal  knowledge,  will  have  the  kindness  to 
mark  them  down  on  the  spot,  and  forward  such  notes,  favouring  him  at  the 
same  time  with  their  names — addressed  to  Mr.  Murray,  Albemarle  Street. 
They  may  be  reminded  that  by  such  communications  they  are  not  merely 
furnishing  the  means  of  improving  the  Handbook,  but  are  contributing  to 
the  benefit,  information,  and  comfort  of  future  travellers  in  regard  to  a 
country,  which  is  in  a  state  of  considerable  change  and  progress. 

*♦*  No  attention  can  be  paid  to  letters  from  innkeepers  in  praise  of  their 
own  houses ;  and  the  postage  of  them  is  so  onerous  that  they  cannot  be 

Caution  to  Travellebs.— By  a  recent  Act  of  Parliament  the  intro- 
duction into  England  of  foreign  pirated  Editions  of  the  works  of  British 
authors,  in  which  the  copyright  subsists,  is  totally  prohibited.  Travellers 
will  therefore  bear  in  mind  that  even  a  single  copy  is  contraband,  and  is 
liable  to  seizure  at  the  English  Custom-house. 

Caution  to  Innkeepers  and  others. — The  Publisher  of  the  Handbooks 
has  learned  from  various  quarters  that  a  person  or  persons  have  of  late  been 
extorting  money  from  innkeepers,  tradespeople,  artists,  and  others  on  the 
Continent,  under  pretext  of  procuring  recommendations  and  favourable 
notices  of  them  and  their  establishments  in  the  Handbooks  for  Travellers. 
The  Publisher,  therefore,  thinks  proper  to  warn  all  whom  it  may  concern, 
that  recommendations  in  the  Handbooks  are  not  to  be  obtained  by  purchase, 
and  that  the  persons  alluded  to  are  not  only  unauthorised  by  him,  but  are 
totally  unknown  to  him.  All  those,  therefore,  who  put  confidence  in  such 
promises  may  rest  assured  that  they  will  be  defVauded  of  their  money  without 
attaining  their  object. — 1855. 

(    5    ) 


The  rapid  exhaustion  of  two  large  editions  of  this  '  Handbook  for 
Spain,'  a  country  hitherto  little  known  and  less  visited,  proves  that  the 
Pyrenees  have  ceased  to  bar  out  travellers  from  England,  to  whose 
especial  nse  this  work  is  destined. 

Of  the  many  misrepresentations  regarding  the  Peninsula,  few  had 
been  previously  more  systematically  circulated,  than  the  dangers  and 
difficulties.  It  was  our  office  to  show,  that  this,  the  most  romantic  and 
XJeculiar  country  in  Europe,  might  in  reality  be  visited  throughout  its 
length  and  breadth,  with  ease  and  safety, — ^that  travelling  there  was  no 
worse  than  it  was  in  most  parts  of  the  continent  in  1814,  before  English 
example  forced  improvements.  The  greatest  desideratum  was  a  practical 
Handbook,  since  the  national  Ontas  are  scanty  and  unsatisfactory,  as 
few  Spaniards  travel  in  their  own  country,  and  fewer  travel  out  of  it ; 
thus,  with  limited  means  of  comparison,  they  cannot  appreciate  diffe- 
rences, or  know  what  are  the  wants  and  wishes  of  a  foreigner.  Ac- 
cordingly, in  their  Guides,  usages,  ceremonies,  &c.  which  are  familiar 
to  themselves  from  childhood,  are  often  passed  over  without  notice, 
although,  from  their  novelty  to  the  stranger,  they  are  exactly  what  he 
most  desires  to  have  pointed  out  and  explained.  Nay,  the  natives 
frequently  despise,  or  feel  ashamed,  from  a  sensitiveness  of  being  thought 
**  picturesque  barbarians,"  of  those  very  things  which  the  most  interest 
and  charm  the  foreigner,  for  whose  observation  they  select  the  new 
rather  than  the  old,  and  point  out  their  poor  pale  copies  of  Europe,  in  pre- 
ference to  their  own  rich  and  racy  originals.  Again,  the  oral  information 
to  be  obtained  on  the  spot  is  generally  meagre ;  as  these  incurious  semi- 
orientals  look  with  jealousy  on  the  foreigner  who  observes  or  questions, 
they  either  fence  with  him  in  their  answers,  raise  difficulties,  or,  being 
creatures  of  self-esteem  and  imagination,  magnify  or  diminish  everything 
as  best  suits  their  own  objects  and  suspicions.  The  national  expres- 
sions "  Quien  sale  f  nose  sabe,** — "  who  knows  ?  I  do  not  know,"  will 
often  be  the  prelude  to'^No  sepuedCf** — "  it  can't  be  done." 

This  Handbook  endeavours  to  show  what  might  be  known  and  what 
may  be  done  in  Spain,  with  the  least  difficulty  and  the  greatest  satis- 
faction. With  this  view,  the  different  modes  of  travelling  by  land  or 
water,  and  the  precautions  necessary  to  be  taken  to  insure  comfort  a' 


security,  are  first  pointed  out  in  the  Introduction.  The  Provinces  are 
then  described  one  after  another.  The  principal  lines  of  high  roads, 
cross-communications,  names  of  inns,  and  quality  of  accommodation, 
are  detailed,  and  the  best  seasons  of  the  year  for  exploring  each  route 
suggested.  Plans  of  tours  are  drawn  up,  and  the  best  lines  laid  down 
for  specific  and  specified  objects.  The  peculiarities  of  districts  and 
towns  are  noticed,  and  a  short  account  given  of  the  local  antiquities, 
religion,  art,  scenery,  and  manners.  This  work,  the  fruit  of  many 
years'  wandering  in  the  Peninsula,  is  an  humble  attempt  to  furnish  in 
the  smallest  compass,  the  greatest  quantity  of  useful  and  entertaining 
information.  Those  things  which  every  one,  when  on  the  spot,  can  see 
with  his  own  eyes,  are  seldom  described  minutely ;  stress  is  laid  upon 
what  to  observe^  leaving  it  to  the  spectator  to  draw  his  own  conclusions ; 
nor  is  everything  that  can  be  seen  set  down,  but  only  what  is  really 
worth  seeing, — ^nec  omnia  dicentur  (as  Pliny  says,  *  Nat.  Hist.,'  x.iv.  2), 
sed  maxime  insignia ;  and  how  often  does  the  wearied  traveller  rejoice 
when  no  more  is  to  be  *'  done ;"  and  how  does  he  thank  the  faithful 
pioneer,  who,  by  having  himself  toiled  to  see  some  "  local  lion,"  has 
saved  others  the  tiresome  task,  by  his  assurance  that  it  is  not  worth  the 
time  or  trouble. 

The  philosophy  of  Spain  and  Spaniards,  and  things  to  be  known, 
not  seen,  have  never  been  neglected;  therefore  dates,  names,  facts, 
and  matters  are  mentioned  by  which  local  interest  may  be  enhanced. 
Curiosity  is  awakened,  rather  than  exhausted ;  for  to  do  that  would 
require  many  more  such  volumes  as  this.  But  as  next  to  knowing  a 
thing  oneself,  is  the  knowing  where  to  find  it,  sources  of  fuller  informa- 
tion are  cited,  from  whence  this  skeleton  framework  may  be  filled 
up,  whilst  such  a  reference  to  the  best  authorities  on  nice  occasions, 
offers  a  better  guarantee  than  any  mere  unsupported  statement ;  and 
the  author  whose  object  is  tnUh,  and  whose  wish  is  to  have  his  views 
disseminated,  must  feel  much  flattered  to  find  the  good  use  his  pages 
have  been  of  to  many  authors,  gentlemen  and  ladies  too. 

In  Spain,  a  few  larger  cities  excepted,  libraries,  newspapers,  cicerones, 
and  those  resources  which  so  much  assist  the  traveller  in  other  countries 
of  Europe,  are  among  the  things  that  are  not :  therefore  the  provident 
traveller  should  carry  in  his  saddle-bags  food  both  for  mind  and  body, 
some  supply  of  what  he  can  read  and  eat,  in  this  hungry  land  of  the  un- 
informed. A  little  more  is  now  aimed  at  than  a  mere  book  of  roads,  or 
description  of  the  husk  of  the  country.  To  see  the  cities,  and  knoio  the 
minds  of  men,  has  been,  since  the  days  of  the  Odyssey,  the  object  of 
travel :  but  how  **  difiBcult  is  it,"  in  the  words  of  the  Great  Duke 
(Disp.,  Dec.  13, 1810),  "  to  understand  the  Spaniards  exactly !"  Made 
up  of  contradictions,  they  dwell  in  the  land  of  the  unexpected,  lepays  de 


VimprevUf  where  exception  is  the  rule ;  where  accide&t  and  the  impulse 
of  the  moment  are  the  moving  powers ;  a  land  where  men,  especially  in 
their  collective  capacity,  act  like  women  and  children ;  where  a  spark,  a 
trifle,  sets  the  impressionahle  masses  in  action,  and  where  no  one  can 
foresee  the  commonest  events,  which  hafiQe  the  most  rational  and  well* 
founded  speculations.  An  explosion  may  occur  at  any  moment ;  nor 
does  any  Spaniard  ever  attempt  to  guess  beyond  la  situacion  actual,  or  to 
foretell  what  the  morrow  will  bring :  that  he  leaves  to  the  foreigner, 
who  does  not  understand  him — accordingly,  sufficient  for  the  day  is 
the  evil  thereof.  Faciencia  y  harajar  is  his  motto,  and  he  waits 
patiently  to  see  what  next  will  turn  up  after  another  sunrise  and  shuffle* 
His  creed  and  practice  are  "  Resignation/'  the  Islam  of  the  Oriental; 
for  this  singular  people  is  scarcely  yet  European;  this  Berhei^ia 
Cristiana  is  at  least  a  neutral  ground  between  the  hat  and  the  turban, 
and  many  still  contend  that  Africa  begins  at  the  Pyrenees. 

Be  that  as  it  may,  Spain,-  first  civilized  by  the  Phoenicians,  and  long 
possessed  by  the  Moors,  has  indelibly  retained  many  of  the  original 
impressions.  Test  her,  therefore,  and  her  natives  by  an  Oriental 
standard, — decypher  her  by  that  key, — ^how  analogous  will  much 
appear,  that  seems  strange  and  repugnant,  when  compared  with  Euro- 
pean usages !  This  land  and  people  of  routine  and  habit  are  potted  for 
antiquarians,  for  here  Pagan,  Roman,  and  Eastern  customs,  long  obsolete 
elsewhere,  turn  up  at  eveiy  step  in  church  and  house,  in  cabinet  and 
campaign.  In  this  age  of  practical  investigation,  the  physical  features 
of  Spain,  her  mighty  mountain  ranges  and  rivers,  her  wealth  above  and 
below  ground,  her  vegetation  and  mines,  offer  a  wide  and  almost  new 
field  to  our  naturalists  and  men  of  science. 

Again,  to  those  of  a  less  utilitarian  turn,  here  are  those  seas  which 
reflect  the  glories  of  Drake,  Blake, .  and  Nelson,  and  those  plains 
that  are  hallowed  by  the  victories  of  the  Black  Prince,  Stanhope, 
and  Wellington;  and  what  English  pilgrim  will  fail  to  visit  such 
sites,  or  be  dead  to  the  religio  loci  which  they  inspire  ?  And  where 
better  than  on  the  sites  themselves,  can  be  read  the  great  deeds 
of  our  soldiers  and  sailors,  their  gallantry  and  good  conduct,  the 
genius,  mercy,  and  integrity  of  their  immortal  chiefs,  which  will 
be  here  faithfully  yet  not  boastingly  recorded?  While  every  lie 
and  libel  is  circulated  on  each  side  of  the  Pyrenees,  is,  forsooth,  the 
truth  to  be  altogether  withheld  in  pages  destined  especially  for  their 
countrymen  ?  Is  their  history  to  be  treated  as  an  old  almanack,  in 
order  in  false  or  cowardly  delicacy,  to  curry  favour  with  unprincipled 
vanity  writhing  under  defeat,  or  with  impotent  pride  resenting  benefits 
which  imply  inferiority  ?  The  mirror  that  shall  truly  reflect  Spain 
and  her  things,  her  glories  and  shame,  must  disclose  a  chequered  pictur 


in  which  black  spots  will  contrast  with  bright  lights,  and  the  evil 
clash  with  the  good ;  sad  indeed  will  be  many  a  page ;  alas !  for  the 
works  of  ages  of  piety,  science,  and  fine  art,  trampled  down  by  the 
Vandal  heel  of  destroyers,  foreign  and  domestic,  who  have  left  a  deep 
footprint,  and  set "  the  mark  of  the  beast,"  which  will  pain  the 
scholar,  the  artist,  and  the  philanthropist.  If,  however,  such  crimes 
and  culprits  come  like  dark  shadows  (for  not  one  tithe  of  the  full 
substance  of  crime  will  be  set  down),  it  must  never  be  forgotten  that 
these  verdicts  of  guilty  refer  to  jparticular  individuals  and  periods,  and 
not  to  any  nation  in  general  or  to  all  times.  And  far  more  pleasant 
has  been  the  duty  of  dwelling  on  deeds  of  skill  and  valour  performed 
on  the  peninsular  arena  by  native  or  foreigner,  by  friend  or  foe,  and  of 
pointing  out  the  excellences  of  this  favoured  land  of  Spain,  and  of 
enlarging  on  the  generous,  manly,  independent,  and  picturesque 
People,  whose  best  energies  in  peace  and  war  have  been  too  often 
depressed  by  misgovemment  in  Church  and  State. 

However  it  may  be  the  bounden  duty  of  an  honest  guide  to  put 
English  travellers  in  possession  of  the  truth  as  regards  many  things, 
facts  and  persons,  and  thus  to  guard  them  against  misrepresentations, 
our  readers  need  by  no  means,  on  crossing  the  Channel,  blurt  out  all 
they  know  of  these  truths,  often  the  worst  of  libels.  These  double- 
edged  weapons  may  be  kept  undrawn  until  necessary  for  self-defence. 
Gratuitously  to  wound  a  sensitive  kindly  people,  is  neither  polite  or 
friendly  in  the  stranger,  who  is  their  guest — who  will  pass  more  quietly 
through  the  land  by  making  things  pleasant  to  the  natives,  and  if 
speech  be  silver,  silence  is  often  gold. 

"  HaBC  studia  adolescentiam  agunt,  senectutem  oblectant,  secundas 
res  omant,  adversis  perfugium  ac  solatium  praebent ;  delectant  domi,  non 
impediunt  foris ;  pemoctant  nobiscum,  perigrinantur,  rusticantur." — 
Cicero,  pro  Arch,  7. 

(    9    ) 



Pbeface  ••••••••••••• 5 


Public  ConTeyances  and  Steamers       ••• 11 

Tours  in  Spain — General  Notices  •••••••••••34 

Skeleton  Tours ••••41 

Section  H.— ANDALUCIA. 

Introductory  Information 126 

Routes .126 

Section  in.— RONDA  AND  GRANADA. 

Introductory  Sketch  of  the  Country  and  Natives :  Routes  •     •     •     .251 
Kingdom  of  Granada     •••••• 291 


General  View  of  the  Country  and  its  Productions :  Routes     •     •     •  338 
Mines       • ••••••••  339 

Section  V.— VALENCIA. 

General  Account  of  the  Country,  Natiyes,  and  Agriculture      •     •     .  360 

Routes 360 

Valencia    •     •     • 366 

Section  VI.— CATALONIA. 

Character  of  the  Country  and  Natives —  Commerce — Smuggling  and 

Routes  •     * 391 

Barcelona  and  its  History    •••••• 408 

Index ' 

10  C0NTKNT8, 


Section  Vn.— ESTREMADURA. 

General  View  of  the  Province — its  Merinos,  Pigs,  and  Routes  •  .461 
Badajoz 466 

Section  YIII.— LEON. 

Introductory  Remarks  on  the  Province  and  Natives,  and  Routes        •  504 

Salamanca 514 

ElVierzo 539 

YaUadolid 566 


Introductory  Sketches  of  the  Country,  People,  Production,  and  Routes  587 
Santiago 601 

Section  X.— THE  ASTURIAS. 

General  View  of  the  Principality,  Early  History,  Natives,  and  Routes  631 
Oviedo  and  Coal  Mines       < ••  635 


General  Account  of  the  Country,  Natives,  and  Routes 652 

Madrid 663 

Escorial • 750 

Toledo 774 


The  Fueros,  Character  of  Country  and  Natives,  Manners,  Language,  872 
and  Routes • 903 


Constitutional  History,  Character  of  Country  and  People  •     •     •     .  906 
Zaragoza •••••  948 


The  (Dountry,  Natives;  and  Routes      ••••....••  952 
Pamplona      .•••...•.. 

Index  ;  To  which  the  reader  is  particularly  requested  to  refer,  when 
any  word  or  feet  seems  to  require  explanation 963 

Spain.  {     11     ) 


I.  Spam  and  Spaniards ;  National  CkaractertsiicB,  —  II,  FoMports,'-^ 
III.  CustoTTirhotuse  Officers;  Prohibited  Articles,  —  IV.  Spanish 
Money, '-^Y,  Steam  Communications, ^-"'^ I,  TraveUing  by  Land; 
Hoods ;  Posting  Begulations  and  Charges ;  Post-office  and  Letters  ; 
Mail-coaches;  Diligences;  Muleteers;  Riding  Tours,  —  VII.  Inns, 
— Vni.  Robbers, — IX.  Geography  of  Spain;  Provinces  and  Climate; 
what  to  observe ;  Tours  in  Spain ;  Tour  for  the  Idler ;  the  Grand 
Tour ;  Hints  to  Invalids ;  a  Ruling  Tour ;  Mineral  Baths, —-'K,  SkeU" 
ton  Tours:  — 1.  Roman  Antiquarian  Tour;  2.  Moorish  Tour;  3. 
Oedogical  and  Mineralogical  Tour ;  4.  Tour  over  the  Cream  of  Spain ; 
5.  A  Summer  Tour  in  the  North  of  Spain ;  6.  A  Central  Tour  round 
Madrid ;  7,  An  Artistical  Tour ;  8.  A  Military  and  Naval  Tour ; 
9.  Shooting  and  Fishing  Tours;  10.  DiUetante  Tours:  Spanisli 
Sculpture,  its  varieties ;  Pasos ;  List  of  Sculptors ;  11.  DiUetante 
Tours:  Painting ;  Spanish  Painting  and  its  Characteristics ;  Cautions 
to  Purchasers ;  List  of  Painters ;  12.  Spanish  Architecture ;  its  varieties 
and  periods ;  List  of  Architects ;  13.  Ecdesiciogical  Tour ;  Spanish 
Cathedrals;  Disposition  and  Technical  Terms, — XI.  Religious  Fes^ 
tivals  Tour, — XII.  Kings  of  Spain. — XIII.  Tahle  of  Contemporary 
Sovereigns.  —  XIV.  Royal  Arms  of  Spain,  —  XV.  The  Era  and  New 
Style.  —  XVI.  Spanish  Language  and  P^rowes.  —  XVII.  Relative 
Scales  of  Spanish  and  Fngli^  Weights^  Distances,  and  Measures.  — 
XVIII.  Authorities  quoted: — 1.  Historical  and  Artistical;  2.  Re- 
ligious; S.  Military ;  French,  Spanish,  and  English;  4.  Miscellaneous 
Books, — XIX.  A  Word  to  Book  Collectors. — XX.  Hints  to  Authors. 
*-XXI.  The  BuU-fight.  —  XKlI.  The  S^nish  Theatre:  Dances, 
Music,  —  XXin.  Spanish  Cigars.  —  XaIV.  Spanish  Costume  ; 
Mantilla  and  Cloak. — XXV.  General  Hints  and  Advice  on  Conduct. 

I. — Spain  and  Spaniards. 

Singe  Spain  appears,  on  the  map,  to  be  a  square  and  most  compact 
kingdom,  politicians  and  geographers  have  treated  it  and  its  inhabitants 
as  one  and  the  same ;  practically,  however,  this  is  almost  a  geographical 
expression,  as  the  earth,  air,  and  mortals,  of  the  different  portions 
of  this  conventional  whole,  are  altogether  heterogeneous.  Peninsular 
man  has  followed  the  nature  by  which  he  is  surrounded ;  mountains 
and  rivers  have  walled,  and  moated  the  dislocated  land ;  mists  and 
gleams  have  diversified  the  heaven ;  and  differing  like  soil  and  sky, 
the  people,  in  each  of  the  once  independent  provinces  now  loosely 
bound  together  by  one  golden  hoop,  the  Crown,  has  its  own  par- 
ticular character.  To  hate  his  neighbour  is  a  second  nature  to  ♦ 
Spaniard ;  no  spick  and  span  constitution,  be  it  printed  on  parchmei 


12  I.  SPAIN  AND  SPANIARDS.  Sect.  I. 

calico,  can  at  once  efTace  traditions  and  antipathies  of  a  thousand  years ; 
the  accidents  of  localities  and  provincial  nationalities,  out  of  which  they 
have  sprung,  remain  too  deeply  dyed  to  be  forthwith  discharged  by 
theorists,  llie  climate  and  productions  vary  no  less  than  do  language, 
costume,  and  manners  ;  and  so  division  and  localism  have,  from  time 
immemorial,  formed  a  marked  national  feature.  Spaniards  may  talk 
and  boast  of  their  country,  of  their  Patrta,  as  is  done  by  the  similarly 
circumstanced  Italians,  but  like  them  and  the  Germans,  they  have  the 
fallacy,  but  no  real  Fatherland ;  it  is  an  aggregation  rather  than  an 
amalgamation, — every  single  individual  in  his  heart  really  only  loving 
his  native  province,  and  only  considering  as  his  fellow-countryman, 
8u  paisano — a  most  binding  and  endearing  word— one  born  in  the  same 
locality  as  himself :  hence  it  is  not  easy  to  predicate  much  in  regard 
to  "  the  Spains  "  and  Spaniards  in  general,  which  will  hold  quite  good 
as  to  each  particular  portion  ruled  by  the  sovereign  of  Las  Espanas,  the 
plural  title  given  to  the  chief  of  the  federal  union  of  this  really  little 
united  kingdom.  Espanolismo  may,  however,  be  said  to  consist  in  a 
love  for  a  common  faith  and  king,  and  in  a  coincidence  of  resistance 
to  all  foreign  dictation.  The  deep  sentiments  of  religion,  loyalty,  and 
independence,  noble  characteristics  indeed,  have  been  sapped  in  our 
times  by  the  influence  of  transpyrenean  revolutions. 

In  order  to  assist  strangers  in  understanding  the  Peninsula  and  its 
people,  some  preliminary  remarks  are  prefixed  to  each  section  or  pro- 
vince, in  which  the  leading  characteristics  of  nature  and  man  are 
pointed  out.  T^5^o  general  observations  may  be  premised.  First.  The 
People  of  Spain,  the  so-called  Lower  Orders,  are  superior  to  those  who 
arrogate  to  themselves  the  title  of  being  their  Betters,  and  in  most 
respects  are  more  interesting.  The  masses,  the  least  spoilt  and  the 
most  national,  stand  like  pillars  amid  ruins,  and  on  them  the  edifice  of 
Spain's  greatness  is — ^if  ever — to  be  reconstructed.  This  may  have 
arisen,  in  this  land  of  anomalies,  from  the  peculiar  policy  of  government 
in  church  and  state,  where  the  possessors  of  religious  and  civil  mono- 
polies who  dreaded  knowledge  as  power,  pressed  heavily  on  the  noble 
and  rich,  dwarfing  down  their  bodies  by  intermarriages,  and  all  but 
extinguishing  their  minds  by  Inquisitions;  while  the  People,  over- 
looked in  the  obscurity  of  poverty,  were  allowed  to  grow  out  to  their 
ifull  growth  like  wild  weeds  of  a  rich  soil.  They,  in  fact,  have  long 
enjoyed  under  despotisms  of  church  and  state,  a  practical  and  personal 
independence,  the  good  results  of  which  are  evident  in  their  stalwart 
frames  and  manly  bearing. 

Secondly,  A  distinction  must  ever  be  made  between  the  Spaniard 
in  his  individtidl  and  in  his  collective  capacity,  and  still  more  in 
an  official  one :  taken  by  himself,  he  is  true  and  valiant :  the  nicety 
of  his  Pundonory  or  point  of  personal  honour,  is  proverbial ;  to  him 
as  an  individual,  you  may  safely  trust  your  life,  fair  fame,  and  purse. 
Yet  history,  treating  of  these  individuals  in  the  collective,  juntados, 
presents  the  foulest  examples  of  misbehaviour  in  the  field,  of  Punic  bad 
faith  in  the  cabinet,  of  bankruptcy  and  repudiation  on  the  exchange. 
This  may  be  also  much  ascribed  to  the  deteriorating  influence  of  bad 
government,  by  which  the  individual  Spaniard,  like  the  monk  in  a 

-i.vent,  becomes  fused  into  the  corporate.     The  atmosphere  is  too 

Spain.  u.  passports.  13 

infectious  to  avoid  some  comiption,  and  while  the  Spaniard  feels  that 
his  character  is  only  in  safe  keeping  when  in  his  own  hands,  and  no  roan 
of  any  nation  knows  better  then  how  to  uphold  it,  when  linked  with 
others,  his  self-pride,  impatient  of  any  superior,  lends  itself  readily  to 
feelings  of  mistrust,  until  self-interest  and  preservation  become  upper* 
most.  From  suspecting  that  he  will  be  sold  and  sacrificed  by  others, 
he  ends  by  floating  down  the  turbid  stream  like  the  rest :  yet  even 
official  employment  does  not  quite  destroy  all  private  good  qualities,  and 
the  empleado  may  be  appealed  to  as  an  individual, 

II. — Pasbpobts. 

A  Passport — that  curse  of  continental  travelling,  and  still  essential 
in  Spain — may  be  obtained  at  the  Foreign-office,  Downing-street, 
for  Is,  Qd,,  by  any  British  subject,  backed  with  the  recommendation  of 
a  banker.  It  had  better  be  vis^  by  the  Spanish  Ambassador  in  Lon- 
don. As  this  Refrendacion  is  expressed  in  the  Spanish  language,  the 
import  of  a  foreign  passport  becomes  intelligible  in  Spain,  where,  out  of 
the  large  towns,  few  persons  understand  either  English  or  French.  ITie 
essence  of  a  passport  is  the  name  and  country  of  the  bearer ;  all  the  rest 
is  leather  and  prunella  and  red-tapeism. 

Travellers  who  propose  taking  Portugal  in  their  way  to  Spain,  may 
obtain  a  passport  from  the  Portuguese  consul,  at  No.  5,  Jeffreys-square, 
St.  Mary  Axe ;  the  fee  is  five  shillings.  It  must  be  vis^d  at  Lisbon  by 
the  English  and  Spanish  Ambassadors  previously  to  entering  Spain. 
Those  who  enter  Spain  from  France  must  have  their  passports  vis^d  at 
Paris  by  the  Spanish  Ambassador,  and  at  Bayonne  by  the  Spanish  and 
English  Consuls ;  the  latter  demanding  a  fee,  '*  according  to  Act  of 

At  the  principal  sea-ports  of  Spain,  foreigners  are  constantly  arriving 
in  the  steamers  without  passports,  who,  if  they  wish  to  travel  into  the 
interior,  obtain  one  from  the  local  authorities,  which  is  never  refused 
when  applied  for  by  the  English  Consul.  This  especially  holds  good 
with  regard  to  those  who  visit  the  coast  in  their  yachts,  or  in  ships  of 
war.  Those  English  who  go  directly  to  Gibraltar  require  no  passport ; 
and  when  starting  for  Spain  they  can  obtain  one  either  from  the  English 
Governor  or  from  the  Spanish  Governor  of  Algeciras :  both  of  these 
require  to  be  vis^d  by  the  Spanish  Consul  at  Gibraltar,  who  demands  a 
trifling  fee. 

Although  in  peaceful  times,  and  since  the  decree  on  this  subject 
of  February  15,  1854,  many  rigid  rules  are  relaxed,  yet  as  they  may 
be  put  in  force,  ultra-prudent  travellers  who  intend  travelling  with 
fire-arms,  (which  on  the  whole  had  better  be  avoided,  a  pocket  revolver 
perhaps  excepted,)  should  have  the  circumstance  mentioned  on  their 
passport  by  the  Spanish  official  at  starting,  when  it  is  first  refrendado. 
And  it  is  not  amiss  to  have  specified  the  particular  objects  of  travel, 
such  as  botanising,  geologizing,  sketching,  &c.  In  our  and  in  all 
troublesome  times  a  stranger  making  drawings  or  writing  down  notes 
in  a  book,  "  mcando  pianos,^*  **  taking  plans,"  "  mapeando  el  pais,^* 
"  mapping  the  country," — for  such  are  the  expressions  for  the  simplest 
pencil  sketch — ^was  liable  to  become  an  object  of  suspicion  in  out-of-the 
way  places,  and  was  thought  to  be  an  engineer,  a  spy,  and  at  all  even 

14  u*  PASSPORTS*  Sect.  I. 

about  no  good.  This  Oriental  dislike  to  the  impertinente  curioso  tribe 
dates  from  the  French  having,  previously  to  Buonaparte's  invasion, 
sent  emissaries  in  the  guise  of  travellers,  to  obtain  such  information  as 
afterwards  facilitated  their  obtaining  possession  of  the  citadels,  treasures, 
and  pictures  of  their  deceived  ally.  Matters  are,  we  are  told,  much 
mended ;  but  let  artists  remember  that  Hogarth  and  Wilkie  were  arrested 
for  even  sketching  Calais,  and  it  is  always  best  to  be  on  the  safe  side. 

All  persons,  moreover,  had  better  avoid  evincing  particular  curiosity 
in  regard  to  military  matters,  fortresses,  arsenals,  barracks,  &c. ;  and 
should  refrain  from  sketching  them,  which,  in  the  Draco  laws  of  Spain, 
is  of  itself  a  serious  offence  ;  nor  indeed  are  these  objects  deserving  of 
notice,  being  mostly  hors-de-combat,  after  the  Oriental  fashion,  and,  as 
the  Duke  said,  "  wanting  in  everything,  and  at  the  critical  moment.'* 

Our  own  system,  which  answered  perfectly  when  Ferdinand  VII.  was 
king,  and  may  again,  was,  not  only  to  have  the  object  of  travelling  and 
inquiries  clearly  explained  on  our  passport,  but  on  arrival  at  any  town, 
to  communicate  intention  of  drawing,  or  anything  else,  to  the  proper 
authority,  and  obtain  his  sanction.  We  always  travelled  with  a  captain- 
generaPs  passport,  a  most  desirable  document,  as  it  is  expressed  in  the 
Spanish  language,  which  everybody  understands,  and  which  rouses  no 
suspicions  like  one  couched  in  a  foreign  tongue;  it  is  the  military 
document  of  the  great  military  officer,  under  whose  especial  protection 
all  foreigners  are  placed.  Again,  it  is  a  sort  of  letter  of  recommenda- 
tion to  all  other  officers  in  command  on  the  line  of  route,  on  whom  the 
bearer  should  call  the  first  thing,  as  when  once  a  Spaniard's  suspicions 
are  disarmed,  no  person  can  be  more  courteous  or  attentive. 

In  whatever  language  his  passport  be  couched,  let  every  Englishman, 
like  good  old  George  III.,  glory  everywhere  in  his  British  birthright, 
and  proclaim  it  loudly  and  with  thanks  to  God :  Senor^  gracias  a  Dios, 
soy  CabaUero  Ingles.  Again,  as  the  thing  cannot  be  avoided,  the 
traveller  should  early  form  the  habit,  the  very  first  thing  on  arrival,  to 
ask  the  innkeeper  what  steps  are  necessary  about  passports  and  police — 
which  now  in  some  sort  represent  the  Inquisition — and  forthwith  see  that 
he  is  quite  en  regie.  The  habit  once  established  of  complying  with 
these  forms  practically  gives  little  trouble,  and  will  obviate  a  world  of 
vexation,  inconvenience,  and  loss  of  time.  The  necessary  formalities 
are  soon  done ;  and  usually  great  civility  is  shown  by  the  authorities  to 
those  travellers  who  will  wait  upon  them  in  person,  which  is  not  always 
required,  and  who  do  taJ^  off  their  hats — that  outward  visible  sign  of 
good  breeding  and  good  intentions  on  the  continent,  which  is  so  fre- 
quently disregarded  by  our  cool,  curt,  and  catch-cold  countrymen,  to 
their  infinite  cost.  The  Spaniards,  who  are  not  to  be  driven  with  a  rod 
of  iron,  may  be  led  by  a  straw,  and  in  no  countiy  is  more  to  be  obtained 
by  the  cheap  outlay  of  courtesy  in  manner  and  speech ;  "  cortesia  de 
hoca,  mucho  vale  y  poco  cttesta,^*  As  a  general  rule,  the  utmost  care 
should  be  taken  of  this  odious  passport,  since  the  loss  of  it  naturally 
subjects  the  stranger  to  every  sort  of  suspicion.  It  should  be  carried 
about  the  person  when  travelling,  as  it  is  liable  constantly  to  be  called 
for :  to  prevent  it  from  being  worn  out,  it  is  advisable  to  have  it  laid  down 
''"V  Mr.  Lee,  440,  West  Strand,  on  fine  linen,  bound  into  a  small  pocket- 
)k,  with  blank  leaves  attached,  on  which  signatures  may  be  written. 

Spain,  Ul.   CUSTOM-HOUSES. — ^IV.  SPAKISH  MONET.  15 


Akin  to  the  nuisance  of  passports  is  that  of  the  Aduaneros,  the 
custom-house  officers,  and  of  the  receivers  of  the  derechoa  de  puerta,  or 
dues  levied  at  city-gates  on  comesttblea  de  boca — articles  of  eating  and 
drinking.  From  the  number  of  the  employed  it  would  seem  that  every 
province  and  town  in  Spain  was  at  war  with  or  foreign  to  its  neighbour. 
No  prudent  traveller  will  ever  risk  his  ease  and  security  by  carrying 
any  prohibited  goods  with  him.  The  objects  most  searched  for,  are 
sealed  letters  and  tobacco :  if  the  lover  of  cigars  has  a  considerable 
stock  with  him  (a  pound  or  so  may  pass),  he  is  advised  to  declare  it 
at  once,  pay  the  duty,  and  obtain  Skguia,  or  permit,  which  exempts  him 
from  further  molestation.  English  fire-arms  and  gunpowder  are 
altogether  prohibited.  Sportsmen,  however,  who  enter  Spain  from 
Gibraltar,  may  manage  to  introduce  their  own  guns  and  ammunition. 

As  the  Be8guardo8f — the  custom-^ouse  officers  and  preventive  service 
—have  a  right  to  examine  baggage,  it  is  of  no  use  either  to  resist 
or  lose  thus  time  and  temper ;  much  more  may  be  done  by  good 
humour,  patience,  civility,  and  a  cigar:  raise  therefore  no  difficulties, 
but  ofiFer  your  keys,  and  profess  the  greatest  readiness  to  have  every- 
thing examined.  Eecent  travellers  report  that  bribing  is  now  out  of 
fashion  in  Spain,  and  that  no  money  should  be  offered,  as  is  enjoined 
but  not  practised  on  our  railways.  But  in  our  time  the  grandest 
panacea  was  cash,  the  oriental  Backshish,  and  those  who  preferred  peace 
to  pesetas,  paid  with  both  hands.  The  official  ophthalmia  created  by 
an  apposite  sprinkle  of  gold-dust  was  marvellous  in  its  rapidity  and 
completeness,  and  the  examination  ended  in  being  a  mere  farce.  The 
tmpieados,  used  to  be  defined  as  gentlemen,  who,  under  the  pretence 
of  searching  portmanteaus,  took  money  on  the  highway  without  incur- 
ring the  disgrace  of  begging,  or  the  danger  of  robbing.  The  bribe,  if 
given,  must  be  administered  with  some  tact,  as  a  **  propina  para  echar 
un  trojgV'ito^^  a  something  to  drink  your  health  with,  &c.  However, 
there  is  no  great  difficulty  in  the  matter,  for  where  there  is  a  will  on 
one  side  to  give,  there  is  a  reciprocal  desire  on  the  other  to  receive, 
and  the  itching  palm  expands  and  contracts  by  instinct  to  the  soothing 
and  sovereign  ointment.  These  things  may  be  changed,  but  the  tra- 
veller will  soon  see  how  the  wind  lies,  and  judge  whether  he  should 
bribe  or  not. 

rV. — Spanish  Mokey. 

Our  advice  coincides  with  that  of  the  roguish  Ventero  to  Don  Quixote 
and  of  honest  lago  in  Othello — ^'  put  money  in  thy  purse,"  as  it  is  the 
primum  mobile  in  all  cosas  de  Espana.  "  The  first  thing  they  (the 
Spaniards)  invariably  want,"  as  the  Duke  said,  "is  money :"  their  para- 
mount worship  of  the  Virgin  is  secondary  to  the  adoration  of  Mammon. 

With  few  exceptions,  the  currency  consists  of  specie— copper,  silver, 
and  gold.    Accounts  are  usually  kept  in  reals,  reaUs  de  veUon. 

Copper  Moneys — "  Monedas  de  CdbreJ'^ — ^The  lowest  in  denomination 
is  the  ancient  Truiravedi,  now  an  imaginary  coin,  on  whose  former  value 
treatises  have  been  written  by  Saez  and  others,  and  which  still  forms 
numismatic  bone  of  contention.    At  present  34  make  a  Spanish  real, 










16  IV.  SPANISH  MONEY.  Sect.  I. 

The  current  copper  coins  are — 

Ochavo  =  2  maravedis, 

Cuarto  =  4        „ 

Dos  cuartos     =  8        „ 

For  a  general  rule,  the  traveller  may  consider  the  ^*  ctioHo^^  as  equi- 
valent to  a  French  sou,  something  less  than  our  English  halfpenny, 
and  as  the  smallest  coin  likely  to  come  much  under  his  observation. 
Those  below  it,  fractions  of  farthings,  have  hardly  any  defined  form  ; 
indeed,  among  the  lower  classes  every  bit  of  copper  in  the  shape  of  a 
coin  passes  for  money. 

Silver  Coins — "  Monedas  de  Plata  " — are 

The  Real  I        2        4 

Dos  reales  1        2 

Peseta  I 

Medio  Duro 

The  real  is  worth  somewhat  more  than  2Jc?. ;  the  dos  reales,  or  2 
reals,  somewhat  less  than  5eZ.,  and  may  be  considered  as  equivalent  to 
the  half-franc,  and  representing  in  Spain  the  sixpence  in  England. 
The  peseta  comes  very  nearly  to  the  French  franc.  Of  these  and  the 
"  dos  reales  "  the  traveller  should  always  take  a  good  supply,  for,  as 
the  Scotchman  said  of  sixpences,  "  they  are  canny  little  dogs,  and 
often  do  the  work  of  shillings."  The  half-dollar  varies,  according  to 
the  exchange,  between  two  shillings  and  half  a  crown. 

The  dollar  of  Spain,  so  well  known  all  over  the  world,  is  the  Italian 
"  colonato,"  so  called  because  the  arms  of  Spain  are  supported  between 
the  two  pillars  of  Hercules.  The  ordinary  Spanish  name  is  "  duro,^* 
They  are  often,  however,  termed  in  banking  and  mercantile  transactions 
*' pesos  fttertesj^^  to  distinguish  them  from  the  imaginary  ^*peso**  or 
smaller  dollar  of  15  reals  only,  of  which  the  peseta  is  the  diminutive. 

The  "  duro  "  in  the  last  century  was  coined  into  half-dollars,  quarter- 
dollars,  and  half-quarter  dollars.  The  two  latter  do  not  often  occur ; 
they  may  be  distinguished  from  the  '^peseta"  and  *^ dos  reales ^^hy 
having  the  arms  of  Spain  stamped  between  the  two  piUarSy  which  have 
been  omitted  in  recent  coinages ;  their  fractional  value  renders  them  in- 
convenient to  the  traveller  until  perfectly  familiar  with  Spanish  money. 
The  quarter-dollar  is  worth  5  reals,  while  the  peseta  is  only  worth  4 ; 
the  half-quarter  dollar  is  worth  2^  reals,  while  the  dos  reales  is  only 
worth  2.  The  duro  in  accounts  is  genemlly  marked  thus  %.  This 
coin  is  now  getting  scarce,  having  been  much  melted  down  abroad,  and 
is  nearly  superseded  in  Spain  by  the  French  pieces  de  cinq  fraricSy 
here  called  Napdeones,  and  these  are  the  best  coins  a  traveller  can  take, 
as  each  is  current  everywhere  for  19  reals. 

The  Odd  Coiruige  consists  of  the 

Duro  12        4 

Dos  duros  1        2 

DMm  1 


Onza     . 

The  new  coin,  the  Isahdino,  the  Spanish  sovereign,  is  worth  5  duros, 
100  reals.    The  ounce,  when  of  full  weight,  is  worth  sixteen 











Spain.  IV.  SPANISH  MONET.  17 

dollars ;  the  exact  value,  however,  is  uncertain,  since  these  large 
coins,  are  much  worn  by  time,  and  the  sweating  by  the  fraudulent, 
and  seldom  have  preserved  their  legal  weight  and  value.  Those  thuB 
deficient  ought  to  be  accompanied  with  a  certificate,  wherein  is  stated 
their  exact  diminished  weight  and  value.  This  certificate  may  be 
obtained  in  the  principal  towns  from  the  **  contraHe,**  or  **y?eZ 
Tnedidor,^^  the  person  who  is  legally  authorized  to  weigh  gold  coins 
supposed  to  be  lights  and  his  place  of  abode  is  well  known.  All 
this,  however,  leads  to  constant  disputes  and  delays,  and  the 
stranger  must  take  care  when  he  receives  onzas,  except  from  first-rate 
Spanish  bankers  or  merchants,  to  see  that  these  great  coins  are  of  cor- 
rect weight :  two  grains  are  generally  allowed  for  wear.  It  is  better, 
except  when  residing  in  large  towns,  only  to  take  the  smaller  gold 
coins,  to  which  objections  are  seldom  raised.  The  traveller  who  is 
about  to  leave  the  high  road  and  visit  the  more  rarely  frequented  dis- 
tricts and  towns,  should  have  nothing  to  do  with  any  onzas  whatever ; 
for,  when  these  broad  pieces  are  offered  for  payment  in  a  small  village, 
they  are  apt  to  be  viewed  with  distrust,  and  are  diflBcult  to  be  changed, 
while  with  the  smaller  ones  nothing  of  the  kind  occurs. 

Some  gold  coins  have  a  narrow  thread  or  cord  stamped  round  them, 
and  are  then  termed  "  de  premio"  They  have  a  small  additional  value 
— the  gold  duro,  for  instance,  circulating  for  21  reales  2  cuartos — but 
they  should  be  avoided  by  the  traveller,  as  he  will  seldom  be  reminded 
when  paying  them  away,  that  he  is  giving  more  than  he  ought.  These 
coins,  in  common  with  all  which  are  not  the  simplest  and  best  known, 
only  entail  on  him  probable  loss  and  certain  trouble  in  adding  up 
accounts  and  making  payments. 

There  are  two  imaginary  coins  with  which  old-fashioned  Spaniards 
perplex  strangers  when  naming  prices  or  talking  of  values,  just  as  is 
done  with  our  obsolete  guinea :  one  is  the  "  ducado,^  worth  11  reals, 
or  about  half  our  crown ;  the  other  is  the  ^^peao,*  the  piastre,  worth 
15  reals,  and  by  which,  although  imaginary,  tne  exchange  on  England 
is  still  regulated :  thus  so  many  pence,  more  or  less,  as  the  rate  may 
be  high  or  low,  are  reckoned  as  equivalent  to  this  "  peso :"  the  exchange 
on  the  principal  cities  of  Europe  is  generally  published  in  all  Spanish 
newspapers.  36  pence  is  considered  to  be  par,  or  48  for  the  dollar,  or 
^^pesofv^rte,^^  as  it  is  called,  to  distinguish  the  whole  piece  from  the 
smaller  one.  The  traveller  may  calculate  by  this  simple  rule  how 
much  he  ought  to  got  for  his  pound  sterling.  If  36  pence  vAW.  produce 
15  reals,  how  many  reals  will  240  pence  give  ? — the  answer  is  100. 
This  being  a  round  number,  will  form  a  sufficient  basis  for  one  newly 
arrived  in  Spain  to  regulate  his  financial  computation  :  he  may  take  a 
hundred  reals  as  equivalent  to  a  pound  sterling^  although  he  will  be 
most  fortunate  if  ever  he  gets  it— or  even  95,  the  practical  par — ^after 
all  the  etceteras  of  exchange,  commission,  and  money-scrivening,  are 
deducted.  The  usual  mode  of  drawing  on  England  is  by  bills  at  90 
days  after  sight,  at  a  usance  and  half,  60  days  being  the  usance.  The 
traveller  who  draws  at  sight,  "  corto^'*  or  at  shorter  dates,  or  **  a  treinta 
didSy^  at  30  days,  ought  in  consequence  to  obtain  a  more  favourable 
rate  of  exchange. 
•    In  the  passive  commerce  of  SiJain  the  infant  trade  of  banking  v 


seldom  separated  from  the  general  business  of  a  merchant,  except  in 
the  chief  towns ;  among  these  the  circular  notes  of  Messrs.  Herries  and 
Farquhar,  and  others,  are  tolerably  negociable. 

The  traveller,  on  arriving  at  the  first  principal  city  on  his  projected 
line  of  tour,  if  it  be  one  at  all  out  of  the  beaten  line,  should  draw  a  sum 
sufficient  to  carry  him  to  the  next  point,  where  he  can  obtain  a  fresh 
supply :  and,  in  order  to  prevent  accidents  on  the  road,  the  first  banker 
or  merchant  should  be  desired  to  furnish  smaller  letters  of  credit  on 
the  intermediate  towns.  Those  acquainted  with  the  mysteries  of  bills 
and  exchanges  in  London  may  frequently  obtain  paper  on  Spain  here, 
by  which  a  considerable  turn  of  the  market  may  be  made.  Of  foreign 
coins,  the  English  sovereign  is  worth  95  reals,  the  French  napoleon  75. 

It  is  needless  to  trouble  the  traveller  with  the  infinite  local  coins 
which  circulate  in  the  different  provinces,  remnants  of  their  former 
independence,  and  the  more  as  a  scheme  is  in  contemplation  of  reducing 
the  varied  monies  of  Spain  to  the  decimal  system  of  France— from  cen- 
tigranos  copper,  to  Itabeiinos  in  gold,  to  be  worth  100  reals. 

V. — Steam  Ck)MMnNiCATioy8. 

The  whole  line  of  coast,  an  extent  of  nearly  600  leagues,  is  provided 
with  steamers.  The  Peninsular  and  Oriental  Steam  Navigation  Com- 
pany, which  takes  her  Majesty's  mails  on  to  Malta  and  Alexandria, 
offers  a  regular  convevance  from  London  to  Gibraltar.  To  secure  pas-* 
sages  and  to  obtain  mformation  of  every  kind,  applications  may  be, 
made  at  the  Company's  office.  No.  122,  Leadenhall  Street,  or  at 
Oriental  Place,  Southampton.  The  Company  publishes  a  little  Band" 
hook,  which  contains  everything  necessary  to  be  known,  as  to  days  of 
departure,  fares,  &c.  As  these  are  liable  to  annual  changes,  travellers 
should  apply  personally  or  by  letter  to  the  secretary,  Mr.  Howell,  and 
may  be  assured  that  they  will  meet  with  great  civility  and  attention. 
The  Companv  has  agents  in  the  principal  seaports  abroad,  of  whom  all 
necessary  inu>rmation  can  be  obtained  on  the  spot. 

The  average  fares  may  be  thus  stated : — 

Firat  Class. 

Second  Class. 

£.   8.    i. 

£.   s.   d. 

To  Vigo  .     • 

•     8    0    0 

5     0    0 

Oporto      • 

•     9    0    0 

7     0    0 

Lisbon     • 

.   10     0    0 

7  10    0 

Cadiz  •     • 

•   12  10     0 

9     0    0 

Gibraltar  • 

•  13     0     0 

9  10    0 

Children  under  10  years  of  age,  if  with  the  parent,  are  charged  half  the 
above  rates ;  under  3  years  of  age,  free.  The  fares  include  a  liberal 
table,  and  wines,  for  first-cabin  passengers ;  and  for  second-oabin  pas* 
sengers,  provisions  without  wines. 

Baggage, — ^First-class  passengers  are  allowed  each  2  cwt.  of  personal 
bi^gage ;  all  above  that  quantity  will  be  charged  at  the  rate  of  Is.  per 
cubic  foot.  Each  vessel  carries  a  medical  officer  approved  of  by  govern- 
ment. Experienced  and  respectable  female  attendants  for  the  ladies' 
cabin.  Private  family  cabins  for  passengers,  if  required.  The  average 
"passages  may  be  taken  as  follows : — 







•      •     96  to  105 


•     •       8to      9 


.     .     18  to    19 


.     .     27  to    31 


•     .       7  to    10 



Southampton  to  Vigo  • 
Vigo  to  Oporto  .  • 
Oporto  to  Lisbon  •  • 
Lisbon  to  Cadis  •  • 
Cadiz  to  Gibraltar  •     « 

The  vessels  generally  remain  about  3  hours  at  VCgo^  1^  off  Oporto^ 
12  at  Lisbon,  and  3  at  C<idiz ;  Oihrcdtar  is  usually  reached  the  8th 
day.  The  direct  passage  is  accomplished  in  5^  days.  A  new  Screw 
Steam  Shipping  Company  was  contemplated  iu  1854,  to  run 
weekly  between  London  and  the  South  of  Spain.  Fares,  to  Cadis 
or  Gibraltar,  chief  cabin,  101,  10«. ;  2nd  cabin,  6/.  10«.  The  steamers 
on  their  arrival  at  Spanish  ports  are  soon  surrounded  with  boats  to  convey 
passengers  on  shore,  the  demands  of  the  unconscionable  crews  rising 
with  tlie  winds  and  waves.  The  proper  charges  per  tarif  are  a  peaeta 
per  person,  itvo  reals  per  portmanteau,  and  one  for  each  smaller  package ; 
a  passenger  without  luggage  has  to  pay  tioo  reals  for  being  landed,  or 
put  on  board.    The  word  **  tari/a  "  itself  generally  settles  disputes. 

The  foreign  steamers  are  neither  such  g<x)d  sea  boats,  nor  so  regular 
or  well  manned  as  their  English  competitors.  From  La  Teste^  near 
Bordeaux,  one  runs  to  San  Sebastian  and  Conmna ;  another  touches 
at  the  ports  between  San  Sebastian  and  Malaga,  There  is  regular 
communication  between  Cadiz  and  Marseilles,  The  steamers  usually 
remain  about  half  a  day  at  Algeciras,  a  whole  one  at  Malaga,  a  few 
hours  at  Almeria,  half  a  day  each  at  Cartagena  and  Alicante ;  a  whole 
one  at  Valenciay  a  few  hours  occasionally  at  Tarragona,  two  days  at 
Barcelona,  and  half  a  one  at  Fort  Vendres.  The  exact  particulars, 
times  of  sailing,  fares,  &c.  are  to  be  seen  in  every  inn  on  the  coast,  or 
may  be  ascertained  from  the  local  agents.  Remember,  if  you  wish  to 
forward  baggage  or  packages  by  these  steamers,  to  have  them  very 
carefully  directed  to  the  person  to  whom  they  are  consigned,  and  to 
take  a  receipt  for  them  and  forward  it  per  post  to  your  correspondent, 
desiring  him  to  send  for  the  articles  the  moment  the  steamer  arrives, 
or  they  will  either  be  left  on  board,  or  lost,  after  the  usual  fashion  of 
the  unbusinesslike,  pococurante  Mediterraneans. 

VI. — Travelling  by  Land— Roads — ^Posting — ^PosT-OrncK — ^Mail- 
Coaches  — Diligences — Coches  db  Collebas  —  Muleteees  — 
Riding  Toitbs. 

The  railroad  is  in  its  infancy.  Spain,  a  jumble  of  mountains,  with 
few  large  cities,  and  those  far  between,  with  an  unvisited,  unvisiting 
population,  and  a  petty  passive  commerce,  is  admirably  suited  for  the 
time*hononred  national  locomotive,  the  ass  and  mule.  There  has,  how- 
ever, been  much  talk  of  the  Ferro  Carril  system,  which  is  to  cover  the 
Peninsula  with  an  iron  net-work  of  communications,  level  the  sierras, 
and  pay  20  per  cent.,  &c.  TTiis  is  proposed  to  be  done  chiefly  by 
English  gold  and  Navvies.  A  comedy  or  tragedy  might  be  written  on 
the  plausible  schemes  by  which  the  gullability  of  John  Bull  has  been 
tickled  and  his  pockets  lightened.  Hitherto  the  «*  Powers  that  be  "  in 
Sijain  have  scarcely  settled  the  sine  qud  non  preliminary  step,  i,  c.  thf 


division  among  each  other  of  the  plunder  in  granting  "  concessions," 
&c.  Permissions,  forsooth,  for  silly  foreigners  to  be  allowed  as  a 
favour  to  do  the  work — throw  away  time  and  cash,  in  order  to  be 
laughed  at,  insulted,  and  ultimately  cheated  for  their  pains. 

Meantime  there  are  eight  royal  roads,  caminos  reales — carretei^ast 
generdkSf  which  branch  forth  from  the  capital  like  spokes  of  a  wheel, 
and  run  to  Irurij  to  Barcelona  by  Valencia,  to  Cadiz  by  Seville,  to 
Granada,  to  La  Junqv^era  by  Zaragoza,  to  Corunna,  Oviedo,  and  to 
Porttigal  by  Badajoz.  These  first-class  roads  are  also  called  Arrecifes, 
from  the  Arabic  word 'for  chauss^es,  causeways :  they  are  made  on  the 
Macadam  system,  admirably  engineered,  and  kept  in  infamous  neglect. 
The  wear  and  tear  of  traffic  and  weather  has  destroyed  the  surface 
material,  forming  holes,  and  malos  pasos,  \>y  which  coach-springs  are 
cracked  and  travellers'  bones  dislocated :  nevertheless,  heavy  turnpike 
and  ferry  tolls  are  raised  at  the  portazgos  y  harcas ;  recently  some  stir  of 
improvement  is  visible  both  in  the  repair  of  the  older  roads,  and  in  the 
construction  of  new  ones ;  ordinary  but  carriageable  roads  are  called 
caminos  carreteros,  caminos  de  carruage,  de  carretera,  and  are  just  prac- 
ticable :  bridle-roads  are  called  caminos  de  herradura.  Bye-ways  and 
short  cuts  are  tenned  trochas,  travesias  and  caminos  de  atajo,  and 
familiarly  and  justly  called  caminos  de  perdices,  roads  for  partridges ; 
nor  should  any  man  in  his  senses  or  in  a  wheel-carriage  forget  the  pro- 
verb no  hay  atajo,  sin  ^raZ>a;o— there  is  no  short  cut  without  hard  work: 
A  ramUa — Arabic^  rarrd — sand,  serves  the  double  purpose  of  a  road  in 
summer  for  men  and  beasts,  and  a  river  bed  in  winter  for  fish,  fools, 
and  wild  fowl.  This  term  and  thing  is  pretty  general  in  Valencia  and 
commercial  I  Catalonia. 

Internal  locomotion  has  been  lately  facilitated  throughout  the  Penin- 
sula as  regards  public  conveyances,  but  the  progress  is  slow ;  travelling 
in  your  own  carriage  with  post  horses,  changing  at  each  relay,  is  only 
practicable  on  the  high  road  from  Irun  to  Madrid,  and  even  then  is  cer- 
tainly not  to  be  recommended ;  nor  is  it  usually  done  except  by  Cabinet 
couriers  or  very  great  personages.  However,  by  making  an  arrange- 
ment with  the  persons  who  horse  the  diligences,  journeys  have  been 
performed  on  the  leading  roads  by  persons  in  their  own  carriages.  The 
*  Quia  General  de  Correos,^  by  Francisco  Xavier  de  Cabanes,  4to.,  Mad., 
1830,  is  useful,  since  posting,  being  a  royal  monopoly,  is  fettered  with 
the  usual  continental  checks  and  bureaucratic  bothers. 

The  distances  are  regulated  and  paid  for — not  by  posts,  but  by 
leagues,  legtuis,  of  20,000  feet,  or  20  to  a  degree  of  the  meridian,  and 
somewhat  less  than  three  miles  and  a  half  English,  being  the  nautical 
league  of  three  geographical  miles.  The  country  leagues,  especially 
in  the  wilder  and  mountainous  districts,  are  calculated  more  by  guess- 
work than  measurement.  Generally  you  may  reckon  by  time  rather 
than  distance,  the  sure  test  of  slow  coaching,  and  consider  the  leagtte 
a  sort  of  German  stunde,  an  hotir^s  work.  The  term  "  legua^^  is  modified 
by  an  explanatory  epithet.  "  Larga,^^  or  long,  varies  from  four  to  five 
miles.  "  Regular,^*  a  very  Spanish  word,  is  used  to  express  a  league, 
or  anything  else  that  is  neither  one  thing  nor  another,  something  about 
the  regular  post  league.  "  Corta^^  as  it  implies,  is  a  short  league, 
"  ree  miles.     These  leagues,  like  everything  in  Spain,  vary  in  the 

Spain.  yi.  post-office  and  lettebs.  21 

different  proyinces,  and  it  is  contemplated,  in  imitation  of  the  French, 
to  introduce  one  standard ;  when  Iberian  ears  will  be  astounded  with 
myriometros  y  kilometros — ^but  this  scheme  is  easier  talked  about  than 
done.  Post-horses  and  mules  are  paid  at  the  rate  of  six  reals  each 
for  each  post  league,  and  five  only  when  the  traveller  is  on  the  royal 
service.  The  number  of  animals  to  be  paid  for  is  regulated  by  the 
number  of  travellers ;  more  than  six,  however,  are  never  put  on ;  if 
the  passengers  exceed  six  in  number,  six  reals  more  are  charged,  over 
and  above  the  price  of  the  six  horses  put  to,  for  each  traveller  exceeding 
the  number  ;  a  child  under  seven  years  of  age  is  not  reckoned  as  a  pas- 
senger ;  two  children  under  that  age  are  to  be  paid  for  as  one  grown- 
up person.  If  the  postmaster  puts  on  for  his  own  convenience  either 
more  or  less  horses  than  the  tariff  expresses,  the  traveller  is  only  bound 
to  pay  for  the  number  therein  regulated.  The  ])ostilions  are  obliged 
to  travel  two  leagues  in  an  hour,  but  they,  if  well  paid,  drive  at  a 
tremendous  pace.  They  may  not  change  horses  with  another  carriage 
on  the  road,  except  with  the  consent  of  the  traveller.  Their  strict 
pay  is  three  reals  a  lesigae  ;  but  the  custom  is  usually  to  give  seven, 
and  even  eight,  if  they  have  behaved  well :  by  law  the  post-boy  can 
insist  on  driving  from  the  coach-box,  "  el  pescante,**  and  as  nothing  of 
that  kind  is  attached  to  some  britchkas  and  English  carriages,  an 
additional  real  is  the  surest  mode  of  obviating  these  discussions  and 
mounting  him  on  his  horse.  The  postilions,  if  they  infringe  any  of 
the  rules,  are  liable  to  lose  their  **  agvjetas  " — their  **  proptna  "  (tt/^o- 
fl-ivctv— -something  to  drink — pour  boire — trink-gelt).  The  postmaster 
of  the  next  relay  is  bound  to  adjudicate  on  the  complaiot  of  the  tra- 
veller, and  he  Mmself  is  amenable,  if  the  traveller  be  dissatisfied  with 
his  decision,  to  the  director  of  the  superior  administration  at  the  next 
town,  and  he  again  to  the  **  superintendencia  general,^*  the  chief 
authority  at  Madrid. 

As  regards  post-offices  and  letters,  the  general  correspondence  of 
Spain  is  tolerably  well  regulated ;  a  single  letter,  una  carta  8e7iciUa, 
must  not  exceed  six  adarmes,  or  half  an  ounce ;  the  charge  for  postage 
increases  with  the  weight.  The  English  system  has  been  recently 
introduced ;  a  uniform  charge  for  postage — by  weight — now  prevails 
over  Spain,  irrespective  of  distance.  The  stamps  are  called  sellos, 
English  newspapers,  when  not  prohibited,  are  free  to  Spain  ;  pamphlets 
and  papers  fastened  like  ours,  with  an  open  band  oxfaja  for  directing, 
are  charged  at  the  rate  of  four  reals  the  pound.  As  private  letters  are 
opened  with  very  little  scruple  in  Spain,  correspondents  should  be 
cautious,  especially  on  political  subjects.  Letters /row  England  must 
be  prepaid.  A  traveller  may  have  his  addressed  to  him  at  the 
|X)8t-office,  but  it  is  better  to  have  them  directed  to  some  friend  or 
banker,  to  whom  subsequent  instructions  may  be  given  how  and  where 
to  forward  them.  In  the  large  towns  the  names  of  all  persons  for  whom 
any  letters  may  have  arrived  which  are  not  specially  directed  to  a  par- 
ticular address,  are  copied  and  exposed  on  boards  called  las  tahlas  at 
the  post-offices,  in  lists  arranged  alphabetically.  The  inquirer  is  thus 
enabled  to  see  at  once  if  there  be  any  one  for  him  by  referring  to  the 
list  containing  the  first  letter  of  his  name,  and  then  asking  for  the  letter 
by  its  number,  for  one  is  attached  to  each  according  to  the  order  it 


stands  in  the  list.  He  should  also  look  back  into  the  old  lists,  for  after 
a  certain  time  names  are  taken  from  the  more  recent  arrivals  and 
placed  among  those  which  have  remained  some  weeks  on  the  unclaimed 
board.  He  should  look  over  the  alphabetical  classifications  of  both  his 
Christian  and  surname,  as  ludicrous  mistakes  occur  from  the  difficulty 
Spaniards  have  in  reading  English  handwriting  and  English  names. 
Their  post-masters — ^no  decypherers  of  hieroglyphics — are  sorely  per- 
plexed by  our  truly  Britannic  terminal  title  Esq,:  and  many  a  traveller 
gets  scheduled  away  under  the  letter  E.  Prudent  tourists  should  urge 
home  correspondents,  especially  their  fair  ones,  to  direct  simply,  and  to 
write  the  surname  in  large  and  legible  characters.  The  best  mode, 
while  travelling  in  Spain,  is  to  beg  them  to  adopt  the  Spanish  form — 
"  SeSor  Don  Plantagenet  Smytheville,  Caballero  Ingles."  This  "  taUas^ 
system  occasions  loss  of  time,  temper,  and  letters^  for  any  one  may  ask 
for  those  of  any  other  person  and  get  it,  so  few  precautions  are  taken. 
As  a  rule,  Plantagenet  Smytheville,  Esq.,  should  look  if  there  be  a 
letter  for  him  under  P.  for  Plantagenet,  and  under  S.  for  Smytheville, 
and  under  E.  for  Esquire.  It  is  always  best  to  go  to  the  post-office 
and  make  these  inquiries  in  person,  and,  when  applying  for  letters,  to 
write  the  name  down  legibly,  and  give  it  to  the  empkado,  rather  than 
ask  for  it  viva  voce.  The  traveller  should  always  put  his  own  letters 
into  the  post-office  himself,  especially  those  which  require  prepayment, 
"  qijie  deben  franqtiearse,**  Foreign  servants,  and  still  less  those  hired 
during  a  few  days'  stay  in  a  place,  do  not  always  resist  the  temptation 
of  first  destroying  letters,  and  then  charging  the  postage  as  paid,  and 
pocketing  the  amount.  Travellers,  when  settled  in  a  town,  may,  by 
paying  a  small  fixed  sum  to  the  post-office  clerks,  have  a  separate 
division,  "eZ  apartado,"  and  an  earlier  delivery  of  their  letters. 
Letters  are  generally  sent  for ;  if,  however,  they  be  specially  directed, 
they  are  left  by  a  postman,  "  k  cartero,^'* 

Riding  post  is  called,  from  its  expeditious  nature,  viajar  a  la  ligera ; 
the  traveller  pays  six  reals  a  league  for  his  own,  and  as  much  for  the 
horse  or  mule  of  the  postilion  who  accompanies  him  ;  one  real  less  is 
charged  if  he  be  on  the  royal  service.  Cabinet  couriers,  "  correos  de 
gahmetey*^  have  the  preference  of  horses  at  every  relay.  The  particular 
distances  they  have  to  perform  are  all  timed,  and  so  many  leagues  are 
required  to  be  done  in  a  fixed  time ;  and,  in  order  to  encourage  des- 
patch, for  every  hour  gained  on  the  allowed  time,  an  additional  sum 
was  paid  to  them :  hence  the  common  expression,  "  ganando  hcras,*^ 
gaining  hours.    These  methods  are  getting  obsolete. 

Letters  are  conveyed  on  the  chief  roads  in  mails,  StUas  oorreOy  Stllas 
de  posta ;  the  carriages  take  two  or  three  passengers  on  the  road  from 
Madrid  to  Irun.  The  rate  of  travelling  averages  six  miles  an  hour, 
and,  as  scarcely  any  stoppages  are  allowed,  a  prudent  traveller  will 
attend  to  some  sort  of  *'  proband,"  although  the  less  eaten  and  drank 
on  such  feverish  jaunts  the  better ;  the  fares  will  be  learnt  at  the  post- 
offices  ;  they  average  about  Sd,  a  mile  English.  Very  little  luggage  is 
allowed,  and  extra  weight  is  paid  at  three  reals  the  pound.  No  time 
should  be  lost  in  securing  your  place,  as  these  mails  are  liable  to  be 
full,  especially  in  the  summer  time. 

The  public  coaches  or  diligencias  are  based,  in  form  and  system,  on 

Spain.  yi.  travelling  bt  land — ^diligences.  23 

the  French  diligence,  from  whence  the  name  is  taken  ;  these  copies  are 
preferable  to  their  originals,  inasmuch  as  the  company  who  travel  by 
them,  from  the  difficulties  of  travelling  with  post-horses,  is  of  a  superior 
order  to  those  who  go  by  the  dilly  in  France,  and  the  Spaniard  is 
essentially  much  higher  bred  than  his  neighbour,  and  especially  as 
regards  the  fair  sex.  The  Spanish  diligences  go  pretty  fast,  but  the 
stoppages,  delays,  and  ''  behind  time  "  are  terrible. 

Travelling  in  the  diligenciay  odious  in  itself,  is  subject  to  the  usual 
continental  drags,  hiUeiea,  and  etceteras  previously  to  starting;  the 
prices  are  moderate,  and  vary  according  to  the  places,  the  rotonda,  the 
interior^  the  herlinaj  and  the  coup^ ;  very  little  luggage  is  allowed,  and 
a  heavy  charge  made  for  all  extra.  Be  very  careful  as  to  directions  on 
your  luggage,  avoiding  the  "  £'^.,"  and  have  it  all  registered ;  and  take 
your  place  in  time  too,  as  the  dUigendas  fill  very  much,  especially  during 
summer;  the  passengers  are  under  the  charge  of  a  conductor,  the 
mayoral ;  meals  are  provided  at  the  coaches'  own  baiting  inns  or  para" 
dores^  which  are  sufficient  in  quantity,  endurable  in  cookery,  and  rea- 
souable  in  charges. 

On  those  roads  where  there  are  no  diligences,  recourse  must  be  had 
to  the  original  and  national  modes  of  travelling.  You  can  hire  a  coche 
de  coHeras,  a  huge  sort  of  lord  mayor's  coach,  which  is  drawn  by  half- 
a-dozen  or  more  mules,  and  which  performs  journeys  from  thirty  to 
thirty-five  miles  a-day,  like  an  Italian  vetturino ;  this  is  at  once  a  slow 
and  expensive  mode  of  travel,  but  not  unamusing,  from  the  peculiar 
manner  in  which  cattle  and  carriage  are  driven.  This  picturesque  turn- 
out, like  our  '*  ooach-and-six "  in  Pope's  time,  is  fast  disappearing. 
Those  natives  who  cannot  ajBbrd  this  luxury  resort  to  the  galera,  a  sort 
of  covered  waggon  without  springs,  which,  beiug  of  most  classical  dis- 
comfort, is  to  be  sedulously  avoided,  qtie  diable  aUait  U  fdire  dans  cette 
galere.  Smaller  vehicles,  such  as  calesas  and  tartanaa,  are  also  to  be 
occasionally  hired  for  smaller  distances.    So  much  for  wheels. 

A  considerable  portion  of  the  Peninsula,  and  many  of  the  most 
interesting,  untrodden,  unhacknied  localities,  can  only  be  visited  on  the 
back  of  animals  or  on  one's  own  feet.  As  a  pedestrian  tour  for  pleasure 
is  a  thing  utterly  unknown  in  Spain,  it  is  not  to  be  thought  of  for  a 
moment,  while  excursions  on  horseback  are  truly  national,  and  bring 
the  stranger  in  close  contact  with  Spanish  man  and  nature.  He  may 
hire  horses  and  mules  at  most  large  cities,  or  join  the  caravans  of  the 
regular  muleteers  and  carriers  who  ply  from  fixed  places  to  others. 
These  arrieros  (arre — arabice  "gee  up"),  cosarios  y  ordvnarioa,  have 
their  well-known  inns  or  houses  of  call  and  stated  days  of  arrival  and 
departure :  moderate  in  their  charges,  they  are  seldom  molested  by  rob- 
bers on  the  road.  Those  who  can  only  ride  on  an  English  saddle  should 
procure  one  before  starting,  and  every  man  will  do  well  to  bring  out  a 
good  pair  of  English  spurs,  with  some  spare  sets  of  rowels,  and  attend 
to  their  efficient  sharpness,  for  the  hide  of  a  Spanish  beast  is  hard  aud 
unimpressionable.  Heavy  luggage  may  always  be  sent  from  town  to 
town  by  the  arrieroSy  whose  recuas  de  acemilaSj  or  droves  of  baggage- 
mules,  do  the  office  of  our  goods-train. — N.B.  Remember  to  be  careful 
in  the  directions,  to  take  a  receipt  and  forward  it  per  post  to  the  person 
to  whom  your  articles  are  addressed,  desiring  him  to  call  for  them. 
The  muleteers  cf  Spain  form  a  class  of  themselves,  and  are  honest, 

24  VII.  SPANISH  INNS.  Sect.  I. 

trustworthy,  and  hard-working ;  full  of  songs,  yams,  lies,  and  incorrect 
local  information. 

It  cannot  be  said  that  their  animals  are  pleasant  to  ride,  nor  indeed 
are  the  hacks,  TiacaSy  and  cattle  usually  let  for  hire  much  better ;  to 
those,  therefore,  who  propose  making  an  extensive  riding  tour,  especially 
in  the  W.  provinces,  the  better  plan  is  to  perform  it  on  their  own 
animals,  the  masters  on  horses,  the  attendants  on  mules.  The  chief 
points  in  such  journeys  are  to  take  as  few  traps  as  possible,  trunks — r 
the  impedimenta  of  travellers — are  thorns  in  his  path,  who  passes  more 
lightly  and  pleasantly  by  sending  the  heavier  luggage  on  from  town  to 
town ;  "  attend  also  to  the  provend,"  as  the  commissariat.^a&  ever  been 
the  difficulty  in  hungry  and  thirsty  Spain.  Each  master  should  have 
his  own  Alforjas  or  saddle-bags,  in  which  he  will  stow  aia^ay  whatever 
is  absolutely  necessary  to  his  own  immediate  wants  and  comforts,  strap-r 
ping  his  cloak  or  manta  over  it.  ITie  servant  should  be  mounted  on^a 
stout  mule,  and  provided  with  strong  and  capacious  capachos  de  esparto^' 
or  peculiar  baskets  made  of  the  Spanish  rush  ;  one  side  maybe  dedicated 
to  the  wardrobe,  the  other  to  the  larder ;  and  let  neither  master  nor  man 
omit  to  take  a  hota  or  leather  wine-bottle  or  forget  to  keep  it  full ;  spare 
sets  of  shoes  with  nails  and  hammer  are  also  essential.  But  when 
once  off  the  beaten  tracks,  those  travellers  who  make  up  their  minds 
to  find  nothing  on  the  road  but  discomfort  will  be  the  least  likely 
to  be  disappointed,  while  by  being  prepared  and  forearmed  they  will 
overcome  every  difficulty  —  hombre  prevenido,  nunca  fu  vencido,  a 
little  foresight  and  provision  gives  small  trouble  and  ensures  great 
comfort.  The  sooner  all  who  start  on  riding  tours  can  speak  Spanish 
themselves  th*l  better,  as  polyglott  travelling  servants  are  apt  to  be 
rogues  ;  a  retired  cavalry  soldier  is  a  good  man  to  take,  as  he  under- 
stands horses,  and  knows  how  to  forage  in  districts  where  rations  are 
rare.  Few  soldiers  are  more  sober,  patient,  and  enduring  of  fatigue 
than  the  Spanish  ;  six  reals  a  day,  food,  lodging,  and  some  dress,  with 
a  tip  at  the  end,  will  be  ample  pay.  He  must  be  treated  with  civility, 
and  abusive  speech  avoided. 

VII. — Spanish  Inns. 

The  increase  and  improvement  of  public  conveyances,  by  leading  to 
increased  travel  and  traffic,  has  caused  some  corresponding  change  for  the 
better  in  the  quantity  and  quality  of  the  houses  destined  to  the  accommo- 
dation of  wayfaring  men  and  beasts.  As  they  are  constantly  changing, 
it  is  not  easy  to  give  their  names  in  every  place.  These  conveniences 
are  of  varied  denominations,  degrees,  and  goodness,  or  they  may  be 
divided  into  the  bad,  the  worse,  and  the  worst — and  bad  is  the  best :  first 
is  the  Fonda  (the  oriental  Fundack),  which  is  the  assumed  equivalent  to 
our  hotel,  as  in  it  lodging  and  board  are  furnished ;  second  is  the  Posada, 
in  which,  strictly  speaking,  only  the  former  is  provided ;  thirdly  comes 
the  Venta,  which  is  a  sort  of  inferior  posada  of  the  country,  as  distin- 
guished from  the  town  ;  at  both  Posada  and  Venta  the  traveller  finds 
the  means  of  cooking  whatever  provisions  he  has  brought  with  him,  or 
can  forage  on  the  spot,  and  he  is  charged  in  the  morning  a  moderate 
sum  for  the  ruido  de  casa,  the  noise  or  row  which  he  is  supposed  to 
^ave  kicked  up  in  the  peaceful  dwelling.    These  khans  are  generally 

derless,  although  the  ventero,  as  in  Don  Quixote's  time,  will  answer, 

Spain,  viiT.  SPANISH  bobbers.  25 

when  asked  what  he  has  got,  Ilay  de  todoy  there  is  everything ;  but 
de  io  que  V.  irate,  "  of  what  yon  bring  with  you,"  must  be  understood. 

The  traveller,  when  he  arrives  at  one  of  these  Posadas,  especially  iu 
rarely  visited  places,  should  be  courteous  and  liberal  in  using  little 
conventional  terms  of  civility,  and  not  begin  by  ordering  and  hurrying 
people  about ;  he  will  thus  be  met  more  than  half  way,  and  obtain  the 
best  quarters  and  accommodation  that  are  to  be  had.  Spaniards,  who 
are  not  to  be  driven  by  a  rod  of  iron,  may  be  tickled  and  led  by  a 
straw.  Treat  them  as  cabaUeroSj  and  they  are  of  a  high  caste,  and 
they  generally  behave  themselves  as  such.  No  man  who  values  a 
night's  rest  will  omit  on  arrival  to  look  at  once  after  his  bed :  a  cigar  for 
the  mozo,  a  compliment  to  the  rmicJiacha,  and  a  tip,  una  gratificacioncita, 
seldom  fail  to  conciliate,  and  secure  comfort. 

The  "  ventoTitto  "  is  a  minor  class  of  venta,  and  often  nothing  more 
than  a  mere  hut,  run  up  with  reeds  or  branches  of  trees  by  the  rotid- 
side,  at  which  water,  bad  wine,  and  worse  brandy,  aguardiente,  true 
aqua  ardens,  disfavoured  with  aniseed,  are  to  be  sold.  In  out-of-the- 
way  districts  the  traveller,  in  the  matter  of  inns,  will  seldom  be  per- 
plexed with  any  difficulty  of  selection  as  to  the  relative  goodness ;  the 
golden  rule  will  be  to  go  to  the  one  where  the  diligence  puts  up— i:.? 
Farador  de  las  Dtligendas.  The  simple  direction,  "  vamos  a  Ixi  Po- 
sada," let  us  go  to  THE  inn,  will  be  enough  in  smaller  town^ffor  the 
question  is  rather,  Hay  posada,  y  donde  estd  f  Is  there  an  inn,  and 
where  is  it  ?  than  Which  is  the  best  inn  ? 

2f.B,  AH  who  travel  with  ladies  are  advised  to  write  beforehand  to 
their  banker  or  friends  to  secure  quarters  in  some  hotel,  evpedaUy  when 
going  to  Madrid  and  the  larger  cities. 

The  char«;es  of  the  native  inns  are  not  exorbitant ;  generally  by  a 
dollar  to  two  dollars  a-day,  bed  and  board  are  paid  for ;  where,  however, 
establishments  are  set  up  on  what  is  called  the  English  or  French  system, 
foreign  prices  are  demanded,  and  very  considerable  ones,  considering 
the  poor  and  copied  accommodation.  Those  who  propose  remaining  any 
time  in  a  large  town  may  make  their  own  bargain  with  the  innkeeper, 
or  can  go  into  a  boarding-house,  "  ca>»a  de  pupilos,^  or  **  de  huespedes,^ 
where  they  will  have  the  best  opportunity  of  learning  the  Spanish  lan- 
guage, and  obtaining  an  idea  of  the  national  manners  and  habits.  These 
establishments  are  constantly  advertised  in  the  local  newspapers,  and 
the  houses  ma^^e  known  externally  by  a  white  paper  ticket  attached 
to  the  extremit^^ ',one  of  the  window  balconies ;  for  if  the  paper  be 
placed  in  the  middle,  it  only  means  "  lodgings  to  let  here."  The  tra- 
veller will  always  be  able  to  learn  from  his  banker,  or  from  any  respect- 
able inhabitant,  which  of  these  boarding-houses  enjoys  the  best  reputa- 
tion, or  he  may  himself  advertise  in  the  papers  for  exactly  the  sort  of 
thing  he  wants. 

Yin. — Spanish  Bobbebs. 

Banditti  have  long  been  the  bugbear  of  Spain,  for  a  bad  name  once 
gotten  is  not  easily  removed,  and  still  less  when  the  conventional  idea 
is  kept  up  by  sundry  writers  in  England  who  instruct  the  public  on  the 
things  of  Spain,  where  they  have  never  been,  and  feed  foregone  conclu- 

Spain.— I.  o 

26  VIII.   SPANISH  ROBBERS.  Sect.  I. 

sions.  Uudoubtedly  on  the  long  highways  of  a  thinly-peopled  land 
accidents  may  occur,  as  Spanish  gentlemen  who  have  met  with  mis- 
fortunes in  troubled  times  will  take  to  the  road.  But  robbery  is  the 
exception,  rather  than  the  rule,  in  Spain ;  and  latterly  precautions  have 
been  so  increased  that  some  ingenuity  must  be  displayed  in  managing 
to  get  waylaid  and  pillaged — ^not  that  to  the  very  ambitious  for  such 
events,  or  to  the  imprudent  and  incautious,  the  thing  is  altogether  im- 
possible. The  experiment  might  be  tried  with  prospect  of  success  in 
Andalucia,  taking  Honda  as  the  centre  of  a  robbing  radius. 

Referring  to  the  *  Gatherings,'  ch.  16,  for  other  details,  suffice  it  here 
to  say  that  the  best  plan  is  for  the  traveller  never  to  trouble  his  head 
about  the  matter,  nor  to  frighten  himself  with  shadows  of  his  own 
raising ;  let  him  turn  a  deaf  ear  to  the  yams  of  muleteers  and  the  posi- 
tive facts  of  waiters,  and  ride  boldly  on ;  nevertheless  he  will  do  well  in 
suspicious  places  to  abjure  foolish  chattering  about  his  plans,  lines  of 
route,  hours  of  starting,  and  so  forth,  and  still  more  to  avoid  any  exhi- 
bition of  cash  and  attractive  items  of  property,  silver  dressing-cases, 
and  so  forth,  which  often  suggest  the  getting  up  an  extempore  bit 
of  robbery  for  his  particular  benefit,  for  in  Spain,  as  elsewhere,  la  ocasion 
Jiace  cd  ladrcn.  Again,  should  he  have  the  misfortune  to  fall  among 
regular  thieves,  he  ought  to  be  prepared  with  a  sufficient  sum  about 
his  person,  say  from  5Z.  to  lOZ.,  in  order  to  keep  them  in  good  humour, 
as  they  are  prone  to  make  an  example  of  the  unhappy  wight  who 
evinces,  by  empty  pockets,  the  malice  prepense  of  depriving  them  of 
their  just  perquisite ;  an  empty  puree  is  a  beggarly  companion,  and 
they  are  apt  to  inflict  blows  on  its  proprietor,  danddk  polos,  or  to  strip 
him  to  the  skin,  ecJiandole  en  cueros,  pour  encourager  les  autres.  A 
common  gilt  watch  and  chain  ought  not  to  be  omittied.  Englishmen, 
except  when  well  armed  and  travelling  in  numbers,  should  never  attempt 
resistance  against  a  regular  band  of  Spanish  robbers,  as  it  is  generally 
useless,  and  may  lead  to  fatal  consequences :  whereas  a  frank,  good- 
humoured  surrender,  presence  of  miud,  and  a  calm,  courteous  appeal  to 
them  as  Cahalleros,  seldom  fails  to  conciliate  the  "  gentlemen,**  and  to 
chloroform  the  discomfort  of  the  operation .  The  robbers  consist  of  several 
grades.  The  Ladrones  en  grande  are  an  organised  gang  of  well-mounted, 
well-armed  men  from  10  to  14  in  number,  and  commanded  by  a  chief, 
and  as  they  seldom  attack  travellers  except  at  a  great  advantage,  it  is 
better  to  lose  one's  dollars  than  one's  life,  and  to  submit  with  a  good 
grace  to  the  polite  request  of  puttinoj  your  face,  mouth  downwards,  into 
the  mud, — the  Bqfa  abajo,  which  will  take  no  denial ;  in  fact,  the  non- 
compliance is  understood  to  mean  resistance  ;  and  cases  have  occurred 
where  foreigners,  from  not  understanding  the  force  of  these  two  words, 
and  not  having  laid  themselves  down,  hive  been  shot  forthwith. 

The  next  c£ss  are  the  Bateros,  the  rats.  These  are  not  organised 
permanent  bodies,  but  skulking,  ill-conditioned  footpads,  who  lurk 
about  suspicious  ventas,  on  the  look-out  for  an  accidental  affair.  They 
seldom  attack  armed  and  prepared  persons,  A  lower  ruffian  still  is  the 
BateriUo,  or  spiall  rat,  who  is  a  solitary  performer,  confining  his  attacks 
to  the  utterly  defenceless.  A  revolver  is  a  sure  remedy  for  these 
major  and  minor  rats  ;  and  no  bad  pocket-companion  on  the  highways 
and  byways  of  Spain,  as  contributing  to  a  general  feeling  of  confidence. 

JSpain,  IX.    THE  GEOGRAPHY  OF  SPAIN.  27 

The  regular  and  only  really  formidable  robbers  have  almost  disap- 
peared on  the  high  roads,  in  consequence  of  the  institution  of  a  body 
of  mounted  and  well-armed  men,  who  are  stationed  in  the  princi])al 
routes  as  escorts  and  patrols.  They  are  called  Guardias  civileSy  to  dis- 
tinguish them  from  military  guards.  The  system  was  borrowed  from 
the  gendarmerie  of  France,  whence  the  troopers  were  called  by  the 
people  Hijos  de  Lins-Felipe,  sons  of  Louis- Philippe,  or  Folizones,  a  new 
word  coined  out  of  the  old  French  Foiissons,  Diligences  in  periods  and 
localities  of  danger  are  usually  provided  with  guards  of  their  own,  and 
there  is  also  in  most  large  towns  a  body  of  armed  men  on  foot,  called 
Migudites,  whose  business  it  is  to  keep  the  peace,  and  by  whom  convoys 
•ef  value  and  travellers  of  rank  are  escorted.  They  resemble  the 
Peelers,  the  police  in  Ireland,  and  are  formed  of  active,  excellent  men, 
l»rave,  temperate,  and  indefatigable.  There  are  also  few  places  in 
which  an  extempore  protection  may  not  be  hired  of  Esoopeteros^  or  men 
^rmed  with  a  gun,  which  in  truth  is  the  definition  of  half  the  Iberian 
family  when  outside  a  town's  walls.  Except  when  ladies  are  in  the 
case,  and  the  localities  are  notoriously  infested  for  the  moment,  all 
these  precautions  are  needless.  A  riding  party  of  armed  Englishmen 
may  dismiss  the  bugbear  altogether,  from  the  Pyrenees  to  the  Straits 
of  Gibraltar.  In  general  Spanish  robbers  are  shy  of  attacking  English" 
men  :  they  have  a  wholesome  fear  of  the  strength  of  our  gunpowder, 
and  of  our  disposition  to  show  fight. 

IX. — The  Geography  op  Spain. 

One  glance  at  a  map  of  Europe  will  convey  a  clearer  notion  of  the 
relative  position  of  Spain  in  regard  to  other  countries  than  pages  d 
letter -press ;  an  advantage  which  every  school-boy  possesses  over  the 
Plinys  and  Strabos  of  antiquity,  who  were  content  to  compare  the  i^pe 
of  the  Peninsula  to  a  bull's  hide.  This  country,  placed  between  the 
latitudes  36^  57  and  43°  40^  north,  extends  from  longitude  9°  13'  west 
to  30^  15'  east:  the  extreme  length  has  been  calculated  at  about 
200  leagues  of  20  to  the  degree,  and  the  greatest  breadth  at  somewhat 
less  tha^  200 ;  and  the  whole  superficies,  including  Portugal,  is  stated 
to  contain  upwards  of  19,000  square  leagues,  of  wMch  somewhat  more 
than  15,500  belong  to  Spain ;  it  is  thus  almost  twice  as  large  as  the 
British  Islands,  and  only  one-tenih  smaller  than  France  ;  the  circum- 
ference or  coast-line  is  estimated  at  some  750  leagues.  This  compact 
and  isolated  territory,  inhabited  by  a  hardy,  warlike  population,  ought, 
therefore,  to  have  rivalled  France  in  military  power,  while  its  position 
between  those  two  great  seas  which  command  the  commerce  of  the  old 
and  new  world,  its  indented  line  of  coast,  abounding  in  bays  and 
harbours,  offered  every  advantage  of  vying  with  England  in  maritime 
enterprise.  Nature  has  provided  outlets  for  the  productions  of  a  country 
rich  alike  in  everything  that  is  to  be  found  either  on  the  face,  or  in  the 
bowels  of  the  earth ;  the  mines  and  quarries  abound  with  precious 
metals  and  marbles,  from  gold  to  iron,  from  the  agate  to  coal ;  a  fertile 
soil  and  every  possible  variety  of  climate  admit  of  unlimited  cultivation 
of  the  natural  productions  of  the  temperate  or  tropical  zones :  thus  in 
the  province  ot  Granada  the  sugar-cane  and  cotton-tree  luxuriate  at  the 

c  2 

28  IX.   DIVISIONS  INTO  ZONES.  Sect.  I. 

base  of  ranges  whose  tops  are  covered  with  eternal  snow.  The  unremit- 
ting bad  government  of  the  Gotho-Spaniard  has  done  its  worst  to  neu- 
tralise the  advantages  of  this  favoured  land,  which,  while  under  the 
dominion  of  the  Romans  and  Moors,  resembled  an  Eden,  a  garden  of 
plenty  and  delight.  Now  vast  portions  of  the  Peninsula  offer  a  picture 
painful  to  be  contemplated  by  the  philosopher  or  philanthropist :  the 
face  of  nature  and  the  minds  of  men,  dwarfed  and  curtailed  of  their  fair 
proportions,  have  either  been  neglected  and  their  inherent  fertility 
allowed  to  run  into  luxuriant  wec^  and  vice,  or  their  energies  misdi- 
rected, and  a  capability  of  good  converted  into  an  element  of  disgraceful 
eminence  in  deeds  of  evil. 

In  geological  construction,  Spain,  almost  an  agglomeration  of  moun- 
tains, is  raised  in  a  series  of  elevation  terraces  on  every  side  from  the 
coasts ;  the  central  portions,  higher  than  any  other  table-lands  in  Europe, 
range  on  an  average  from  2000  to  3000  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea, 
while  from  this  elevated  plain  chains  of  other  mountains  rise.  Madrid, 
placed  on  this  central  plateau,  is  situated  about  2000  feet  above  the 
level  of  Naples,  which  lies  in  the  same  latitude ;  the  mean  temperature 
of  the  former  is  69°,  while  that  of  the  latter  is  63°  3a  ;  it  is  to,  this 
difference  of  elevation  that  the  difference  of  climate  and  vegetable 
productions  between  the  two  capitals  is  to  be  ascribed. 

Fruits  which  flourish  on  the  coasts  of  Provence  and  Genoa,  which 
lie  4°  more  to  the  north  than  any  xx)rtion  of  Spain,  are  rarely  to  be  met 
with  in  the  interior  of  the  elevated  Peninsula :  on  the  other  hand,  the 
low  and  simny  maritime  belts  abound  with  productions  of  an  African 
vegetation ;  and  botany  marks  climate  better  than  barometers  or  ther- 
mometers. The  mountainous  character  and  general  aspect  of  the  coast 
is  nearly  analogous  throughout  the  circuit  which  extends  from  the 
Basque  Provinces  to  Cape  Finisterre,  and  offers  a  remarkable  contract 
to  those  sunny  alluvial  plains  which  extend,  more  or  less,  from  Cadiz 
to  Barcelona,  and  which  closely  resemble  each  other  in  vegetable  pro- 
ductions, such  as  the  fig,  orange,  pomegranate,  aloe,  and  palm-tree. 
Again,  the  central  table-lands,  las  Farameras^  equally  resemble  each 
other  in  their  monotonous  denuded  aspect,  in  their  scarcity  of  fruit  and 
timber,  and  their  abundance  of  cereal  productions. 

Spanish  geographers  have  divided  the  Peninsula  into  seven  distinct 
chains  of  mountains.  These  cordiUeras  arise  on  each  side  of  intervening 
plains,  which  once  formed  the  basins  of  internal  lakes,  until  the  accu- 
mulated waters,  by  bursting  through  the  obstructions  by  which  they 
were  dammed  up,  found  a  passage  to  the  ocean :  the  dip  or  inclination 
of  the  country  lies  from  the  east  towards  the  west,  and,  accordingly,  the 
chief  rivers  which  form  the  drains  of  the  great  leading  channels  between 
the  principal  water-sheds  flow  into  the  Atlantic :  their  courses,  like  the 
basins  through  which  they  pass,  lie  in  a  transversal  and  almost  a 
parallel  direction  ;  thus  the  Duero,  the  Tagus,  the  Guadiana,  and  the 
Guadalquivir,  all  flow  into  their  recipient  between  their  distinct  chains 
of  mountains. 

The  Moorish  geographer  Alrasi  took  climate  as  the  rule  of  dividing 

the  Peninsula  into  distinct  portions.     The  first  or  norfJiem  zone  is  the 

Oantahrian,  the  European ;  this  portion  skirts  the  base  of  the  Pyrenees, 

.^    includes  portions  of  Catalonia,  Arragon,  and  Navarre,  the  Basque  pro- 

Spain.  IX.  divisions  into  zones.  29 

viuces,  the  Asturias,  and  Gallicia.  In  this  region  of  humidity  the 
winters  are  long,  and  the  springs  and  autumns  rainy,  and  it  should 
only  be  visited  in  the  summer.  This  country  of  hill  and  dale  is  inter- 
sected by  streams,  which  abound  in  fish,  and  which  irrigate  rich 
meadows  for  pasture.  The  valleys  form  the  dairy  country  of  Spain, 
while  the  mountains  furnish  valuable  and  available  timber.  In  some 
parts  com  will  scarcely  ripen,  while  in  others,  in  addition  to  the 
cerealia,  cider  and  an  ordinary  wine  are  produced.  Inhabited  by  a 
hardy,  independent,  and  rarely  subdued  population,  these  mountainous 
regions  offer  natural  means  of  defence.  It  is  useless  to  attempt  the 
conquest  with  a  small  army,  while  a  large  one  starves  for  want  of  sup- 
port in  the  hungry  localities.  The  second  zone,  the  Iberian  or  the 
eastern,  in  its  maritime  portions,  is  more  Asiatic  than  European,  the 
inhabitants  partake  of  the  Greek  and  Carthaginian  character,  being 
false,  cruel,  and  treacherous,  yet  lively,  ingenious,  and  fond  of  pleasure : 
this  portion  commences  at  Burgos,  and  is  continued  through  the  Sierras 
of  Albarracin  and  Segura  to  the  Cabo  de  Gata,  and  includes  the  southern 
portion  of  Catalonia  and  Arragon,  with  parts  of  Castile,  Valencia, 
and  Murcia.  The  sea-coasts  should  be  visited  either  in  the  spring 
or  autumn,  when  they  are  delicious.  ITiey  are  intensely  hot  in  the 
summer,  and  infested  with  myriads  of  muskitoes.  The  districts  about 
Burgos  should  be  avoided  as  being  cold,  except  during  the  summer 
months.  Thus  the  upper  valley  of  the  Mino  and  some  of  the  north- 
w^estern  portions  of  Old  Castile  and  Leon  are  placed  about  >  6000  feet 
above  the  level  of  the  sea,  and  the  frosts  often  last  for  three  months  at 
a  time. 

The  third  zoney  the  Lusitanian,  or  western,  by  far  the  largest, 
includes  the  central  parts  of  Spain  and  all  Portugal ;  and  in  the  physical 
condition  of  the  soil  and  the  moral  qualities  of  the  inhabitants,  portions 
present  an  imfavourable  view  of  the  Peninsula:  the  inland  steppes 
are  burnt  up  by  summer  suns,  tempest  and  wind-rent  during  winter, 
while  the  absence  of  trees  exposes  them  to  the  violence  of  the  ele- 
ments ;  poverty-stricken  mud-houses,  scattered  here  and  there  in  the 
desolate  extent,  afford  a  wretched  home  to  a  poor,  proud,  and  ignorant 
population.  These  localities,  which  offer  in  themselves  little  pleasure 
or  profit  to  the  stranger,  contain  however  many  sites  and  cities  of  the 
highest  interest.  Thus  New  Castile,  the  sovereign  province,  besides 
the  capital  Madrid,  comprehends  Toledo,  the  Escorial,  Segovia,  xVranjuez, 
Avila,  Cuenca,  which  none  who  wish  to  understand  Spain  and  the 
genuine  old  Castilian  cities  can  possibly  pass  by  unnoticed. 

llie  more  western  portions  of  this  Lusitanian  zone  are  much  more 
surreeable ;  the  ilex  and  chestnut  abound  in  the  hills,  while  the  rich 
plains  produce  com  and  wine  most  plentifully,  llie  entire  central 
table-lsmd  occupies  about  93,000  square  miles,  and  forms  nearly  one- 
half  of  the  entire  area  of  the  Peninsula.  The  peculiarity  of  the  climate 
is  its  dryness ;  rain  is  so  rare,  that  the  annual  quantity  on  an  average 
does  not  amount  to  more  than  10  inches.  The  olive,  however,  is  only 
to  be  met  with  in  a  few  and  favoured  localities.  The  fourth  zone^  the 
Boetican,  the  most  southern  and  African,  coasts  the  Mediterranean, 
basking  at  the  foot  of  the  mountains  which  rise  behind  and  form  the 
mass  of  the  Peninsula;  this  mural  barrier  offers  a  sure  protection 

30  IX.   HILLS  AND  PASSES  OF  SPAIN.  Sect.  I^ 

against  the  cold  winds  which  sweep  across  the  central  region.  The 
descent  from  the  tahle  elevations  into  these  maritime  strips  is  striking  ; 
the  face  of  nature  is  quickly  and  completely  changed,  and  the  traveller 
passes  from  the  climate  and  vegetation  of  Europe  into  that  of  Africa. 
This  region  is  characterised  by  a  dry  burning  atmosphere  during  a  part  of* 
the  year.  The  winters  are  short  and  temperate,  the  springs  and  autumns- 
quite  delightful.  Much  of  the  cultivation  depends  on  artificial 
irrigation,  which  was  carried  by  the  Moors  to  the  highest  perfection  ; 
indeed  water,  under  this  forcing,  vivifying  sun,  is  synonymous  with 
fertility  ;  the  productions  are  tropical ;  sugar,  cotton,  rice ;  the  orange, 
lemon,  and  date.  The  algaroha- — ceratonia  siliquastrum — and  the 
adel/af  the  oleander,  form  the  boundary  marks  between  this,  the  tierra 
caliente,  and  the  colder  regions  by  which  it  is  encompassed.  Such  are 
the  geographical  divisions  of  nature  with  which  the  vegetable  and  animal 
productions  are  closely  connected.  The  Boetican  zone,  Andalucia,. 
contains  in  itself  many  of  the  most  interesting  cities,  sites,  and  natural 
beauties  of  the  Peninsula.  Cadiz,  Gibraltar,  Ronda,  Malaga,  the  Alpu- 
jarras,  Granada,  Cordova,  Seville,  Xerez,  are  easy  of  access,  and  may  be 
visited  almost  at  every  portion  of  the  year.  The  winters  may  be  spent 
at  Cadiz,  Seville,  or  Malaga,  the  summers  in  the  cool  mountains  of 
Eonda,  Aracena,  or  Granada.  April,  May,  and  June,  or  September, 
October,  and  November,  will,  however,  be  the  most  preferable.  Those 
who  go  in  the  spring  should  reserve  June  for  the  mountains ;  those  who 
go  in  the  autumn  should  reverse  the  plan,  and  commence  with  Ronda 
and  Granada,  ending  with  Malaga,  Seville,  and  Cadiz  ;  and  this  region 
will  be  found  by  the  invalid  infinitely  superior  as  a  winter  residence 
than  any  portions  of  the  South  of  France  or  Italy. 

The  internal  communication  of  the  Peninsula,  thus  divided  by  the 
mountain- walls  of  CcyrdiUeras,  is  effected  by  high  roads,  carried  over  the 
most  convenient  points,  where  the  natural  dips  are  the  lowest,  and  the 
ascents  and  descents  the  most  practicable.  As  a  general  rule,  the 
traveller  should  always  cross  the  mountains  by  one  of  these.  .The 
goat-paths  and  smuggler-passes  over  other  portions  of  the  chain  are 
difficult  and  dangerous,  and  seldom  provided  with  villages  or  ventas  i 
the  farthest  but  fairest  way  about,  will  generally  be  found  the  best  and 
shortest  road.  These  passes  are  called  Ptiertos — ^ortce* — mountain- 
gates  :  the  precise  ghaut  of  the  Hindoos. 

The  term  Sierra,  which  is  commonly  applied  to  these  serrated  ranges, 
has  been  derived  from  the  Spanish  sierra,  a  saw ;  while  others  refer  it 
to  the  Arabic  Sehrah,  an  uncultivated  tract.  Montana  means  a  moun- 
tain ;  Cerro  a  hog-backed  hill ;  jpico,  jpica^iko,  a  pointed  height.  Una 
cuesta,  a  much-used  expression,  means  both  an  ascent  and  descent. 
Ctiesta  arriba,  cuesta  abajo,  up  hill,  down  hill.  There  are  few  of  the 
singular-shaped  hills  which  have  not  some  local  name,  such  as  Cabeza 
del  Moro,  the  Moor's  head ;  or  something  connected  with  religion,  such 
as  San  Ohristohal,  El  Fraile,  &e. 

There  are  6  great  rivers  in  Spain — the  arteries  which  run  between 
the  7  mountain-chains,  the  vertebrae  of  the  geological  skeleton.  These 
6  water-sheds  are  each  intersected  in  their  extent  by  others  on  a  minor 
scale,  by  valleys  and  indentations  in  each  of' which  runs  its  own 
Stream.  Thus  the  rains  and  melted  snows  are  all  collected  in  an  infinity 

Spain.  IX.  RIVERS  of  SPAIN.  81 

of  ramifications,  and  carried  by  these  tributary  conduits  into  one  of  the 
6  main  trunks,  or  great  rivers :  all  these,  with  the  exception  of  the 
Ebro,  empty  themselves  into  the  Atlantic.  The  Duero  and  Tagus, 
nnfortunately  for  Spain,  disembogue  in  Portugal,  thus  becoming  a 
portion  of  a  foreign  dominion  exactly  where  their  commercial  import- 
ance is  the  greatest.  Philip  II.  "  the  prudent,"  saw  the  true  value  of 
the  possession  of  Portugal,  which  rounded  and  consolidated  Spain,  and 
insured  to  her  the  possession  of  these  outlets  of  internal  produce,  and 
inlets  for  external  commerce.  Portugal,  that  angiUus  iste,  annexed  to 
Spain,  gave  more  real  power  to  his  throne  than  the  dominion  of  entire 
continents  across  the  Atlantic.  Kor  has  the  vision  of  a  Peninsular 
union  ever  faded  from  the  cabinets  of  Spain.  The  Mino^  Which  is  the 
shortest  of  these  rivers,  runs  through  a  bosom  of  fertility.  The  Tajo^ 
Tagus,  which  the  fancy  of  poets  has  sanded  with  gold  and  embanked 
wifli  roses,  tracks  its  dreary  way  through  rocks  and  comparative 
barrenness.  The  Quadiana  creeps  through  lonely  Estremadura,  in- 
fecting the  low  plains  with  miasma  and  ague.  The  OuadcUquimr  eats 
out  its  deep  banks  amid  the  sunny  olive-clad  regions  of  Andalucia. 

Spain  abounds  with  brackish  streams,  Saladosy  and  with  salt-mines, 
the  remnants  of  the  saline  deposits,  after  the  evaporation  of  the  sea- 
waters.  The  central  soil,  strongly  impregnated  with  saltpetre,  and 
always  arid,  is  every  day  becoming  more  so,  from  the  Castilian  antipathy 
against  trees.  No  skreen  checks  the  power  of  evaporation ;  nothing 
protects  or  preserves  moisture^  The  soil,  more  and  more  baked  and 
calcined,  has  in  some  parts  almost  ceased  to  be  available  for  cultivation  t 
from  want  of  plantations  and  dykes  the  slopes  are  liable  to  denudation  of 
soil  after  heavy  rain.  Nothing  breaks  the  descent  of  the  water ;  hence 
the  naked,  barren  stone  summits  of  many  of  the  sierras,  which,  pared 
and  peeled  of  every  particle  capable  of  nourishing  vegetation,  loom 
forth,  the  skeletons  of  a  land  in  which  life  seems  extinct ;  not  only  is 
the  soil  thus  lost,  but  the  detritus  thus  washed  down  forms  bars  at  the 
mouths  of  rivers,  or  chokes  up  and  raises  their  beds ;  thus  they  are 
rendered  liable  to  overflow  their  banks,  and  to  convert  the  adjoining 
plains  into  i)estilential  swamps.  The  volume  of  water  iu  the  principal 
rivers  of  Spain  has  diminished,  .and  is  diminishing.  Kivers  which  once 
were  navigable,  are  so  no  longer,  while  the  artificial  canals  which  were  to 
have  been  substituted  remain  unfinished :  the  progress  of  deterioration 
advances,  as  little  is  done  to  counteract  or  amend  what  every  year 
must  render  more  difficult  and  expensive,  while  the  means  of  repair 
and  correction  will  diminish  in  equal  proportion,  from  the  poverty  occa- 
sioned by  the  evil,  and  by  the  fearful  extent  which  it  will  be  allowed 
to  attain.  The  majority  of  Spanish  rivers — torrents  rather — scanty 
during  the  summer  time,  flow  away  with  rapidity  when  filled  by  rains 
or  melting  snow ;  they  are,  moreover,  much  exhausted  by  being  drained 
off,  sangradoy  bled,  for  the  pxirposes  of  artificial  irrigation.  The  scarcity 
of  rain  in  the  central  table-lands  diminishes  the  regular  supply  of  water 
to  the  springs  of  the  rivers ;  and  what  falls  is  soon  sucked  up  by  a 
parched,  dusty,  and  thirsty  soil,  or  evaporated  by  the  dryness  of  the 
atmosphere.  An  absence  of  lakes  forms  another  feature  in  this  country 
of  mountains. 

These  geographical  peculiarities  of  Spain  must  be  remembered  by 
tbe  traveller,  and  particularly  the  existence  of  the  great  central  elev 

32  IX.   CLIMATE  OF  CENTRAL  SPAIN.  Sect.  I. 

tion,  which,  when  once  attained,  is  apt  to  be  forgotten.  The  country 
rises  in  terraces  from  the  coast,  and  when  once  the  ascent  is  accom- 
plished, no  real  descent  takes  places.  The  roads  indeed  apparently  ascend 
and  descend,  but  the  mean  height  is  seldom  diminished,  and  the  in- 
terior hills  or  plains  are  merely  the  undulations  of  one  mountain. 
The  traveller  is  often  deceived  at  the  apparent  low  height  of  snow- 
,  clad  ranges,  such  as  the  Guadarama,  whose  coldness  will  be  accounted 
for  by  adding  the  elevation  of  their  base  above  the  level  of  the  sea. 
The  palace  of  the  Escorial,  which  is  placed  at  the  foot  of  the  Gua- 
darama, and  in  a  seeming  plain,  stands  in  reality  at  2725  feet  above 
Valencia,  while  the  summer  residence  of  the  king  at  La  Oranja,  in 
the  same  chain,  is  30  feet  higher  than  the  summit  of  Vesuvius.  This, 
indeed,  is  a  castle  in  the  air — a  chateau  en  Espagne,  and  worthy  of 
the  most  German  potentate  to  whom  that  element  belongs.  The  mean 
temperature  on  the  plateau  of  Spain  is  as  15°,  while  that  of  the  coast 
is  as  18^  and  19°,  in  addition  to  the  protection  from  northern  winds 
which  their  mountainous  backgrounds  afford  ;  nor  is  the  traveller  less 
deceived  as  regards  the  height  of  the  interior  mountains  than  he  is 
with  the  table-land  plains ;  his  tiye  wanders  over  a  vast  level  extent 
bounded  only  by  the  horizon,  or  a  faint  blue  line  of  other  distant 
sierras ;  this  space,  which  appears  one  level,  is  intersected  with  deep 
ravines,  harrancos,  in  which  villages  lie  concealed,  and  streams,  arroyos, 
flow  unperceived  ;  ancfther  important  effect  of  this  central  elevation  is 
the  searching  dryness  and  rarefication  of  the  air.  It  is  often  highly 
prejudicial  to  strangers  :  the  least  exposure,  which  is  very  tempting 
under  a  burning  sun,  will  bring  on  ophthalmia,  irritable  colics,  and 
inflammatory  diseases  of  the  lungs  and  vital  organs.  Such  are  the 
causes  of  the  pulmonia  (the  endemic  disease  of  Madrid),  which  carries 
off  the  invalid  in  a  few  days. 

These  are  the  geographical,  geological,  and  natural  divisions  of  the 
Peninsula,  throughout  which  a  leading  prevailing  principle  may  be 
traced.  The  artificial,  political,  and  conventional  arrangement  into 
kingdoms  and  provinces  is  so  much  the  work  of  accident  and  of  absence 
of  design ;  indeed,  one  who  only  looked*  at  the  map  might  sometimes 
fancy  that  some  of  the  partitions  were  expressly  devised  for  the  sake  of 
being  purposely  inconvenient  and  incongruous. 

These  provincial  divisions  were  however  formed  by  the  gradual  union 
*  of  many  smaller  and  previously  independent  portions,  which  have  been 
taken  into  Spain  as  a  whole,  just  as  our  inconvenient  counties  constitute 
the  kingdom  of  England.  Long  habit  has  reconciled  the  inhabitants  to 
these  divisions,  which  practically  suit  them  better  than  any  new 
arrangement,  however  better  calculated  according  lo  statistical  and 
geographical  principles.  The  French,  when  they  obtained  possession  of 
the  Peninsula,  with  their  fondness  for  departmentalization,  tried  to  re- 
model and  recombine  ancient  and  antipathetic  provinces,  to  carve  out 
neatly  and  apportion  districts,  a  la  mode  de  Paris,  in  utter  disregard 
of  the  wishes,  necessities,  and  prejudices  of  the  respective  natives.  No 
sooner  was  their  intrusive  rule  put  to  an  end,  than  the  Spaniards 
shook  off  their  paper  arrangements,  and  reverted,  like  the  Italians,  to 
those  which  pre-existed,  and  which,  however  defective  in  theory,  and 
^   irregular  on  the  map,  suited  their  inveterate  habits.     In  spite  of  the 

"lure  of  the  French,  Spain  has  been  recently  re-arranged,  and  the 

^pain.  IX.  POPULATION.  33 

people  parcelled  out  like  pieces  on  a  chess-Tsoard.  It  will  long,  however, 
defy  the  power  of  all  the  reformers,  commissioners,  of  all  the  doctri- 
naires, of  all  the  cortes,  effectually  to  efface  the  ancient,  deeply-impressed 
divisions,  which  are  engraven  on  the  retentive  characters  of  the  inhabi- 
tants of  each  distinct  province,  who  next  to  hating  their  neighbours, 
hate  innovations. 

The  political  divisions  of  former  times  consisted  of  14  large  jirovinces, 
some  of  which  were  called  kingdoms,  as  Granada,  Seville,  Cordova, 
Jaen,  Murcia,  Valencia,  &c. :  others  principalities,  like  Asturias : 
others  counties,  like  Barcelona  Niebla,  &c. :  and  lastly,  others  were 
called  provinces,  like  New  and  Old  Castile,  Estremadura,  &c. :  Biscay 
was  termed  el  Senorio,  Spain,  was  then  divided  by  "  decree,"  into 
49  provinces,  viz.:  Alava,  Albacete,  Alicante,  Almeria,  Avila, 
Badajoz,  las  Baleares,  Barcelona,  Burgos,  Caceres,  Cadiz,  las  Cauarias, 
Castellon  de  la  Plana,  Ciudad  Real,  Cordoba,  la  Coruiia,  Cucnca, 
Gerona,  Granada,  Guadalajara,  Guipuzcoa,  Huelva,  Huesca,  Jaen,  Leon, 
Li^rida,  Loigrono,  Lugo,  Madrid,  Mali^a,  Murcia,  Navarra,  Oreusc, 
Oviedo,  Palencia,  Pontevedra,  Salamanca,  Santander,  Segovia,  Sevilla, 
Soria,  Tarragona,  Teruel,  Toledo,  Valencia,  Valladolid,  Vizcaya,  Zamora, 
Zaragoza.  There  is  now  a  scheme  to  reduce  these  49  into  20  provinces,  in 
the  hopes  of  diminishing  departamental  expenditure  and  malversation, 
and  to  further  the  centralizing  system,  which  France  has  made  the 

The  present  population,  with  a  slow  tendency  to  increase,  may  be 
taken  at  13,000,000,  although  Madoz  rates  it  at  15,000,000.  Brought^ 
the  great  bar  to  the  fertility  of  soil,  also  tends  to  check  fertility  of  women. 
The  prevalence,  again,  of  foundling  hospitals,  and  the  large  number  of 
natural  children  exposed  by  unnatural  parents  in  these  charnel-houses 
to  a  certain  massacre  of  innocents,  and  the  drain  of  deadly  Madrid  on 
the  provinces  at  large,  keeps  down  the  scanty  population.  The  revenue 
may  be  taken  at  some  12,000,0002.  Badly  collected,  and  at  a  niinous  per 
oentage,  it  is  exposed  to  infinite  robbery  and  jobbery.  In  Spain  a  little 
money,  like  oil,  will  stick  to  every  finger  that  handles  it. 

Spain,  in  the  time  of  Ferdinand  VJI.  one  of  the  most  backward 
nations  in  Europe,  has  since  his  death  made  considerable  advance. 
The  sleeper  has  been  awakened  by  the  clash  of  civil  wars,  and,  however 
far  the  lagging  is  yet  in  arrear,  a  certain  social  and  administrative  progress 
is  perceptible.    The  details  connected  with  each  ministerial  department, 
their  separate  duties,  and  what  is  or  ought  to  be  done  under  each  head, 
Justice,  Finance,  Home,  Board  of  Trade,  War,  and  Marine,  are  set  forth 
in   the  Spanien  und  seine  fortschreitende  Entwickelung,  Julius   v. 
Minutoli,  Berlin,  1852,  but  the  infinite  details  of  the  working  and  social 
life  are  put  by  him  in  too  complimentary  a  style.   Most  Spanish  things 
so  tinted  d  la  roee  on  Am  paper  appear  perfect ;  but  when  tested  by  prac- 
tice, many  a  mi^;azine  will  turn  out  to  be  an  arsenal  (»f  empty  boxes,  and 
many  an  institution  of  peace  and  war  be  found  "  wanting  in  everything 
most  essential  at  the  critical  moment."   A  swelling,  pompous  snow  of 
canvas  is  spread  over  a  battered,  unseaworthy  hull.    The  use  made  of 
our  Handbook  by  this  industrious  Prussian,  and  also  by  his  country- 
man Zeigler  in  his  recent  Reiae  in  Spanien,  1852,  is  flattering. 

Xo  doubt  Spain  has  taken  part  in  the  general  progress  of  the  l»r* 

c  3 

34  IX.  TGXJBS  IN  SPAIN.  Sect.  I. 

score  of  years,  and  a  marked  improvement  is  perceptible,  especially  in 
medical  science,  and  in  the  national  education  of  the  people.  While 
in  1803  only  1  in  340  were  educated,  it  is  now,  we  are  told,  calculated 
that  to  every  1  in  17  the  means  of  elementary  schooling  is  offered. 
If  this  be  true,  then  England,  the  leader  of  rruyral  civilization  as  France 
is  of  sensual,  may  well  take  a  leaf  from  the  hom-book  of  Spain. 

-TouBS  IN  Spain. 

However  much  the  Gotho-Spaniards  have  destroyed,  disfigured,  and 
ill-appreciated  the  relics  of  the  Moor — in  their  eyes  an  inlidel  invader 
and  barbarian — the  remains'of  that  elegant  and  enlightened  people  will 
always  constitute  to  the  rest  of  mankind  some  of  the  foremost  objects 
of  curiosity  in  the  Peninsula,  and  are  indeed  both  in  number  and 
importance  quite  unequalled  in  Europe. 

Tour  for  the  Idler  and  Man  of  Pleasure. 

Perhaps  this  class  of  travellers  had  better  go  to  Paris  or  Naples. 

Spain  is  not  a  land  of  fleshly  comforts,  or  of  social  sensual  civilization. 

Oh  I  dura  tellus  IhertcB  I — God  there  sends  the  meat,  and  the  evil  one 

cooks : — there  are  more  altars  than  kitchens — des  milliers  depreires  et 

pas  un  cuisinier. 

Life  in  the  country,  there,  is  a  Bedouin  Oriental  existence.  The  inland 
mifrequented  towns  are  dull  and  poverty-stricken.  Bore  is  the  Genius 
Loci.  Boasted  Madrid  itself  is  but  a  dear,  second-rate,  inhospitable  city  ; 
the  maritime  seaports,  as  in  the  East,  from  being  frequented  by  the 
foreigner,  are  more  cosmopolitan,  more  cheerful  and  amusing.  Generally 
speaking,  in  Spain,  as  in  the  East,  public  amusements  are  rare.  The  calm 
contemplation  of  a  cigar,  Mass  and  telling  of  beads,  and  a  dolce  far 
nientey  siestose  indolence,  appear  to  suffice  ;  while  to  some  nations  it  is 
a  pain  to  be  out  of  i)leasure,  to  the  Spaniard  it  is  a  pleasure  to  be  out 
of  painful  exertion :  leave  me,  leave  me,  to  repose  and  tobacco.  When» 
however  awake,  the  Alameda,  or  church  show,  and  the  bull-fight,  are 
the  chief  relaxations.  These  will  be  best  enjoyed  in  the  Southern  pro- 
vinces,  the  land  also  of  tha  song  and  dance,  of  bright  suns  and  eyes, 
wholesale  love  making,  and  of  not  the  largest  female  feet  in  the  world. 

Before  pointing  out  other  objects  to  be  observed  in  Spain,  and 
there  only,  it  may  be  as  well  to  mention  what  is  not  to  be  seen, 
as  there  is  no  worse  loss  of  time  than  finding  this  out  oneself,  after 
weary  chace  and  wasted  hours.  Those  who  expect  to  find  well- 
garnished  arsenals,  libraries,  restaurants,  charitable  or  literary  institu- 
tions, canals,  railroads,  tunnels,  suspension-bridges,  polytechnic  galle- 
ries,  pale-ale  breweries,  and  similar  appliances  and  appurtenances  of 
a  high  state  of  political,  social,  and  commercial  ^civilization,  had 
better  stay  at  home.  In  Spain  there  are  few  turnpike-trust  meetings, 
quarter-sessions,  courts  of  justice,  according  to  the  real  meaning  of  that 
word,  no  tread-mills  or  boards  of  guardians,  no  chairmen,  directors, 
masters-extraordinary  of  the  court  of  chancery,  no  assistant  poor-law 
commissioners.  There  are  no  anti-tobacco-teetotal-temperance-meetings, 
no  auxiliary  missionary  propagating  societies,  no  dear  drab  doves  of 
peace  societies,  or  African  slave  emancipationists,  nothing  in  the  blanket 

Spain.  IX.   WHAT  TO  OBSERVE  IN  SPAIK.  35 

and  lying-in  asylum  line,  little,  in  short,  worth  a  qnaker's  or  a  revising 
barrister  of  three  years'  standing's  notice.  Spain  may  perhaps  interest  a 
political  economist,  as  affording  an  example  of  the  decline  of  the  wealth  of 
nations,  and  offering  a  fine  example  of  errors  to  be  avoided,  and  a  grand 
field  for  theories  and  experimental  plans  of  reform  and  amelioration. 
Here  is  a  land  where  Nature  has  lavished  her  prodigality  of  soil  and 
climate,  and  which  man  has  for  the  last  four  centuries  been  endeavouring 
to  counteract.  M  cieh  y  suelo  es  bueno,  el  entresuelo  malo.  Here  the  tenant 
for  life  and  the  occupier  of  the  peninsular  entresol,  abuses,  with  incurious 
apathy  the  goods  with  which  the  gods  have  provided  him,  and  *'  preserves 
the  country  "  as  a  terra  incognita  to  naturalists  and  every  branch  of 
ists  and  ologists.  All  these  interesting  branches  of  inquiry,  healthful 
and  agreeable,  as  being  out-of-door  pursuits,  and  bringing  the  amateur 
in  close  contact  with  nature,  ofier  to  embryo  authors,  who  are  ambitious 
to  book  something  new,  a  more  worthy  subject  than  the  decies  repetita 
descriptions  of  bull-fights  and  the  natural  history  of  mantillas,  ollas, 
and  ventas.  Those  who  aspire  to  the  romantic,  in  short,  to  any  of  the 
sublime  and  beautiful  lines  (feelings  unknown  to  the  natives,  and 
brought  in  by  foreigners  themselves),  will  find  subjects  enough  in  wan- 
dering with  lead-pencil  and  note-book  through  this  singular  country, 
which  hovers  between  Europe  and  Africa,  between  civilisation  and 
barbarism ;  this  land  of  the  green  valley  and  ashy  mountain,  of  the 
boundless  plain  and  the  broken  sierra ;  those  Elysian  gardens  of  the 
Tine,  the  olive,  the  orange,  and  the  aloe ;  those  trackless,  silent,  uncul- 
tivated wastes,  the  heritage  of  the  bustard  and  bittern; — striking 
indeed  and  sudden  is  the  change,  in  flying  from  the  polished  monotony 
of  England,  to  the  racy  freshness  of  that  still  original  country,  where 
antiquity  treads  on  the  heels  of  to-day,  where  Paganism  disputes  the 
very  altar  with  Christianity,  where  indulgence  and  luxury  contend 
with  privation  and  poverty,  where  a  want  of  much  that  is  generous, 
honest,  or  merciful  is  blended  with  the  most  devoted  heroic  virtues, 
-where  the  cold-blooded  cruelty  is  linked  with  the  fiery  passions  of  Africa, 
where  ignorance  and  erudition  stand  in  violent  and  striking  contrast. 

There  let  the  antiquarian  pore  over  the  fossils  of  thousands  of  years, 
the  vestiges  of  Phoenician  enterprise,  of  Boman  magnificence,  of  Moorish 
elegance,  in  that  land  "potted"  for  him,  that  repository  of  much 
elsewhere  long  obsolete  and  forgotten,  and  compare  their  massiveness 
and  utility  with  the  gossamer  Aladdin  palaces,  the  creatures  of  Oriental 
gorgeousness  and  imagination,  with  which  Spain  alone  ctfh  enchant  the 
European  F.S.A. ;  how  tender  the  poetry  of  her  envy-disarming  decay, 
fallen  from  her  high  estate,  the  dignity  of  a  dethroned  monarch,  borne 
with  unrepining  self-respect,  the  last  consolation  of  the  innately  noble, 
which  no  adversity  can  take  away ;  how  wide  and  new  is  the  field 
opened  here  to  the  lovers  of  art,  amid  the  masterpieces  of  Italian  genius, 
when  Raphael  and  Titian  strove  to  decorate  the  palaces  of  Charles,  the 
great  emperor  of  the  age  of  Leo  X.  Here  again  is  all  the  living  nature 
of  Velazquez  and  Murillo,  truly  to  be  seen  in  Spain  alone ;  let  the 
artist  mark  well  and  note  the  shells  in  which  these  pearls  of  price  shine, 
the  cathedral,  where  God  is  worshipped  in  a  manner  as  nearly  befitting 
his  glory  as  finite  man  can  reach — the  Gothic  gloom  of  the  cloister,  the 
feu&l  turret  of  Avila,  the  vasty  Escorial,  the  rock-built  alcazar  of  iir 



Sect.  I. 

penal  Toledo,  the  sunny  towers  of  stately  Seville,  the  eternal  snows  and 
lovely  vega  of  Granada ;  let  the  geologist  clamber  over  mountains  of 
marble,  and  metal-pregnant  sierras ;  let  the  botanist  cull  from  the  wild 
hothouse  of  nature  plants  unknown,  unnumbered,  matchless  in  colour, 
and  breathing  the  aroma  of  the  sweet  south ;  let  all,  learned  or  unlearned, 
listen  to  the  song,  the  guitar,  the  castanet ;  mingle  with  the  gay,  good- 
humoured,  temperate  peasantry,  free,  manly,  and  independent,  yet 
courteous  and  respectful ;  live  with  the  noble,  dignified,  high-bred, 
self-respecting  Spaniard  ;  share  in  their  easy,  courteous  society ;  let  all 
admire  their  dark-eyed  women,  to  whom  ages  and  nations  have  con- 
ceded the  palm  of  attraction,  to  whom  Venus  has  bequeathed  her 
girdle  of  fascination ;  let  all — sed  ohe !  jam  satis — enough  for 
starting  on  this  expedition,  where,  as  Don  Quixote  said,  there  are 
opportunities  for  what  are  called  adventures  elbow-deep.  **  Aqui^ 
Hermano  Sancho,  podemos  metir  las  memos  hasta  los  codos,  en  esto  que 
llaman  aventura^,'*^ 

In  suggesting  lines  of  Spain,  a  whole  year  would  gcarcely 
suffice  to  make  the  grand  and  complete  tour.  It  might  be  performed 
in  the  following  manner  ;  the  letters  annexed  signify  that  the  means  of 
progress  can  be  accomplished  S.  by  steam,  C.  by  public  conveyance, 
K,  by  riding : — 

The  Grand  Tour. 

Start  from  England  hy  the  Steam-jacket  about  the  end  of  March  for 

CadiZj  and  then  proceed  thus — 

Puerto,  by  Steam. 

Xerez,  Coach. 

Bonanza.  July  24. 

Seville,  S. 
May  6.    Cordova,  C. 

Andujar,  C. 

Jaen,  C. 
May  20.  Granada,  C. 

Alpujarras,  Eide.    Aug.  5. 

Berja,  R.  Aug.  10. 

Motril,  R.       ' 
June  5.   Malaga,  li. 

Antequera,  R. 

Ronda,  R. 

Gaucin,  R. 

Gibraltar,  R. 

Tarifa,  R.  or  S. 
June  25.  Cadiz,  R.  or  S. 

Seville,  S. 

Aracena,  R. 

Badajoz,  R.        Aug.  10. 
July  5.    Merida,  C.  R. 

Alcantara,  R. 

Coria,  R. 
July  16.  Plasencia,  R. 

Yuste,  R. 

Abadia,  R. 

Batuecas,  R. ' 

Alberca,  R. 


Salamanca,  R. 

Zamora,  R. 

Benaveute,  R. 

Astorga,  R. 

Pouferrada,  R. 

Lugo,  R. 

Santiago,  R. 

La  Coruna  or 

Orense,  R. 

Tuy,  R. 

Vigo,  R. 

Santiago,  R. 

La  Coruna,  C. 

Oviedo  by  the 
coast,  R.  S., 
or  by  Cangas 
de  Tiueo,  R. 

La  Coruna. 

Oviedo,  R. 

Leon,  C. 

Safaagun,  R. 

Burgos,  R. 

Santander,  C. 

Bilbao,  R. 

Vitoria,  C. 

Sept.      Burgos,  C. 

Valladolid,  C. 

Segovia,  R.  C. 

Escorial,  C. 

Avila,  R. 

Madrid,  F. 

Toledo,  C. 
Oct.       Araiguez,  C. 

Cuenca,  R. 

Madrid  (winter), 
or  at 

Valencia,  C. 

Xativa,  C. 

Villena,  R. 

Murcia,  R. 

Cartagena.  C. 

Orihuela,  R. 
Spring.  Elche,  C. 

Alicante,  C. 

Ibi,  R. 

Alcoy,  R. 

Xativa,  R. 

Valencia,  C. 

Tarragona,  C.S. 

Reus,  C. 

Poblet,  R. 

Cervera,  R. 

Jgualada,  R. 

*Spain.  IX.  hints  to  invalids.  37 

Spnng.    Cardona,  R.  Huesca,  C.  R.  Pamplona,  R.  C. 

Mooserrat,  R.  ThePyrenee8,R.  Elizondo,  R. 

Martopell,  R.  Tudela,  C.  Vera,  R. 

Barcelona,  R.  Pamplona,  C.  Iran,  R.     ^ 

Zaragoza,  C.  Summer.  Tolosa,  C. 
Summer.  Jaca,  R.  Iruu,  C.  or 

Hints  to  Invalids. 

The  sui^riority  of  the  climate  of  the  South  of  Spain  over  all  other 
regions  of  Euroj^e,  which  was  pointed  out  in  our  former  editions,  is  now 
ratified  in  the  able  and  practical  treatise  of  Dr.  Francis,*  the  "  Clark  of 
Spain,"  and  the  first  to  grapple  professionally,  after  much  personal  expe- 
rience and  examination,  with  this  hygienic  subject.  Fair  Italy,  with 
her  classical  prestige,  her  Catholic  associations,  her  infinite  civilization, 
-and  ready  access,  has  long  been  the  land  of  promise  to  our  travellers 
expatriated  in  search  of  health.  But  the  steam  and  rail  of  England 
have  now  annihilated  time  and  space,  and  her  pen  has  pioneered  the 
path  to  distant  Spain,  and  dissipated  the  delusions  and  dangers  of 
'banditti  and  garlic.  Independently  of  a  more  southern  latitude,  the 
geometrical  configui-ation  of  Spain  is  superior ;  while  the  Apennines^  the 
Ixickbone  of  Italy,  stretching  N.  to  S,,  offer  no  barrier  to  northern  cold, 
the  sierras  of  Spain,  running  E.  and  W.,  afford  complete  shelter  to 
the  littoral  strips:  Again,  where  the  skiey  influences  of  Italy  are 
enervating  and  depressing,  the  climate  of  the  Peninsula  is  bracing  and 
exhilarating.  Free  as  a  whole  from  malaria,  dryness  is  the  emphatic 
^juality  of  the  climate.  Malaga^  on  the  whole,  may  be  pronounced 
the  most  favoured  winter  residence  in  Europe,  and  justly  claims  to 
"be  the  real  Elysian  fields — pace  those  of  Paris  and  Naples. 

As  Spain  itself  is  a  conglomeration  of  elevated  mountains,  the  treeless, 
denuded  interior,  scorching  and  calcined  in  summer,  keen,  cold  and  wind- 
blown in  winter,  is  prejudicial  to  the  invalid ;  the  hygienic  charac- 
teristics of  the  maritime  coasts  to  the  W.  from  Vigo  to  San-Sebastian, 
are  soothing  and  sedative— a  relaxing  influence  prevailing  as  the 
French  frontier  is  approached  ;  the  strip  to  the  E.,  from  Barcelona  to 
Cadiz,  is  more  bracing  and  exhilarating ;  midway,  in  Murcia,  occur  the 
driest  regions  in  Europe,  with  Malaga  for  the  happy  medium. 

The  benefits  derived  by  well-timed  change  of  climate  in  cases  of  con- 
sumption, dyspepsia,  bronchitis,  and  chronic  complaints,  the  climacteric 
failure  oivis  vitoBf  and  the  vivifying  influence  on  the  health  of  mind  and 
"body — reoxygenated,  as  it  were — Are  matters  of  fact.  The  stimulus  of 
glowing  light,  and  the  effect  of  warm  and  constant  sunshine  on  sur- 
faces chilled  by  the  wet  blanket  of  fog  and  cloud,  works  wonders.  The 
insensible  transpiration  proceeds  constantly;  the  skin  then  does  its 
work  to  the  relief  of  the  internal  organs.  The  water  dnmk  in  Spain, 
•where — in  the  warmer  portions^-diabetes  and  dropsy  are  little  known, 
is  deliciously  pure.  The  wines  of  the  south  especially — Malaga  and 
Manzanilla — are  dry,  cheap,  and  wholesome.  The  cuisine,  in  a  country 
where  people  eat  to  live,  not  live  to  eat,  will  indeed  keep  body  and 
soul  t(^ether,  but  will  tempt  no  weak  and  wearied  "  stomach  "  to  re- 

•  Cbftnge  of  Climate,  &c,  vith  an  account  of  the  most  eligible  places  of  residence  for 
UiTalidfl  in  Spain,  Portucat,  Algeria,  &c.,  by  D.  J.  T.  Francis,  M.l\    London.    1868. 

38  IX.  HINTS  TO  INVALIDS.  Sect.  L 

pletion.  The  peptic  benefits  of  climate  on  the  natives  are  evident  by 
the  way  they  digest  an  oil,  vinegar,  and  vegetable  diet,  and  survive 
chocolate,  sweetmeats,  and  bile-creating  compounds.  The  sustaining 
effect  is  proved  by  the  untiring  activity  of  the  verj'  under-fed  masses, 
where  many  seem  to  live  on  air,  like  chamelions.  How  strong  are 
Spanish  lungs — teste  their  songs — ^and  how  few  are  their  winter-coughs — 
teste  their  churches  1 — The  brain,  again,  in  a  land  of  No  se  sale,  and 
where  there  is  no  reading. public,  no  hourly  penny-post  or  Times,  is  left 
in  comparative  rest — rare  boons  these  for  the  two  organs  that  have^ 
the  least  holiday  under  the  mental  and  physical  toil  entailed  by 
bur  over-refined  civilization.  The  .very  dullness  of  Malaga — Prose 
is  the  tutelar  of  Spanish  towns — benefits  the  invalid.  There  are  no* 
wearying  aesthetic  lions  to  be  encountered — ^no  Madame  Starke  to  be 
"  done** — no  marble-floored  and  peopled  Yaticans  to  be  slidden  through 
— no  cold  Coliseums  to  be  sketched — ^no  Fountains-of-Egeria  picnics — 
no  "  season  "  dinnerings  and  late  balls,  to  excite,  fever  and  freeze  by 
turns :  at  Malaga  the  invalid  leads  a  quiet  life,  calm  as  the  climate,^ 
and,  blessed  with  an  otiose  oriental  real  ddce-far-niente  existence,  caix 
leave  nature  to  her  full  vis  medicatrix.  To  be  always  able  to  bask  in 
the  open  air,  to  throw  physic  to  the  dogs,  to  watch  the  sun,  the 
country,  and  the  people,  with  the  satisfaction  of  every  day  getting: 
better,  are  consolations  and  occupations  sufficient.  The  invalid  will, 
of  course,  consult  his  medical  adviser  on  the  choice  of  residence  best 
suited  to  his  individual  case :  and  the  specialities  of  each  locality  are 
given  by  Dr.  Francis  with  medical  detail.  The  precautions  necessary 
to  be  observed  are  no  less  fully  set  forth  by  him,  and  the  general 
benefits  derived  from  a  riding  tour  in  Spain  pressed  on  the  convalescent. 
And  we  too,  who  have  thus  wandered  over  many  a  hundred  leagues  of 
wild  and  tawny  Spain,  can  fully  speak  to  the  relief  thus  aflbrded  to 
severe  dyspepsia,  and  may  be  permitted  to  say  a  little  word. 

Cato,  a  great  traveller  in  ancient  Spain,  thought  it  a  matter  for 
repentance  in  old  age  to  have  gone  by  sea  where  he  might  have  gone 
by  land.  And,  touching  on  the  means  of  locomotion,  Eails  and  Post- 
horses  certainly  get  quicker  over  a  country,  but  the  pleasure  of  the 
remembrance,  and  the  benefits  derived  by  travel,  are  commonly  in  an 
inverse  ratio  to  the  ease  and  rapidity  with  which  the  journey  is  per- 
formed.* In  addition  to  the  accurate  knowledge  which  is  acquired  of  the 
country,  (for  there  is  no  map  like  this  mode  of  surveying),  and  of  a  con- 
siderable and  by  no  means  the  worst  portion  of  its  population,  a  Biding 
Expedition  to  a  civilian,  is  almost  equivalent  to  serving  a  campaign. 
It  imparts  a  new  life,  which  is  adopted  on  the  spot,  and  which  soon 
appears  quite  natural,  from  being  in  perfect  harmony  and  fitness  ^vith 
everything  around,  however  strange  to  all  previous  habits  and  notions  ; 
it  takes  the  conceit  out  of  a  man  for  the  rest  of  his  life — ^it  makes  him 
bear  and  forbear.  There  is  just  a  dash  of  difficulty  and  danger  to  give 
dignity  to  the  adventure :  but  how  soon  does  all  that  was  disagreeable 
fade  from  the  memory,  while  all  that  was  pleasant  alone  remains — nay, 
even  hardships,  when  past,  become  bright  passages  to  the  recollection. 
It  is  a  capital  practical  school  of  moral  discipline,  just  as  the  hardiest 

*  In  the  first  edition  of  this  Handbook  the  vhole  Babject  of  a  riding  tctir,  horses,  senrants^. 
■^  modut  oparcmdi  is  discussed  at  much  length. 

Spain.  IX.   RIDING  TOUB.  39» 

mariners  are  nurtured  in  the  roughest  seas.  Then  and  there  will  be 
learnt  golden  rules  of  patience,  perseverance,  good  temper,  and  good 
fellowship :  the  individual  man  must  come  out,  for  better  or  worse ;  ou 
these  occasions,  where  wealth  and  rank  are  stripped  of  the  aids  and 
appurtenances  of  conventional  superiority,  he  will  draw  more  on  his 
own  resources,  moral  and  physical,  than  on  any  letter  of  credit ;  his 
wit  will  be  sharpened  by  invention-suggesting  necessity.  Then  and 
there,  when  up,  about  and  abroad,  will  be  shaken  off  dull  sloth.  Action  I 
will  be  the  watchword.  The  traveller  will  blot  out  from  his  Spanish 
dictionary  the  fatal  phrase  of  procrastination — by-and-'hyf  a  street 
which  leads  to  the  house  of  never,  "por  la  caUe  de  desnues,  se  va  a  la 
casa  de  nuncaP  Reduced  to  shift  for  himself,  he  will  see  the  evil  of 
waste,  "  sal  vertida^  nunca  hien  cogida ;"  the  folly  of  improvidence  and 
the  wisdom  of  order,  **  quien  hien  ata,  hien  desata ; "  fast  bind,  fast  un- 
bind. He  will  whistle  to  the  winds  the  paltry  excuse  of  idleness,  the  "  no 
86  puedey^  the  ^^it  is  impossible  "  of  Spaniards.  He  will  soon  learn,  by 
grappling  with  difiSculties,  how  they  are  hest  to  be  overcome, — how  soft 
as  silk  becomes  the  nettle  when  it  is  sternly  grasped,  which  would 
sting  the  tender-handed  touch, — how  powerful  an  element  of  realising 
the  object  proposed,  is  indomitable  volition,  and  the  moral  conviction 
that  we  can  and  wUl  accomplish  it.  He  will  never  be  scared  by  shadows 
thin  as  air!  when  one  door  shuts  another  opens,  •*  cuando  unapuerta  ce 
cierra,  otra  se  ahre"  and  he  who  pushes  on  surely  arrives,  "  guien  no  cansa 
dlcanza"  These  sorts  of  independent  expeditions  are  equally  conducive 
to  health  of  body :  after  the  first  few  days  of  the  new  fatigue  are  got 
over,  the  frame  becomes  of  iron,  "  hecho  de  hronce"  The  living  in  the 
pure  air,  the  sustaining  excitement  of  novelty,  exercise,  and  constant 
occupation,  are  all  sweetened  by  the  "  studio  fallente  laborem,"  which 
renders  even  labour  itself  a  pleasure ;  a  new  and  vigorous  life  is  infused 
into  every  bone  and  muscle  ;  early  to  bed  and  early  to  rise,  if  it  does 
not  make  all  brains  wise,  at  least  invigorates  the  gastric  juices,  makes 
a  man  forget  that  he  has  a  liver,  that  storehouse  of  mortal  misery — 
bile,  blue  pill,  and  blue  devils.  This  Tieaith  is  one  of  the  secrets  of 
the  amazing  charm  which  seems  inherent  to  this  mode  of  travelling  in 
spite  of  all  the  apparent  hardships  with  which  it  is  surrounded  in  the 
abstract.  Escaping  from  the  meshes  of  the  west  end  of  London,  we 
are  transported  into  a  new  world  ;  every  day  the  out-of-door  panorama 
is  varied ;  now  the  heart  is  cheered  and  the  countenance  made  glad  by 
gazing  on  plains  overflowing  with  milk  and  honey,  or  laughing  with 
oil  and  wine,  where  the  orange  and  citron  bask  in  the  glorious  sun- 
beams. Anon  we  are  lost  amid  the  wild  magnificence  of  Nature,  who, 
careless  of  mortal  admiration,  lavishes  with  proud  indifference  her  fairest 
charms  where  most  unseen,  her  grandest  forms  where  most  inaccessible* 
Every  day  and  everywhere  we  are  unconsciously  funding  a  stock  of 
treasures  and  pleasures  of  memory,  to  be  hived  in  our  bosoms  like 
the  honey  of  the  bee,  to  cheer  and  sweeten  our  after-life ;  which,  delight- 
ful even  as  in  the  reality,  wax  stronger  as  we  grow  in  years,  and  feel 
that  these  feats  of  our  youth,  like  sweet  youth  itself,  can  never  be  our 
portion  again.  Of  one  thing  the  reader  may  be  assured — that  dear 
will  be  to  him,  as  is  now  to  us,  the  remembrance  of  these  wild  and 
joyous  rides  through  tawny  Spain,  where  hardship  was  forgotten  ere 



Sect.  I* 

undergone  :  those  sweet-aired  hills — those  rocky  crags  and  torrents — 
those  fresh  valleys  which  communicate  their  own  freshness  to  the 
heart — that  keen  relish  for  hard  fare  won  by  hunger — the  best  of 
sauces — those  sound  slumbers  on  harder  couch,  earned  by  fatigue,  the 
downiest  of  pillows — the  braced  nerves — the  spirits  light,  elastic,  and 
joyous — that  freedom  from  care — that  health  of  body  and  soul  which 
ever  rewards  a  close  communion  with  Nature — and  the  shuffling  off 
the  frets  and  factitious  'wants  of  the  thick-pent  artificial  city. 

Mineral  Baths. 

These  are  very  numerous,  and  have  always  been  much  frequented. 
In  every  part  of  the  Peninsula  such  names  as  Ccddas,  the  Eoman 
Oalidas,  and  Alhama^  the  Arabic  Al-hdmun,  denote  the  continuance  of 
baths,  in  spite  of  the  changes  of  nations  and  language.  From  Al- 
hamuUf  the  Hhamman  of  Cairo,  the  name  of  our  comfortable  Covent 
Garden  Hummums  is  derived ;  but  very  different  are  the  Spanish 
accommodations,  which  are  mostly  rude,  inadequate,  and  inconvenient. 
The  Junta  Suprema  de  Sanidad,  or  Official  Board  of  Health,  has  pub- 
lished a  list  of  the  names  of  the  principal  baths,  and  their  proper 
seasons.  At  each  a  medical  superintendent  resides,  who  is  appointed 
by  government ;  and  who  will  swear — if  given  a  double  fee — that  Aw 
waters  in  particular  will  cure  every  evil  under  the  sun. 

Names  of  Baths. 



Chiclana   .... 
Paterna  de  la  Rivera  . 
Arenocillo      .     .     . 



Medina  Sidonia. 


Horcajo     •     •     •     • 



Alhama     .... 



Graena      .... 



T^njaron  .... 



Sierra  Alamilla    .     • 



Guardavieja  .     .     . 



Marmolejo      .     •     . 



Frailes      .... 
Carratraca      .     .     . 



Archena    .     .     .  "  . 









Villa  vieja      •     .     . 



Caldas  de  Monbuy     • 



Olesa  y  Esparraguera 




June  to  Oct. 

June  to  Sept. 
do.  do. 
J  May  to  June. 
\  Aug.  to  Sept.  June. 
\Sept.  to  Oct. 
<  May  to  June. 
(Aug.  to  Oct. 

May  to  Sept 

{May  to  June. 
Sept.  to  Oct. 
do.        do. 
\Sept.  to  Nov. 
June  to  Sept. 
do.       do. 
Apr.  to  June. 
Sept.  to  Oct. 
May  to  June. 
Sept.  to  Oct. 
Apr.  to  June. 
Sept.  to  Oct. 
|May  to  July. 
\  Aug.  to  Sept. 
TMay  to  July. 
\Sept.  to  Oct. 
July  to  Sept. 




Xames  of  Baths. 




Alhama     •     •     .     . 



June  to  Sept. 

Quinto .     •     • 



May  to  Sept. 

Tiermas    •     •     , 



do.        do. 

Panticosa  •     .     , 



June  to  Sept. 

Secara       • 



May  to  Sept. 

Fitero  .     •     .     . 



do.        do. 

Hervideros      .     , 

La  Mancha. 

Ciadad  Real. 

June  to  Sept. 

Fuencaliente  •     , 



May  to  June. 

Solan  de  Cabras   . 

New  Castile. 


June  to  Sept. 

Sacedon     • 



do.        do. 

TriUo  .... 



do.        do. 

£1  Molar  .     .     , 



do.        do. 

Ledesma   • 

Old  Castile. 


do.        do. 

Amedillo  .     • 



do.        do. 

Alange      .     .     . 



do.        do. 

Monte  mayor .     . 



do.        do. 

Arteijo       .     • 


La  Cornna. 

July  to  Sept. 

JLago   .... 



June  to  Sept. 

Carballino      •     . 



July  to  Sept. 

Cortegada       .     . 



June  to  Sept. 

Caldas  de  Reyes  « 



July  to  Sept. 

Caldelas  de  Tuy  , 



do.        do. 

Cestona     •     .     < 


.  • 

June  to  Sept. 

La  Hermida   •     .     • 



do.        do. 

X. — Skeleton  Tours. 

Thd  Peninsula  may  also  be  divided  into  regions  which  contain 
peculiar  objects  of  interest.  The  vestiges  of  epochs  run  in  strata, 
according  to  the  residence  of  the  different  nations  who  have  occupied 
Spain  ;  thus  the  Eoman,  Moorish,  and  Gotho-Spaniard  periods  are 
marked  by  evidences  distinguishing  and  indelible  as  fossils. 

No.  1.  A  Roman  Antiquarian  Tour. 

Italica,  R. 
Rio  Tinto,  R. 
May.   Merida,  R. 

Alcantara,  R. 
Alconetar,  R. 

June.   Coria,  R. 

Plasencia,  R. 
Capara,  R. 
Salamanca,  R. 
Segovia,  R. 
Toledo,  C. 

Valencia,  C 
Murviedro,  C. 
July.   Tarragona,  C.  S. 
Barcelona,  C.  S. 
Martorell,  C. 

No.  2.  A  Moorish  Antiquarian  Tour. 
Seville.  June.  Graoada,  C.  June.  Malaga,  R. 

May.   Cordova,  C. 
Jaen,  C. 

Alhama,  R. 
Tours  for  Naturaubts. 

Tari&,  R.  S. 

The  natTlral  history  of  Spain  has  yet  to  be  really  investigated  and 
described.  This  indeed  is  a  subject  worthy  of  all  who  wish  to  **  book 
something  new,"  and  the  soil  is  almost  virgin.  The  harvest  is  rich, 
and  although  labourers  have  long  been  wanting,  able  pioneers  have 
broken  the  ground,  and  a  zealous  band  is  following.  The  great  extent 
and  peculiar  coi^ormation  of  the  Peninsula  offer  every  possible  scoj* 

42  X.  BOTANICAL  TOURS.  Sect.  I» 

to  the  geologist  and  botanist.  The  damp  valleys  of  the  Asturias  and 
the  western  provinces  combine  the  varieties  of  Wales  and  Switzerland ;. 
the  central  portions  contain  the  finest  cereal  regions  in  the  world,  while 
the  mountains  of  Andalucia,  covered  with  eternal  snow,  furnish  an 
entire  botanical  range  from  the  hardiest  lichen  to  the  sugar-cane 
which  flourishes  at  their  bases :  vast  districts  of  dehesas,  or  abandoned 
tracts,  bear  in  spring  time  the  aspect  of  a  hot-house  growing  wild ; 
such  is  the  profusion  of  flowers  which  waste  their  sweets,  noted  and 
gathered  but  imperfectly,  in  this  Paradise  of  the  wild  bee,  this  garden 
of  weeds,  albeit  the  Barharies  Botanica  Hispanica,  complained  of  by 
Linnasus,  is  now  in  a  fair  way  to  be  eradicated,  and  this  very  much 
by  foreigners,  as  the  Spaniard,  like  the  old  Romans  and  the  Oriental, 
is  little  sensible  to  the  beauties  of  nature  for  herself,  when  unconnected 
with  the  idea  of  his  pleasure  or  profit — garden  or  farm;  and  an 
antipathy  to  trees  forms  quite  a  second  Castilian  nature. 

Consult  on  the  Flora  Hispanica,  the  works  of  Quer  Cavanillas  and 
those  named  by  Miguel  Colmeiro,  8vo.  1846,  in  his  list  of  Spanish 
botanical  books.  The  botanist  and  entomologist  may  peruse  with 
advantage  the  Reise-Erinnerungen  aus  Spanien,  by  E.  A.  Eossmassler, 
2  vols.,  Leipzig,  1854,  especially  on  the  subject  of  snails. 

Naturalists — ^happy  men — for  whom  Nature  spreads  a  bountiful 
banquet,  whose  infinite  variety  neither  time  nor  man  can  destroy, 
should  by  all  means  ride  on  their  excursions.  Much  of  the  best  giound 
is  totally  uncarriageable.  Remember,  above  all  things,  to  bring  all 
necessary  implements  and  scientific  appliances  with  you  from  England^ 
as  neither  they  nor  their  pursuits  are  things  of  Spain. 

The  eastern  and  southern  portions  of  Spain  should  not  be  visited 
before  May,  or  the  northern  much  before  June. ' 

To  geology,  a  new  science  even  in  Europe,  the  Moro-Spaniards  are 
only  beginning  to  pay  attention — ^mining  excepted — and  even  there  again 
theforeigner  has  dug  up  his  share  at  least  of  treasure  buried  in  the  native 
napkin.  What  a  new  and  wide  field  for  the  man  of  the  hammer ! 
Here  are  to  be  found  the  marbles  with  which  the  Romans  decorated 
their  temples,  the  metal-pregnant  districts  which,  in  the  hands  of  the 
Carthaginians,  rendered  Spain  the  Peru  and  California  of  the  old  world ! 
We  are  enabled,  by  the  kindness  of  Sir  Roderick  Murchison,  to 
ofTer  the  substance  of  various  memoirs  and  notices  on  the  geological 
structure  and  sedimentary  deposits  of  Spain,  prepared  chiefly  by  Mon- 
sieur de  Vemeuil,  his  intelligent  coUaborateur  in  Russia.  The  central 
part  of  Spain  is  distinguished  by  3  chains  of  mountains  which  con- 
stitute the  skeleton  of  the  country,  the  Guadarramja,  the  Monies  de 
Toledo,  and  the  Sierra  Morena.  Having  emerged  before  the  secondary 
period,  these  ridges  formed  islands,  in  each  of  which  are  traces  of 
Silurian  or  other  pabeozoic  rocks,  and  around  which  were  accumulated 
the  Jurassic  and  the  cretaceous  deposits. 

Primary  rocks. — One  the  highest  of  these,  the  Guadarrama,  is  princi- 
pally composed  of  granite,  gneiss  and  other  crystalline  schists.  Towards 
the  E.  these  disappear  under  the  sedimentary  formations,  whilst  to  the 
W.  they  proceed  to  the  frontier  of  Portugal.  The  primary  rocks  occur 
in  two  other  and  very  distant  parts  of  Spain.  The  province  of  Gallicia 
'^  principally  composed  of  granite,  gneiss  and  mica- schist,  occasionally 

rrounding  patches  of  slate  and  limestone ;  these  rocks  are  of  great 

Spain,  X.   GEOLOGY  OF  SPAIN.  4S 

antiqalty,  and  fonn  a  sort  of  expansion  of  the  palasozoic  chain  of  Can- 
tabria.  The  Sierra  Nevada,  S.  E.  of  Granada,  ofiers  an  example  of  a 
great  mass  of  crystalline  schists.  The  abundance  of  garnets  in  th& 
mica-schist,  the  crystalline  structure  and  magnesian  condition  of  the 
thick  band  of  limestone  which  surroimds  the  central  part,  indicate  the 
energy  of  the  metamorphic  action  which  has  here  taken  place. 

FcUceozaic  rocks. — The  Sierra  Morena  is  the  tract  in  which  most  of 
the  Silurian  fossils  have  been  discovered.  This  range  is  composed  of 
slates,  psammites,  quartzites  and  sandstones ;  the  strata  often  placed 
by  violent  dislocations  in  a  vertical  position.  Making  a  section  across 
the  chain  K.  to  S.,  the  formations  succeed  each  other  in  an  ascending 
order.  The  oldest  or  lowest  traces  of  life,  trilobites,  occur  in  black 
shivery  slates.  The  upper  Silurian  rocks  are  poorly  represented  in 
the  Sierra  Morena,  the  Devonian  rocks  more  fully.  The  carboniferous 
deposits,  situated  towards  its  southern  jjart,  contain  great  masses  of  lime- 
stone. The  two  sides  of  the  Sierra  Cantabrica  in  Leon  and  the  Asturias, 
present  deposits  of  Devonian  fossils,  and  offer  points  of  pilgrim- 
age for  all  palaeontologists.  These  Devonian  rocks  constitute  the 
axis  of  the  Sierra  Cantabrica  on  its  southern  side,  and  are  covered  in 
the  Asturias  or  on  the  N.  by  the  richest  coal-field  of  Spain.  In  general 
the  carboniferous  strata  are  vertical ;  this  disadvantage  is  lessened  by  the 
mountainous  relief  of  the  country,  in  some  parts  of  which  the  beds  of 
coal  can  be  worked  1200  or  1300  feet  above  the  level  of  the  streams. 
The  depth  of  the  whole  group  may  be  estimated  at  10,000  or  12,000  feet, 

No  fossils  of  the  Permian  rocks  have  ever  been  found  in  Spain,  but 
the  analogy  of  rocks  and  stratigraphical  indications  have  referred  to  that 
formation  the  red  magnesian  limestone,  and  the  gypsiferous  marls  of 
Hon  tie],  of  the  lakes  of  Ruidera,  and  the  famous  cave  of  Montesinos  in 
La  Mancha. 

Secondary  rocks. — The  Trias  triple  may  be  traced  from  the  Pyrenees 
to  the  provinces  of  Santander  and  Asturias,  but  it  does  not  contain  the 
3  series  of  rocks  from  which  the  name  originated  ;  and  the  muschel- 
kalk  being  entirely  wanting,  it  is  reduced  to  marls  and  sandstones  of 
red  colour  placed  between  the  lias  and  the  carboniferous  strata.  The 
Jurassic  and  cretaceous  groufis  extend  over  most  of  the  eastern  and 
southern  part  of  Spain,  covering  vast  areas  in  Catalonia,  Arragon, 
Valencia,  Murcia,  Malaga  and  Eonda ;  lying  upon  the  red  sandstone,, 
they  constitute  most  of  the  high  lands  and  mountains  which  to  the  E. 
of  Madrid  make  the  divortia  aquarum  between  the  Atlantic  and  the 
Mediterranean  sea ;  they  surround  the  central  and  more  ancient  parts ; 
along  the  Guadarrama  the  chalk  penetrates  into  the  very  heart 
of  the  country.  It  will  prove  a  hard  task  to  separate  the  Jurassic 
and  cretaceous  rocks  of  Spain ;  especially  in  the  S.,  where  the  meta- 
morphic action  has  produced  so  many  alterations  in  the  rocks,  and  has 
so  obliterated  the  fossils.  The  districts  of  Malaga  and  Eonda  seem  to- 
possess  a  geological  constitution  very  analogous  to  that  of  the  Venetian 
Alps.  In  effect,  beneath  the  miocene  and  nummulitic  rocks,  rises  a^ 
compact  white  limestone  not  to  be  distinguished  from  the  Italian  scaglia 
and  biancone,  succeeded  near  Antequera  and  other  places  by  a  marble 
of  reddish  colour  full  of  Ammonites,  which  may  be  compared  to  the 
Oxfordian  Ammonitico  rosso  of  the  Italians. 

In  the  eastern  regions,  mountains  more  than  5000  feet  high  are  com 

44  X.  GEOLOGY  OF  SPAIN.  Sect.  I. 

posed  of  triassic,  Jurassic,  and  cretaceous  rocks.  The  greatest  part  of 
the  Jurassic  fossils 'belong  to  the  upper  lias.  The  Oxfordian  Jura 
occurs  at  Teruel ;  but  at  present  the  upper  part  of  the  oolitic  series,  or 
the  Fortlandian  group,  is  unknown.  The  same  may  be  said  of  the 
Neocomian  rocks.  The  chalk  of  Spain  appears  to  consist  only  of  the 
hippuritic  limestone  and  seems  to  correspond  with  the  upper  greensand, 
but  not  with  the  Neocomian  or  lower  greensand.  Above  the  chalk, 
and,  having,  apparently  been  submitted  to  the  same  disturbances,  lie 
the  nummulitic  rocks,  the  true  lower  and  eocene  w^ell  exposed  in  the 
province  of  Santander.  At  Malaga  a  great  discordance  may  be  observed 
between  the  nummulitic  limestone  and  the  miocene,  or  younger  and 
older  tertiary  deposits,  the  first  being  highly  contorted  and  the  second 
slightly  inclined. 

The  younger  tertiary  rocks  cover  vast  areas  in  Spain ;  generally 
horizontal  and  extending  in  vast  plains,.they  contrast  strongly  with  the 
secondary  and  nummulitic,  or  older  tertiary  beds,  which  are  always 
contorted  and  form  undulating  or  mountainous  countries.  All  the  great 
valleys  of  the  Ebro,  the  Douro,  the  Tagus,  the  Guadiana  and  the  Gua- 
dalquivir, have  been  bottoms  of  seas,  estuaries  or  extensive  lakes.  The 
purely  freshwater  deposits  cover  a  larger  area  than  the  marine  ones, 
extending  over  Old  and  New  Castile  from  the  Cantabrian  chain  to  the 
Guadarrama,  and  from  the  Guadarrama  to  the  Sierra  Morena  through 
the  great  plains  of  the  Mancha.  In  some  places  these  deposits  reach 
the  altitude  of  2500  feet ;  thus  proving  how  great  elevation  Spain  has 
undergone  even  in  recent  times ;  recent  in  eifect,  to  judge  by  the 
freshwater  fossil  shells,  identical  with  those  living 'now,  and  by  the 
bones  of  great  mammoths  discovered  in  the  Cerro  San  IsidrOy  near 
Madrid.  Most  of  the  marine  deposits,  and  especially  those  of  the 
basin  of  the  Guadalquivir,  are  miocene,  and  upon  them  lie  here  and 
there  some  small  pliocene,  or  newer  pliocene  (naodern)  deposits,  formed 
on  the  maritime  shore  and  composed  of  pebbles  and  fragments  of  an 
Ostrea  resembling  the  living  species.  It  was  probably  in  the  most 
recent  of  these  periods  that  the  extinct  volcanos  of  the  Peninsulabroke  out. 
Three  foci  of  eruption  are  known  ;  one  at  the  cape  of  Gata,  the  other 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  CiudadReal,  and  the  third  near  Olot  in  Catalonia, 

The  geology  of  Spain  is  not  suflBciently  advanced  to  attempt  a  classi- 
fication of  its  mountains  considered  with  respect  to  their  x)eriods  of 
elevation.  The  Sierra  Morena  is  probably  the  most  ancient ;  for  on  both 
its  sides  the  tertiary  strata  in  contact  with  the  old  rocks  are  horizontal. 
Near  Cordova,  for  example,  the  miocene  beds  with  the  huge  Clypeaster 
oUus  are  to  be  seen  in  that  position,  and  on  the  northern  side  at  Santa 
Cruz  de  Mudela  horizontal  bands  of  freshwater  limestone  loaded  with 
Helix,  lie  upon  highly  inclined,  trilobite  Silurian  schists.  More  recent 
movements  have  taken  place  in  the  Guadarrama ;  since  at  the  southern 
foot  of  that  high  range,  and  on  the  road  from  Madrid  to  Burgos,  the 
same  freshwater  limestone  is  slightly  elevated.  In  the  Pyrenees,  as 
well  as  in  the  mountains  which  rise  in  the  most  southern  part  of  Spain, 
the  subsoil  has  been  fractured  by  violent  and  recent  disturbances.  Tlie 
tertiary  formations  of  the  Ebro,  and  those  of  Leon  along  the  Cantabrian 
^hain,  are  often  much  elevated.    In  Leon  they  are  even  vertical  near 

B  chain,  but  soon  resume  their  horizontality  to  range  over  the  great 
Ins  of  Castile. 




No.  3.    Geological  and  Minebalogical  Toub. 

Villa  Nueva  del  Rio    Coal 
Spring.    Rio  Tinto      .     •     Copper 
Logrosan.Phosph.  of  Lime 

Linares    • 
Granada  • 
Berja .     . 

Spring      Marbella  • 
or       Macael     . 

Autumn.  Cartagena 
Helliu  . 
Petrola     . 


•  Lead 
.  Lead 


•  Lead 

•  Iron 



.    Salt 




Teruel    • 
Candete . 
Daroca  • 
Tortosa  . 
Ripoll     . 
Bilbao     • 
Biscay-    • 

.  Salt 
.  Iron 
.  Iron 
.  Iron 
.  Salt 
.   Iron 

•  Iron 
.  Iron 
.   Iron 

•  Coal 

No.  4.    A  Toub  of  the  Cbeam 

May.    Cadiz,  S.  June.   Granada,  C.  or  R. 
Xerez,  C.  Madrid,  C. 

Seville,  S.  Avila,  C. 

Cordova,  C.  Escorial,  C. 

Osuna,  R.  .    Segovia,  C. 

Konda,  R.  Toledo,  C. 

Gibraltar,  R.  Aranjuez,  C. 

Malaga,  S.  Joly*   Cuenca,  R. 

This  tour  cbmprehendiDg  samples  of  every  ci 
the  traveller  on  his  return  to  talk  competently 

OF  Spain. 

Valencia,  C. 
July.   Tarragona,  C.  S. 

Barcelona,  C.  S. 

Cardona,  R. 

Igualada,  R. 
Aug.    Zaragoza,  C. 

Burgos,  C. 

Irun,  C. 

ty  and  scene,  will  enable 
on  the  things  of  Spain. 

No.  5.   A  Summeb's  Toub  in  the  Nobth  of  Spain. 

Iron,  C. 
Vitoria,  C. 
Jane.   Bilbao,  C. 

Santander,  R.  S. 
Burgos,  C. 

Jul} .    Logrono,  C. 
Pamplona,  C. 
Pyrenees,  R. 
Zaragoza,  C. 
Barcelona,  C. 

Monserrat,  R. 
Aug.    CardoDs,  R. 
Urgel,  R. 
Gerona,  R. 
Perpinan,  C. 

A  pleasant  long- vacation  trip  to  the  angler  and  water-colour  painter. 

No.  6.  A  Cbntbal  Toub  bound  Madbid. 

Avila,  C.  July.   Plasencia,  R.  Aug.    Aranjuez,  C. 

Aug.    Yuste,  R. 

Alcantara,  R. 

Escorial,  C. 
Segovia,  C. 
July.  Valladolid,  R. 
Salamanca,  R. 
Ciudad  Rodrigo,R. 

Merida,  R. 
Talavera,  R. 
Toledo,  R. 

Sept.  Caenca,  R. 
Albarracin,  R. 
Solan  de  Cabras,  R. 
Guadalajara,  C. 
Alcala  de  Henares,C. 

Batuecas,  R. 

This  home  circuit,  which  includes  some  of  the  nohlest  mediaeval  and 
truly  Spanish  cities,  some  of  the  most  picturesque  and  historically 
interesting  sites,  is  douhly  refreshing  to  mind  and  hody  after  the 
withering,  dessicating  influence  of  a  residence  at  Madrid^ 

No.  7.   Ak  Abtistical  Toub — the  Pictubesque. 

As  Spain,  despite  of  our  Roberts  and  Wests,  continues  still  much  in 
the  dark  ages  of  Indian-ink  in  these  matters;  artists,  to  whose  benefit  this 
Handbook  aspires,  should,  before  leaving  England,  lay  in  a  stock  of 
materials,  such  as  block-books,  liquid  water-colours,  camel-hair  brushes, 
pennanentwhite,  and  good  lead-pencils. — ^N.B.  Before  using  them ,  attend 




Sect.  I. 

to  our  suggestions  at  page  14,  and  prepare  for  meeting  little  sympathy 
from  the  so-called  better  classes.  Often,  in  truth,  will  the  man  of  the 
pencil  sigh,  and  say,  why  will  not  the  people  show  us  themselves,  their 
real  homes,  and  ways  ?  why  will  they  conceal  what  the  rest  of  the  world 
wishes  most  to  see  and  sketch  ?  Servile  imitators  of  the  foreigner,  whom 
they  affect  to  despise,  they  seem  in  practice  to  deny,  their  fatherland  and 
nationality.  They  bore  us  with  their  pale  copies  of  the  long-tailed 
•coats  of  London,  and  the  commonplace  columns  of  the  Paris  Bourse. 
They  deluge  us  with  all  we  abhor,  and  hide  the  attractive  panorama 
which  Spain  presents  in  her  own  dear  self,  when  her  children,  all  tag, 
tassel,  and  filagree,  dance  under  fig-tree  and  vine,  while  behind  cluster 
Gothic  ruins  or  Moorish  arches,  scenes  and  sights  ravishing  to  all  eyes 
save  those  of  the  Espanol  ilustrado ;  his  newly  enlightened  and  civilized 
vision,  blind  to  all  this  native  beauty,  colour,  and  originality,  sees  in 
it  only  the  degradation  of  poverty  and  decay;  nay  resenting  the 
admiration  of  the  stranger,  from  which  he  infers  some  condescending 
■compliment  to  picturesque  barbarians,  he  intreats  the  inspection  of  his 
paletot,  or  drags  him  away  to  sketch  some  spick  and  span  academical 
abortion,  to  i-aise  which  some  gem  of  ancient  art  has  been  levelled. 

Eonda,  R. 
Gibraltar,  R. 
Malaga,  R. 
Granada,  R. 
Lanjaron,  R. 
Elche,  R. 
Cuenca,  R. 
Albarracin,  R. 
Toledo,  C. 

Escorial,  C. 
Avila,  C. 
Plasencia,  R. 

Batuecas,  R. 
El  Vierzo,  R. 
Cangas  de  Tineo,  R. 
Oviedo,  R. 
Pajares,  C. 

Santander,  R. 
Bilbao,  R. 
Vera,  R. 
Jaca,  R. 
Huesca,  R. 

S^renees,  R. 
anresa^  R. 
Monserrat,  R. 
Rosas,  R. 

Reinosa,  R. 

Military  and  naval  men,  and  all  who  take  interest  (and  what 
Englishman  does  not  ?)  in  the  fair  fame  of  our  arms,  must  ever  connect 
the  Peninsula  with  one  great  association,  the  War  of  Giants  waged 
there  by  Wellington,  and  all  who  desire  to  know  the  real  rights  of  it, 
may  stow  in  their  saddlebags  the  well-compiled  Annals  of  the  Penvn- 
suLar  Campaigns,  by  Ifamilton,  revised  by  F.  Hardman,  1849.  Those 
who  cannot,  will  at  least  find  that  the  author  of  this  Handbook,  who  has 
performed  the  pilgrimage  to  these  hallowed  sites,  has,  so  far  as  limited 
space  permits,  recorded /ac^s.. 

No.  8.  A  MnjTARY  and  Naval  Tour. 

Cadiz      •  •  • 

Barrosa  •  •  • 

Trafalgar  •  • 

Tarifa     .  .  • 

Gibraltar  • 

Granada .  .  • 
Navas  de  Tolosa 

Castalla  .  .  . 

Almansa.  •  • 

Valencia  • 

Murviedro  •  • 

» Andalucia. 


Burgos    .  • 

Navarrete  • 

Espinosa .  • 

Somosierra  • 

Rioseco   •  . 

Benavente  • 

Salamanca  . 
Cindad  Rodrigo 

El  Bodon  . 

La  Coruna  . 
San  Payo 

Vigo  .     .  . 
Cape  Finisterre. 

Old  Castile. 




Molins  del  Rey 
Broch      • 
Oerona    . 
Lerida     • 
Belchite  . 
Tadela    . 
Vera  • 
San  Marcial 
The  Bidasoa. 
San  Sebastian 
Hemani  . 
Yitoria    • 
Bilbao     . 





Arroyo  Mollnos 
Almaraz  • 
Badajoz  • 
Albaera  • 
Gevora    • 
Madrid    . 
Ucles       • 
Montiel   » 
Ciadad  Real 
Sierra  Morena 



New  Castile. 

La  Mancha. 

-  Basqae  proviDces. 

No.  9.   Shooting  and  Fishing  Tours. 

Although  game  is  not  preserved  in  Spain  as  among  ourselves,  it  is 
abandant ;  nature,  by  covering  the  earth  with  aromatic  brushwood  in 
vast  eiLtents  of  uninhabited,  uncultivated  land,  has  afforded  excellent 
•cover  to  the  wild  beasts  of  the  field  and  fowls  of  the  air ;  they  are 
poached  and  destroyed  at  all  seasons,  and  in  every  unfair  manner,  and 
•  more  for  pot  considerations,  than  sport — especially  near  the  towns.  *The 
JercB  natures  flourish,  however,  wherever  the  lords  of  the  creation  are  rude 
and  rare.  The  game  takes  care  of  itself,  and  is  abundant,  not  from  being 
strictly  preserved,  but  from  not  being  destroyed  by  scientific  sportsmen. 
Spain  was  always  the  land  of  the  rabbit  (c(mejo\  which  the  Phoenicians 
saw  here  for  the  first  time,  and  hence  some  have  traced  the  origin  of  the 
name  Hispania,  to  the  Sephan,  or  rabbit  of  the  Hebrew.  This  animal 
figured  on  the  early  coins  of  the  cuniculosce  Cdtilberice,  (Catullus,  xxxv. 
18.)  Large  ships  freighted  with  them  were  regularly  sent  from  Cadiz  for 
ike  supply  of  Rome  (Strabo,  iii.  214).  The  rabbit  is  still  the  favourite 
shooting  of  Spaniards,  who  look  invariably  to  the  liu*der.  Pheasants 
are  very  rare :  a  bird  requiring  artificial  feeding'-  cannot  be  expected 
to  thrive  in  a  country  where  half  the  population  is  underfed.  Red- 
legged  partridges  and  hares  are  most  plentiful.  The  mouths  of  the 
great  rivers  swarm  with  aquatic  birds.  In  Andalucia  the  multitude 
of  bustards  and  woodcocks  is  incredible.  There  is  very  little  diffi- 
culty in  procuring  leave  to  shoot  in  Spain ;  a  licence  to  carry  a  gun 
is  required  of  every  native,  but  it  is  seldom  necessary  for  an  Eng- 
lishman. The  moment  a  Spaniard  gets  out  of  town  he  sboulders 
3,  gun,  for  the  custom  of  going  armed  is  immemorial.  Game  is 
usually  divided  into  great  and  small:  the  Caza  mayor  includes 
•deer,  venadosy  wild  boars,  javalis,  and  the  chamois  tribe,  cabroi  mon- 
taneses :  by  Caza  menor  is  understood  foxes,  rabbits,  partridges,  and 
such  like  "  small  deer."  Winter  fowl  is  abundant  wherever  there  is 
water,  and  the  flights  of  quails  and  woodcocks,  codomices  y  gaUinetaSy 
quite  marvellous.    The  Englishman  will  find  shooting  in  the  neigh- 

48  X.  SKELETON  TOURS.  Sect.  T. 

bourhood  of  Seville  and  Gibraltar.    There  is  some  difficulty  in  intro- 
ducing our  guns  and  ammunition  into  Spain,  even  from  Gibraltar. 

The  lover  of  the  angle  will  find  virgin  rivers  in  Spain,  that  jumble 
of  mountains^  down  the  bosoms  of  which  they  flow ;  most  of  these 
abound  in  trout,  and  those  which  disembogue  into  the  Bay  of  Biscay 
in  salmon.  As  good  tackle  is  not  to  be  procured  in  Spain,  the  angler 
will  bring  out  everything  from  England.  The  best  localities  are  Pla- 
sencia,  Avila,  Cuenca,  and  the  whole  country  from  El  Vierzo,  Gallicia, 
the  Asturias,  the  Basque  provinces,  and  Pyrenean  valleys. 


Seville,  S.  Madrid,  R.  Rioseco,  R. 

Granada,  C.  Toledo,  C.  Valladolid,  C. 

Murcia,  R.  Escorial,  C.  Barges,  C. 

Valencia,  R.  Avila,  R.  Zaragoza,  C. 

.  Caenca,  R.  Salamanca,  R.  Huesca,  R. 

There  is  very  little  good  ancient  sculpture  in  Spain,  and  there  never 
was  much ;  for  when  the  Peninsula  became  a  Roman  province,  the  arts 
of  Greece  were  in  the  decline,  and  whatever  sculpture  was  executed  here 
was  the  work  either  of  Romans  or  Spaniards,  who  never  excelled  in  that 
art.  Again,  most  of  whatever  statuary  was  introduced  into  the  Penin- 
sula by  the  Trajans  and  Adrians,  was  destroyed  by  the  Vandal  Goths, 
who,  as  Christians,  abhorred  the  graven  images  of  pagan  gods,  and 
hated  Rome,  its  works,  and  especially  those  connected  with  the  fine 
artSj  to  which  they  attributed  degeneracy  and  effeminacy ;  thus,  when 
they  struck  down  the  world-oppressor,  they  cast  the  statues  of  its  chiefs 
from  the  pedestal,  and  the  idols  from  the  altar.  The  Goth  was  sup*- 
planted  by  the  Moor,  to  whose  creed  iconoclasm  was  essential ;  he  swept 
away  whatever  had  escaped  from  his  predecessor;  nay,  the  pagan 
fragments  and  papal  substitutes  were  alike  treated  with  studied  insult, 
either  buried,  to  prevent  resurrection,  in  the  foundations  of  their  build- 
ings, or  worked  in  as  base  materials  for  their  city  walls.  The  Spaniards 
as  a  people  have  no  great  archaeological  tendency.  Bom  and  bred  in  a 
country  whose  soil  is  strewed  with  the  ruins  of  creeds  and  dynasties, 
and  their  edifices,  they  view  the  relics  with  the  familiarity  and  contempt  of 
the  Bedouin,  as  old  stones,  which  he  neither  admires  nor  preserves;  if  they 
excavate  at  all,  it  is  in  hopes  of  finding  buried  hoards  of  coin  ;  accord- 
ingly, whenever  mere  antique  remains  are  dug  up,  they  have  too  often 
been  reburied,  or  those  which  any  rare  alcalde  of  taste  may  have  collected, 
are  left  at  his  death  to  chance  and  decay ;  in  the  provincial  towns  the 
fragments  are  lumpei  together  after  the  fashion  of  a  mason's  stoneyard. 
Classification  and  arrangement  are  not  Spanish  or  Oriental  qualities. 

The  Church,  again,  almost  the  sole  patron  of  sculpture,  only  encou- 
raged that  kind  which  best  served  its  own  purpose.  She. had  little 
feeling  for  ancient  art  for  itself,  which,  if  over-studied,  necessarily 
has  a  tendency  to  reproduce  a  heathen  character  and  anti-Christian. 
Cathedral  and  convent  also,  who  had  their  own  models  of  Astartes^ 
Minervas,  and  Jupiters,  in  their  images  of  the  Virgin  and  saints, 
abhorred  a  rival  idol.  Thus  Florez  and  other  antiquarians  (the  best  of 
whom  have  been  clergymen  and  busied  about  the  archaeology  of  their 

Spain.  X.  Spanish  sculpture.  49 

own  Church  and  religion  constantly  apologise  for  bestowing  attention 
on  such  un- Christian  inquiries. 

The  historical  research  of  Spaniards  has  hitherto  been  seldom  critical ; 
they  loved  to  flounder  about  Tubal  and  Hercules ;  and  when  peoi)le 
have  recourse  to  mythology,  it  is  clear  that  history  will  not  serve  their 
ends.  The  discussion  and  authenticity  of  a  monk's  bone  have  long 
been  of  more  importance  than  a  relic  of  Phidias.  Yet  Spain  may  be 
said  to  be  "  potted  "  for  antiquarians,  as  the  conservative  climate  of 
many  portions  of  the  Peninsula  rivals  even  that  of  Egypt,  in  the  absence 
of  damp,  "  your  whoreson  destroyer."  Thus  Roman  bridges,  aqueducts, 
tanks,  and  causeways  exist  in  actual  use,  almost  unimpaired  ;  nay,  even 
the  fragile  Tarkish,  the  plaster-of-Paris  wall-embroidery,  the  **  diaper, 
or  pargetting,"  of  the  Moors,  often  looks,  after  the  lapse  of  ten  centuries, 
wherever  man  has  not  destroyed  it,  almost  as  fresh  and  perfect  as  when 
first  put  up.  The  catena  of  monuments  from  the  cradle  of  the  restored 
monarchy  is  almost  complete ;  and,  such  is  the  effect  of  climate,  that 
they  even  disappoint  from  lacking  the  venerable  aerugo  of  age  to  which 
we  are  accustomed  in  a  less  beneficent  climate ;  so  many  things  in  Spain 
look  younger  by  centuries  than  they  really  are. 

The  best  and  most  national  sculpture  of  Spain  is  either  mediaeval  or 
consists  of  religious  subjects,  sepulchral  monumentfl  or  graven  images ; 
unfortunately  many  of  the  former,  from  being  placed  in  convents  founded 
expressly  for  the  burial  place  of  nobles  and  prelates,  were  first  mutilated 
by  the  enemy  and  have  perished  since  the  suppression  of  monasteries. 
The  Spanish  name  for  a  site  or  vault  destined  to  many  burials  of  one 
family,  is  oddly  enough  termed  a  Pantheon,  Some  of  the  most  mag- 
nificent mausoleums  were  executed  by  Italian  artists  from  Genoa  and 
Florence,  to  whom  several  Spaniards  proved  worthy  rivals.  .ITiese 
memorials  are  among  the  choice  things  to  be  observed.  The  Christian 
sentiment  rules  impressively  in  them  ;  there  is  no  aping  the  creed  or 
costume  of  Pagan  antiquity, — everything  speaks  of  the  orthodox  faith 
of  the  period  and  people ;  the  prelate  and  the  soldier  alike  lie  stretched 
on  the  bed  of  death,  and  the  hands  clasped  in  prayer,  now  that  sword 
and  crozier  are  laid  aside,  indicate  a  trust  in  another  life.  Emblems  of 
human  fragility  they  lay  fiat  and  dead,  while  faith  was  alive  :  but  as 
infidelity  crept  in,  worldly  pride  kept  pace,  and  sepulchral  figures  began 
to  rise,  first  on  elbows,  then  on  seats,  to  stand  boldly  bolt  upright  at 

Many  of  these  fine  Spanish  sepulchres  have  been  carefully  and  accu- 
rately drawn  by  Don  Valentin  Carderera,  to  be  hereafter,  we  tnist, 
engraved,  and  thus  in  some  sort  preserved. 

Spanish  Sculpture. 

Spanish  sculpture  is  so  peculiar  in  one  branch,  and  has  hitherto  been 
80  little  critically  considered,  that  the  attention  of  the  scholar  and 
archaeologist  may  be  called  to  it  in  a  page  or  two.  This  branch  includes 
the  holy  images,  and  these  Simvlacros  y  IrriageneSy  are  as  little  changed  in 
name  and  object  as  the  simulacra  et  imagines  of  the  Pagan  Romans. 
Some  are  destined  to  be  worshiped  in  niches  and  on  altars,  others  to 
be  carried  about  in  the  streets  by  cof radios,  or  brotherhoods,  for  adora- 
tion during  religious  ceremonies,  and  especially  during  passion  week, 

Spain.— I.  » 


whence  such  graven  figures  are  called  Pasos.  They  are  the  identical 
^oava,  the  eidcaXa,  the  idols  which  the  lust  of  the  human  eye  required, 
the  doll  or  cheats  of  the  devil,  whence  S.  Isidore  derives  the  name  of 
an  invention  which  nowhere  now  rules  more  triumphantly  than  in  his 
own  Seville. 

The  great  demand  for  these  carvings  has  induced  many  first-rate 
artists  in  Spain  to  devote  themselves  to  this  branch  of  sculpture  ;  hence 
Cano,  Montafies,  Roldan,  Becerra,  Juni,  and  Fernandez  rank  exactly 
as  Daedalus,  Emilis,  and  others  did  among  the  ancients.  The  fine 
specimens  of  their  works  have  a  startling  reality ;  the  stone  statues  of 
monks  actually  seem  fossils  of  a  cmce  living  being ;  many  others  are 
exquisitely  conceived  and  executed ;  unfortunately,  from  the  prudery  of 
Spanish  draperies,  much  of  the  anatomical  excellence  is  concealed 
from  being  dressed  and  painted ;  strictly  speaking,  they  attempt  too 
much.  The  essence  of  statuary  is  form,  and  to  clothe  a  statue,  said 
Byron,  is  like  translating  Dante :  a  marble  statue  never  deceives  ;  the 
colouring  it  does,  and  is  a  device  beneath  the  severity  of  sculpture. 
The  imitation  of  life  may  surprise,  but,  like  colossal  toys,  barbers' 
blocks,  and  wax-work  figures,  when  bad,  it  chiefly  pleases  the  ignorant 
and  children  of  a  large  or  small  growth,  to  whom  a  painted  doll  gives 
more  pleasure  than  the  Apollo  Belvidere.  The  resemblance  is  obvious, 
and  cannot  give  pleasure,  from  want  of  the  transparency  of  skin  and 
the  absence  of  life.  The  imitation,  so  exact  in  form  and  colour,  suggests 
the  painful  idea  of  a  dead  body,  which  a  statue  does  not.  Most  of 
these  images  appear  to  strangers  at  first  revolting  or  ridiculous;  but 
the  genius  of  the  Spaniard  seeks  the  material  and  natural  rather  than 
spiritual  and  ideal,  and  the  masses  require  objects  of  adoration  suited 
to  their  defective  taste  and  knowledge,  so  their  sapient  church  has  largely 
provided  for  their  cravings — ^hence  the  legions  of  tinsel  caricatures  of 
the  human  and  divine  which  encumber  the  houses  of  God,  but  which 
delight  and  afifcct  the  nation  at  large,  much  more  than  a  statue  by 
Phidias.  The  illiterate  congregations  gaze  with  a  sincere  faith  ;  they 
come  to  worship,  not  to  criticise,  and  bow  implicitly  down,  with  all 
their  bodies  and  souls,  before  the  stocks  and  stones  set  up  for  them  by 
their  pastors  and  masters.  The  devotional  feeling  prevails  entirely  over 
the  aesthetic ;  and  at  all  events  these  tangible  and  bodily  representations 
of  persons  and  events  connected  \vith  the  Scriptures  and  church  legends, 
realised  them  to  those  who  could  see,  but  not  read,  and  thus  did  their 
work  well  before  the  schoolmaster  was  abroad.  Now  they  have  served 
their  turn,  and  when  the  dislocated  and  desecrated  groups  are  moved  from 
the  temple  to  the  museum,  for  which  they  were  never  intended — ^when 
they  are  thus  placed  in  a  secular  gallery,  the  original  sentiment  is  lost, 
as  well  as  the  fitness  and  meaning  of  the  rdigio  loci.  In  their  original 
chapels  they  had  a  speaking  reference  to  the  tutelar  patron  or  miracle ; 
but  the  cheat,  of  their  tinsel  colours  and  clothing,  which  was  concealed 
in  the  solemn  semi>gloom,  is  revealed  in  the  broad  daylight,  and  they 
look  like  monks  turned  out  of  their  convent  into  the  wide  world. 
Many  of  the  smaller  ^qava  are  preserved  in  glass  cases,  after  the 
fashion  of  surgical  preparations. 

The  works  of  the  following  sculptors  are  the  best  deserving  of  notice ; 
'  ey  flourished  or  died  about  the  period  affixed  to  their  names,  as  given 
Cean  Bermudez,  to  whom  refer  for  details  : — 



Mateo,  El  Maestro  1188 
AlemaD,  Juan  . .  • .  1460 
Dancart,  El  Maestro  1495 
FlorentijQ,  Miguel .  1510 
Torrigiano,  Pedro*  1520 
iBartolome,      £1 

Maestro 1 520 

Forment,  Damien .  1525 
Valdelvira,  Pedro .  1540 
Copin,   Diego  and 

Miguel 1540 

Borgona,  Felipe  de  1543 

Berruguete,  Alonso  1545 
Tordesillas,  Caspar 

de 1545 

Machuca,  Pedro. . .  1545 

Xamete 1550 

Leoni,  Leon... . ..   1555 

Villalpando,  Franco  1561 
Siloe,  £)iegode  ...   1562 

Tudelilla 1566 

Morel,  Bartolom^  .  1566 
Becerra,  Caspar  ..  1566 
Ancheta,  Miguel  de  1575 


Juni,  Juan  de  .  •  • .  1585 
Trezzo,  Jacome . .  •  1 589 
Jordan,  Esteban  . .  1590 
Leoni,  Pompeyo  . .  1605 
Hernandez,      Cre- 

gorio 1635 

Pereyra,  Manuel .  •  1645 
Montanes,    Joan 

Martinez  ..••• .  1645 
Cano,  Alonso.  • . .  •  1650 
Roldan,  Pedro ....  1 650 

The  Spanish  painted  and  dressed  images  so  precisely  tally  in  material, 
form,  painting,  dressing,  and  adoration,  "with  those  of  Pagan  antiquity, 
that  the  scholar  will  pardon  a  few  more  remarks,  which  those  who  will 
Dot,  can  skip,  or  turn  to  the  Academic  des  Inscriptions,  zxziv.  35  ;  to 
Quatremere  de  Quincy,  Jup.  Oly.  p.  8,  s.  9 ;  and  particularly  to  Miiller, 
Hand-buch  der  Kunst  (1830),  p.  42  et  seq.  Statues  of  marble  were  a 
late  introduction  in  Italy  (Plin.  Nat.  Hist.,  xxxiv.  7),  and  are  still 
very  rare  in  Spain.  Cedar  and  the  resinous  woods  were  older  and 
preferred  from  the  "  eternity  of  the  material "  (Plin.  Nat.  Hist.,  xiii.  6). 
The  Cyllenian  Mercury  was  made  of  the  arhor  vitce,  Ovov,  the  exact 
Alerce  of  Spain.  When  decayed  they  were  replaced.  Pliny,  jun.  (Ep. 
ix.  39),  writes  to  his  architect,  Mustius,  to  make  or  get  him  a  new 
Ceres,  as  the  old  one  was  wearing  out.  Pausanias  (ii.  19.  3)  mentions 
the  $oavov  of  Argos,  the  work  of  Attains  the  Athenian,  just  as  Ponz 
would  cite  the  Sau  Jeronimo  of  Montanes  at  Italica.  It  is  difficult  to 
read  Pausanias,  and  his  accounts  of  the  statues  new  and  old,  th^  temples 
ruined  and  rebuilt,  without  feeling  how  much  would  suit  a  Greek  hand^ 
hook  for  Spain,  mutatis  mutandis,  so  many  objects  pointed  out  to  notice 
resemble  each  other  in  nature  and  condition.  Some  ^ava,  as  is  the 
case  in  Spain  at  this  moment,  were  made  of  baked  clay,  terra  cotta, 
because  cheaper.  Juvenal  (Sat.  xi.  116)  and  Josephus  (contr.  Ap.  ii.  35) 
laugh  at  these  makeshifts.  They,  however,  answered  the  purposes  for 
which  they  were  intended  just  as  well  then  as  now.  The  ancient  ^oava, 
like  the  SjMuush  Fasos,  had  their  prescriptive  colours.  As  Ee  of  Egypt, 
like  Pan,  was  painted  red,  Osiris,  black  and  green,  the  Athena  of  Skiras, 
white,  and  Apollo's  face  was  frequently  gilded,  so  in  Spain  the  Virgin 
in  her  *  Purisvma  Concepcion^  is  always  painted  in  blue  and  white, 
St.  John  is  always  dressed  in  green,  and  Judas  Iscariot  in  yellow :  "  and 
«o  intimately,"  says  Blanco  White  ("  Letters,"  289),  "  is  this  circum- 
stance associated  with  the  idea  of  the  traitor,  that  it  is  held  in  universal 
discredit."  Persons  taken  to  execution  are  clad  in  yellow  serge.  That 
colour  was  also  adopted  by  the  Inquisition  for  their  san  henito,  or  dress 
of  heresy  and  infamy.  The  hair  of  Judas  is  always  red,  or  of  Rosalind's 
**  dissembling  colour  something  browner  than  Judas's."    Athenaeus 

£7),  in  that  most  curious  account  of  the  procession  of  the  images  of 
ccnus,  mentions  that  his  ayaX/xa  was  clad  in  purple,  and  that  of  Nyssa 
in  yeUow.  Much  of  this  chromatology,  no  doubt,  is  based  on  traditions 
preserved  by  these  rubrical  formulae.  The  ancient  temples,  like  the 
Christian  churches  in  the  middle  ages,  were  painted  with  blue,  vermilior 

D  2 

52  X.   SPANISH  CHURCH  IMAGES.  Soct.  I. 

and  gilding,  and,  rightly  in  an  artistical  point  of  view,  it  became  neces- 
sary to  dress  and  colour  the  images  up  to  the  general  tone  of  everything 
around  them ;  they  otherwise  would,  have  had  a  cold  and  ineffective 
character.  This  colouring  in  Spain  was  deemed  of  such  importance, 
that  Alonso  Cano  and  Montaiies  generally  stipulated  that  no  one  but 
themselves  should  paint  the  figures  which  they  carved,  or  give  that 
peculiar  surface  enameling  called  el  estofar.  When  properly  carved 
and  consecrated,  these  figures  were  treated  by  the  ancients,  and  now 
are  by  the  Spaniards,  exactly  as  if  they  were  living  deities.  Real 
food  was  provided  for  them  and  their  chaplains.  They  were  washed 
by  attendants  of  their  own  sex.  In  Spain  no  man  is  allowed  to  imdress 
the  Paso  or  sagrada  imagen  of  the  Virgin,  which  is  an  office  of  highest 
honour.  Some  images,  like  earthly  queens,  have  their  camarera  major, 
their  mistress  of  the  robes.  This  duty  has  now  devolved  on  venerable 
single  ladies,  and  thence  has  become  almost  a  term  of  reproach,  luz 
qvsdado  para  vestir  imagenes,*  just  as  Tumus  derides  Alecto,  when 
disguised  as  an  old  woman,  "  cura  tibi  effigies  Divum,  et  templa  tueri.'* 
The  making  and  embroidering  the  superb  dresses  and  "  Petticoats  "  of 
the  Virgin  afford  constant  occupation  to  the  devout,  and  is  one  reason 
why  this  Moorish  manufacture  still  thrives  pre-eminently  in  Spain. 
Her  costume,  when  the  Pasos  are  borne  in  triumphal  procession  through 
the  streets,  forms  the  object  of  envy,  critique,  and  admiration. 

All  this  dressing  is  very  Pagan  and  ancient.  We  have  in  Callimachus 
the  rules  for  toilette  and  oiling  the  hair  of  the  $oavov  of  Minerva ;  any 
man  who  saw  it  naked  was  banished  from  Argos,  a  crime  punished 
in  the  myth  of  Acteon  and  Diana.  The  grave  charge  brought  against 
Clodius  by  Cicero  was,  that  he  had  profaned  the  Bona  Dea  by  his 
presence.'  The  wardrobe  of  Egyptian  Isis  was  provided  at  the  public 
cost ;  and  Osiris  had  his  state-dress,  Upov  Koa-fiov.  The  Peplum  of 
Minerva  was  the  fruit  of  the  five  years'  work  of  Athenian  matrons 
and  virgins.  Castas  velamina  Divae.  The  Eoman  signa  were  so  well 
dressed,  that  it  was  considered  to  be  a  compliment  to  compare  a  fine  lady 
to  one.  Plant.  Epid.  (v.  1,  18).  The  ancients  paid  much  more  atten- 
tion to  the  decorum  and  propriety  of  costume  than  the  Spaniards.  In 
the  remote  villages  and  in  the  mendicant  convents  the  most  ridiculous 
masquerades  were  exhibited,  such  as'  the  Saviour  in  a  court-dress,  with 
wig  and  breeches,  whereat  the  Due  de  St.  Simon  was  so  offended 
(xx.  113).  The  traveller  must  learn  to  bear  with  stranger  sights.  If 
once  a  people  can  be  got  to  hdieve  that  a  manequin  is  their  god,  if  they 
can  get  over  this  first  st«p,  nothing  else  ought  to  create  either  a  smile 
or  surprise.  These  Pasos  are  brought  out  on  grand  occasions,  prin- 
cipally during  the  Holy  Week.  The  expense  is  great,  both  in  the 
construction  and  properties  of  the  melo-dramatic  machinery,  and  in 
the  number  of  persons  employed  in  managing  and  attending  the  cere- 
monial. The  French  invasion,  the  progress  of  poverty  and  infidelity, 
has  tended  to  reduce  the  number  of  Pasos,  which  amoimted,  previously, 
to  more  than  fifty,  for  instance,  in  Seville.  Every  parish  had  its  own 
figure  or  group;  particular  incidents  of  our  Saviour's  passion  were 
represented  by  companies,  Cof  radios,  Mermandades,  who  took  the  name 

*  The  idol  of  Jas^mant,  in  even  British  India,  had  some  641  attendants  :~120  cooks» 
"^0  keepers  of  the  wardrobe,  and  3  persons  to  paint  the  eyebrows. 

Spain.  X.   IMAGES  OF  THE  VIBOIN,  53 

from  the  event:  they  were  the  Upfj  tOmi  of  the  Bofletta  stone,  the 
Kafuuruu  of  Clemens  Alex.  (Strom,  v.  242),  the  ancient  eraipuu^  the 
SodalitcUes,  the  unions,  the  Collegia  which  in  Rome  were^Bo  powerful, 
nmnerous,  and  well  organized  that  Julius  Caesar  took  care  to  put  them 
down  (Suet.  42).  The  Sovereign  of  Spain  is  generally  the  Hermuno 
Mayor,  These  guilds,  lodges  constituted  on  the  masonic  principle, 
give  an  occupation  to  the  memhers,  and  gratify  their  personal  vanity 
by  rank,  titles,  and  personal  decorations,  banners,  emblems,  and 
glittering  tomfoolery.  The  expenses  are  defrayed  by  a  small  subscrip- 
tion. The  affairs  are  directed  by  the  Teniente  Eermano  Mayor  nom- 
hrado  por  8,  M,  There  is  no  lack  of  fine  sounding  appellations  or 
paraphernalia,  in  which  Spaniards  delight. 

Seville  and  Valencia  still  more,  are  the  head-quarters  of  these  Lectin- 
temia,  Anteludia^  and  processions.  And  really  when  a  Protestant  scholar 
beholds  them,  and  remembers  his  classical  studies,  time  and  space  are 
annihilated,  he  is  carried  back  to  Amobius  (lib.  vii.),  *'  Lavatio  Dcum 
matris  est  hodie,  Jovis  epulum  eras  est,  lectisternium  Cereris  est  idibus 
proximis;"  and  the  newspapers  of  the  day  now  give  just  the  same 
sort  of  notices.  The  images  are  moved  on  platforms,  Andas,  and 
pushed  on  by  men  concealed  under  draperies.  The  Pasos  are  quite  as 
heavy  to  the  weary  as  were  those  of  Bel  and  Nebo  (Isaiah  xlvi.  1), 
Among  the  ancients,  not  only  the  images  of  the  gods,  but  the  sacred 
boat  of  Osiris,  the  shrine  of  Isis,  the  ark  of  the  Jews,  were  borne  on 
staves,  just  as  now  is  done  with  the  custodia  in  Spain.  Those  who  wish 
to  compare  the  analogy  and  practice  of  the  ancient  and  still  existing 
proceedings  in  Spain,  are  referred  to  the  sixth  ctiapter  of  Baruch, 
wherein  he  describes  the  identical  scenes  .and  Babylonian  Pasos — their 
dresses,  the  gilding,  the  lights,  &c.;  or  to  Athenaeus  (v.  7)  and  Apuleius 
(Met.  ii.  241),  who,  mutatis  mutandis,  have  shown  "  what  to  observe  " 
and  describe  in  Spain,  especially  as  regards  the  Pasos  of  the  Virgin, 
Thus  the  Syrian  Venus  was  carried  by  an  inferior  order  of  priests : 
Apuleius  calls  them  Pastoferi,  the  Spaniards  might  fairly  tenn  theirs 
Pasoferi;  Paso,  strictly  speaking,  means  the  figure  of  the  Saviour 
during  his  passion.  The  Paso,  however,  of  the  Virgin  is  the  most 
popular,  and  her  gold-embroidered  and  lace  pocket  handkerchief  long 
set  the  fashion  for  the  season  to  the  Andalucian  dandyzettes,  as  the 
procession  of  the  Long-Champs  does  at  Paris.  This  is  the  exact 
Megalesia  in  honour  of  the  Mother  of  the  Gods,  the  Great  Goddess 
fuyakfi6€osy  which  took  place  in  April  (see  Pitiscus,  in  voce,  for  the 
singular  coincidences)  ;  and  the  ^joso  of  Salambo,  the  Babylonian  Astarte 
Aphrodite  (see  Hesychius),  was  carried  through  Seville  with  all  the 
Phoenician  rites  even  down  to  the  3rd  century,  when  Santa  Rufina  and 
Justina,  the  present  patronesses  of  the  cathedral  tower,  were  torn  to 
pieces  by  the  populace  for  insulting  the  image ;  and  such  would  be 
the  case  should  any  tract-distributing  spinster  fly  in  the  face  of  the 
Sa/grada  imagen  de  la  Virgen  del  mayor  dolor  y  traspasOj  whicli  is  now 
carried  at  about  the  same  time  of  the  year  through  the  same  streets 
and  almost  precisely  in  the  same  manner ;  indeed,  Florez  admits  (E. 
S.  ix.  3)  that  this  paso  of  Salambo  represented  the  grief  and  agony 
felt  by  Venus  for  the  death  of  Adonis.  A  female  goddess  seems  always 
to  have  been  popular  among  all  Southrons  and  Orientals.    Thus  Venu-^ 


when  carried  in  pomp  round  the  circus,  was  hailed  with  the  same 
deafening  applause  (Ovid.  Art.  Am.  i.  147)  as  the  goddess  Doorga, 
when  borne  ^n  her  gorgeous  throne,  draws  from  the  admiring  Hindoos- 
at  this  day  (Buchanan's  Resear.  in  Asia,  p.  265),  or  the  Virgin's  image 
does  at  Seville.  There  is  little  new  of  anything  under  the  sun,  and 
still  less  in  human  devices.  Many  a  picturesque  Papal  superstition 
has  been  anticipated  by  Paganism,  as  almost  every  bold  vj^ary  of  Pro- 
testant dissent  has  been  by  the  fanatics  of  the  early  ages  of  the  church ; 
whatever  is  found  to  have  answered  at  one  time  will  probably  answer 
at  another,  for  poor  human  nature  seldom  varies  in  conduct,  when 
given  circumstances  are  much  the  same. 


Seville.  Madrid,  C.  Valencia,  C. 

There  are  three  great  schools  of  Spanish  painting,  Seville,  Valencia,, 
and  Madrid,  and  the  productions  of  their  chief  masters  are  best  to  be 
studied  in  their  own  localities.  Few  cities  in  Spain  possess  good  col- 
lections of  pictures,  and,  with  the  exception  of  the  capital,  those  which 
do,  are  seldom  enriched  with  any  specimens  oi foreign  schools,  for  such 
is  that  of  Valencia  as  regards  Seville,  and  vice  verm.  The  Spaniards 
have  ever  used  their  art  as  they  do  their  wines  and  other  gifts  of  the 
soil ;  they  just  consume  what  is  produced  on  the  spot  and  is  nearest  at 
hand,  ignorant  and  indifferent  as  regards  all  others,  even  be  they  of  a 
higher  quality. 

The  earliest  art  in  Spain,  as  exemplified  in  missals,  offers  no  national 
peculiarity.  The  first  influence  was  produced  by  the  family  of  the  Van 
Eyk's,  of  whom  John  visited  Portugal  in  1428 ;  and  M.  Gachard  ha& 
shown  that  he  went  on  to  the  Alhambra  to  paint  the  Moorish  kings.. 
The  Flemish  element  yielded  to  the  Italian  in  the  16th  century,  which, 
after  a  brief  period  of  Spanish  nationality,  faded  into  the  French  school. 
The  general  character,  is  Trutli  to  Spanish  nature,  expressed  in  a  grave, 
religious,  draped,  and  decent  style,  marked  by  a  want  of  the  ideal, 
poetical,  refined,  and  imaginative.  The  naturalistic  imitation  is  carried 
fully  out,  for  the  Church,  the  great  patron,  neither  looked  to  Apelles  or 
Raphael,  to  Venus  or  the  Graces :  she  employed  painting  to  decorate 
her  churches,  not  private  residences ;  to  furnish  objects  of  devotion,  not 
of  beauty  or  delight ;  to  provide  painted  books  for  those  who  could  see 
and  feel,  but  who  could  not  read ;  her  aim  in  art  was  to  disseminate  and 
fix  on  the  popular  memory,  those  especial  subjects  by  which  her  system 
was  best  supported,  Aer  purposes  answered ;  and  her  Holy  Tribunal 
stood  sentinel  over  author  and  artist :  an  inspector — censor  y  veedor — 
was  appointed,  whose  duty  it  was  to  visit  the  studies  of  sculptors  and 
painters,  and  either  to  destroy  or  to  paint  over  the  slightest  deviation 
from  the  manner  laid  down  in  their  rubric  for  treating  sacred  subjects : 
for  to  change  traditional  form  and  attribute  was  a  novelty  and  a  heresy, 
in  fact  a  creating  new  deities.  Spanish  pictures,  on  the  whole,  will, 
at  first  sight,  disappoint  aM  those  whose  tastes  have  been  formed 
beyond  the  Pyrenees ;  they  improve  upon  acquaintance  while  one  is 
living  in  Spain,  from  the  want  of  anything  better :  there,  however,  the 
lore  agreeable  subjects  are  seldom  to  be  seen,  for  these  naturally  have 


been  the  first  to  be  secured  by  foreigners,  who  have  left  the  gloomy 
and  ascetic  behind ;  thus,  in  all  the  Peninsula,  not  ten  ^of  Murillo*B 
gipsj  and  be^ar  pictures  are  to  be  found,  and  the  style  by  which  he 
is  l>est  known  in  England,  is  that  by  which  he  will  be  perhaps  the 
least  recc^nised  in  his  native  land. 

Our  readers  are  most  earnestly  cautioned  against  buying  pictures  in 
Spain;  they  will  indeed  be  offered,  warranted  originals,  by  Murillo, 
Velazquez,  and  so  forth,  more  plentifully  than  blackberries,  but  caveat 
emptor.  The  Peninsula  has  been  so  plundered  of  its  best  specimens  by 
the  iron  of  Soults,  Sebastianis,  and  Co.  in  war,  and  so  stripped  in  peace 
by  the  gold  of  purchasers,  that  nothing  but  the  veriest  dregs  remain  for 
sale ;  the  provincial  galleries,  Seville  and  Valencia  excepted,  prove  to 
demonstration  by  their  absence  of  the  good,  and  by  the  presence  of  un- 
mitigated rubbish,  the  extent  to  which  the  processes  of  removal  and 
collecting  have  been  carried  on.  The  best  Spanish,  and  the  almost 
naturalised  Spanish  painters  may  now  be  named ;  the  dates  indicate 
the  epoch  alxtut  which  they  flourished  or  died,  as  given  by  Gean  Ber- 
mudez  and  Stirling,  to  whom  refer  for  details :— - 

Rincon,  Antonio .  •  1 500  ' 
Fernandez,  Alejo  .1525 
Gallegos,Femando  1 530 
Campana,  Pedro..  15 52 
Vargas^  Luis  de .  •  1565 
Coello,  Alonso  San- 
chez   1565 

Navarrete,      Joan 

Fernandez 1 570 

Morales,  Lnis  de  .1575 
Theotocapoli,  Do- 

menico,  «2  Grecol  57 B 
Pardo,  Bias  del. . .  1579 
Villegas,  Pedro  de  1590 
Ribalta,  Francisco  1590 
Pantoja  de  la  Cruz, 
Joan 1595 

Cespedes,  Pablo  <le  1600 
Mascagio,  Arsenio  1600 
Joanes,    Juan  Vi- 
cente   1605 

Orrente,  Pedro. . .  1620 
Roelas,    Juan    de 

las 1625 

Espinosa,    Geroni- 

mo  Rodriguez . .  1630 
Bisquert,  Antonio.  1630 
Diaz,    Diego    Va- 
lentin • 1640 

Cano,  Alonso  ....  1645 
Herrera  el  Viejo.  .1655 
Ribera,  Josef  de . .  1655 
Velazquez,    Diego 
Silvade 1659 

Valdez,    Sebastian 

de  Llanos 1660 

Zurbaran,      Fran- 
cisco  1660 

Iriarte,  Ignacio  ..1660 

Moya,  Pedro 1 660 

Arellano,  Juan  de.  1670 
Bocanegra,    Pedro 

Atanasio 1675 

Carrefio,  Juan  Mi- 
randa de.* 1680 

Mnrillo,  Bartolom€ 

EstebjBui 1680 

Herrera,  El  Mozo.1680 
Cerezo,  Mateo. . .  .1680 
CoeUo,  Claudio  ..1680 
Goya 1800 

Spain  is  no  paradise  for  the  Print-collector;  calcography  never 
flourished  on  a  soil  where  the  graver  was  too  difiBcult  for  a  people  who 
bungle  when  mechanical  nicety  is  requisite.  Flemings  and  foreigners 
were  usually  employed.  The  native  copper  scratchers  just  supply 
the  coarse  prints  of  Madonnas,  miracle-working  monks,  &c.  These 
caricatures  of  art  answered  admirably  as  Dii  cubiculares,  and,  hung  up 
in  bedrooms,  allured  Morpheus  and  expelled  nightmare ;  and  now-a- 
days  French  artists  are  employed  in  lithographs,  and  any  works 
requiring  skill. 


In  despite  of  the  ravages  of  foreign  and  domestic  Vandals,  Spain  is  still 
extremely  rich  in  edifices,  civil  and  religious,  of  the  highest  class ;  yet 
our  architects  and  archseologists  almost  ignore  a  land,  which  is  inferior 
to  none,  and  superior  to  many  countries  in  Europe,  in  variety  and  map 


nificence  of  specimens  of  every  period,  character,  and  quality.  Moorish 
architecture  will  be  best  studied  in  Andalucia,  where  noble  specimens 
of  mosque,  palatial  fortress,  castle,  and  private  dwelling,  remain ;  suffice 
it  to  name  Seville,  Cordova,  and  Granada.  The  earliest  Spanish  build- 
ings will  be  found  in  the  Asturias,  the  cradle  of  the  monarchy ;  they 
are  generally  called  Obras  de  los  Oodos,  works  of  the  Goths — not  Gothic, 
or  Tedesco,  as  they  long  preceded  the  use  of  the  pointed  arch.  The 
Komanesque,  Byzantine,  and  in  some  districts  the  Norman,  succeeded 
and  led  to  this  later  Gothic,  and  the  examples  scattered  over  the  length 
and  breadth  of  the  Peninsula  are  no  less  varied  than  splendid ;  there  are 
specimens  of  every  period  and  phase  of  this  glorious  and  most  Christian 
style,  advancing  in  fulness  of  beauty  tmtil  the  beginning  of  the  16th 
century,  when  it  set  at  once  in  all  its  glory,  to  be  followed  by  the  resto- 
ration of  the  antique,  or,  as  it  is  here  called,  the  Chrceco-Bomano  style. 
The  cinque-cento  taste — the  exquisite  Renaissance^  pace  Kuskin — which 
grew  out  of  this,  was  nowhere  carried  to  more  gorgeous  profusion  than 
in  Spain,  then  the  dominant  power  of  Europe.  The  semi-Moro  genius 
of  the  land  lent  itself  readily  to  arabesque  decoration  and  surface  orna- 
mentation :  the  native  quarries  furnished  precious  materials,  while  the 
New  World  lavished  gold  to  defray  the  cost.  This  style  was  exalted 
to  its  highest  grade  by  a  glorious  host  of  Spanish  artists,  who  rivalled 
in  marble  and  metal  the  Bramantes  and  Cellinis  of  Italy ;  from  its  deli- 
cate details,  wrought  like  a  finely-chiselled  piece  of  plate,  this  style  is 
called  in  Spain  el  Flateresco,  and  also  de  Berruguete,  from  the  name  of 
the  great  architect,  sculptor,  and  painter,  who  carried  it  out  to  its  full 
perfection,  and  whose  exquisite  works  are  deserving  of  the  closest 

The  Plateresque  period,  which  flourished  under  the  Imperial  Charles, 
waned  under  his  severe  son,  Philip  II.,  who  introduced  the  strictly 
classical,  and  eschewed  prodigality  of  ornament;  this  style  is  gene- 
rally known  in  Spain  as  that  of  Herrera,  from  being  sdopted  by  that 
illustrious  man,  the  builder  of  the  Escorial.  Architecture,  which  grew 
with  the  monarchy,  shared  in  its  decline,  and  succumbed  under  the 
influence  of  Churriguera,  whose  name,  like  that  of  a  heresiarch,  has 
become  synonymous  in  Spain,  with  his  doctrine  and  with  all  that  is  false 
and  vile  in  taste :  thus  el  Churriguerismo,  Ohurrigueresco,  is  used  in 
the  sense  of  Bococo  ;  marble  and  wood  were  then  tortured  into  absurd 
caprice,  and  gilding  plastered  on  with  greater  profusion  than  even  in  the 
worst  period  of  Louis  XIV.,  when  almost  everything  was  a  lie.  There 
is  scarcely  a  village  in  Spain  whose  parish  chu'rch  has  escaped  the  harpy 
touch  of  this  fatal  epoch ;  it  was  succeeded  by  the  Graeco-Romano 
academical  style,  with  all  its  exclusiveness,  pedantry,  and  prejudice, 
introduced  by  the  Bourbons,  and  practised  at  present.  Hence  the  poor 
conventionalities  of  their  modern  buildings,  without  soul,  spirit,  interest, 
or  nationality  (Longe  fuge !) ;  yet  these  bald  veneerings,  coldly  correct 
and  classically  dull,  are  admired  by  Spaniards,  who  point  them  out  to 
the  stranger's  notice,  in  preference  to  the  nobler  examples  of  the 
Moorish,  Gk>thic,  and  Cinque-cento  periods,  which  too  often  have  served 
as  **  quarries,"  for  when  jnere  fashion  rules,  the  one-idead  exclusionists 
"use  up"  the  monuments  of  better  days  as  materials:  the  systematic 

ersion  to  Moorish  remains — los  resahios  de  los  Moros — which  has  long 




prevailed  in  Spsdn,  is  a  remnant  of  the  old  leaven  of  antagonistic  races : 
the  writings  and  admiration  of  foreigners  for  the  relics  of  these  elegant 
Orientals  have  somewhat  stayed  the  destroyer  and  pedant  purist  Iherian. 

The  lover  of  mediaeval  architecture  will  be  pained  indeed  in  many 
a  city  of  Spain :  her  age  of  religious  pomp  has  passed  away,  although 
that  of  railways  has  scarcely  begun.  The  length  and  breadth  of  the 
land  is  strewed  with  ruins,  the  fruits  of  this  century's  double  visitation, 
when  the  toe  of  the  modem  reformer  has  trodden  on  the  heel  of  the 
Gallic  invader.  Ruin,  in  this  respect  the  order  of  the  day  since  the 
Invasion  and  the  Civil  Wars,  has  culminated  in  the  suppression  of  the 
monastic  orders,  once  the  great  patrons  of  the  convent  and  cloister.  W  hile 
in  England  the  ravages  conmiitted  at  the  Keformatiou  are  mantled  with 
ivy  and  a  poetry  and  picturesqueness  added  by  the  gentle  hand  of  Time 
the  great  healer,  in  Spain  the  raw  wounds  gape  bleeding  in  all  their 
recent  hideousness.  The  Spaniard  in  the  mass  cares  for  none  of  these 
things ;  living  for  himself,  and  from  day  to  day,  he  neither  respects  the 
dead  nor  their  old  stones,  nor  until  the  mischief  was  nearly  done,  was  any 
thought  given  to  stay  the  evil :  socorros  de  Bapaiia,  tarda  o  nunca.  The 
Memoria  or  Report  of  Valentin  Carderera,  Madrid,  1845,  to  the  Commis- 
si<mers  of  Historical  and  Artistical  Monuments,  reveals  the  ravages 
committed  by  foreign  and  domestic  vandals,  the  apathy  of  local  autho- 
rities, their  **  no  will  and  no  way,"  the  want  of  funds  everywhere. 

The  Espana  Artistica  y  Monumental,  3  vols,  folio,  was  published  at 
Paris,  in  1846,  by  Genaro  Perez  Villamil,  an  artist  of  our  Roberts' 
school,  having  been  got  up  in  France,  from  want  in  Spain  of  litho- 
graphic-engravers. The  balderdash  portions  of  the  letterpress  were 
**  done  "  by  an  Afrancesado,  Patricio  Escosura.  Assuming  to  be  general, 
the  work  is  confined  to  the  particular  Castiles ;  many  of  the  drawings 
made  by  Don  Valentin  Carderera,  an  accurate  and  excellent  Aragonese 
archaeologist,  were  so  tampered  with  in  the  French  polishing  and 
"  cooking,"  that  lie  retired  from  the  concern  in  disgust.  (See  our 
Review  of  this  subject  in  the  "  Quarterly,"  CLIV.  vi.) 

Among  the  best  architects  of  Spain  the  following  may  be  mentioned. 
The  date  marks  the  epoch  about  which  they  flourished  or  died,  as  given 
by  Cean  Bermudez,  to  whom  refer  for  details : — 

THoda,  or  Fioda  . .  840 
Mateo,  Maestro  •  .1160 

Blay,  Pedro 1435 

Colonia,  Juan  de  .1442 
Gumiel,  Pedro ...  1492 
Egas,  Henrique  • .  1494 
Araudia,  Juan  de  .  1499 
Bermguete,  AloDso  1 500 
Andino,  Cristobal .  1500 
Hodrignez,  Alonso  1500 
Gil   de  HoDtanon, 

Juan 1511 

Covarrubias,  Al**. .  1512 

Badajoz,  Jaan  de  .1512 
Machnca,  Pedro . .  1520 
Ibarra,  Pedro  de.  .1520 
Ferment,  Damien.1520 

Ruiz,  Fernan 1520 

Borgona,  Felipe  •  •  1525 
Colouia,  Simon  de  1525 

Riano,  Diego 1 525 

Valdelvira,  Pedro.  1525 
Yoli,  Gabriel  ....1525 

Siloe,  Diego 1 525 

Bedel,  Pedro 1550 

Ezquerra,  Pedro .  •  1 550 

Xamete 1550 

Carpintero,  Macias  1 560 
Villalpando,  Fro.  .1560 
Herrera,  Juan  de  .1570 
Theotocapuli,Dom  1 575 
MoDegro,  J.  B.  .  .1580 
Mora,  Francisco . .  1 596 
Chnrriguera,  Jos^l725 
Javara,  Felipe  . .  .1736 
Rodriguez,  Ven- 
tura   1750 

Sabatini,Franci8co  1760 

Some  of  the  best  works  on  these  dilletante  subjects — a  prominent 

feature  in  this  book — ^will  be  found  at  p.  72. 

D  3 



Seville,  S.  Madrid,  C.  Oviedo,  R.  S. 

Cordova,  C*  Avila,  R.  Leon,  R. 

Jaen,  C.  Escorial,  R.  Burgos,  R. 

Granada,  C.  Segovia,  C  Zaragoza,  C. 

Madrid,  C.  VaUadolid,  R.  Huesca,  R. 

Toledo,  C.  Salamanca,  R.  Barcelona,  C. 

Cuenca,  R.  Zamora,  R.  Tarragona,  C.  S» 

Alcaic  de  Henares,  R.        Santiago,  R.  Valencia,  C.  S. 

The  most  remarkable  churches  and  cathedrals  will  be  found  in  this 
route  ;  the  other  examples  worth  observation  will  be  pointed  out  at 
their  respective  localities.  As  a  general  rule  the  student  should  care- 
fully examine  the  metropolitan  cathedral  of  each  see,  as  it  will  be 
usually  found  to  furnish  the  type  of  the  minor  collegiate  and  parochial 
churches  within  the  diocese ;  and  although  a  general  homogeneous  style 
marks  architectural  periods  throughout  the  Peninsula,  yet  architecture^ 
like  dialects  and  costume,  has  its  localisms  and  provincialisms,  which  are 
very  pronoTmced  in  Spain,  itself  an  aggregate  of  unamalgamatlng  com- 

The  stranger  may  be  made  acquainted  with  some  of  the  leading  dis- 
positions and  technical  terms,  as  regards  the  Cathedrals  of  Spain,  which 
necessarily  form  a  leading  item  in  the  "  what  to  observe  "  of  intelligent 
investigators,  and  one  especial  object  of  this  Handbook ;  the  exteriors 
are  often  surrounded  with  a  l(mg  platform,  or  lonjaj  which,  if  ascended 
to  by  steps  is  called  a  gradttSy  "  grees ;"  the  principal  front  is  fre- 
quently left  unfinished,  first  in  order  to  disarm  the  evil  eye,  and  next 
to  serve  as  a  constant  pretext  for  begging  pious  contributions  for  its 
completion.  The  western  entrance  commonly  presents  the  chief  fapade, 
and  is  called  /achada  principal ;  the  naves,  naves,  are  supported  by 
piers,  pihnesj  from  whence  springs  the  roof,  hoveda.  The  side  aisles^ 
alas,  wings,  are  called  laterales,  co-lateraUs ;  at  the  doorways  is  a  pila, 
stoup,  or  binitier,  which  contains  the  agua  hendita,  or  holy  water,  with 
which,  as  the  devil  cannot  abide  it,  every  Spaniard  crosses  him  or  herself 
on  entrance,  santigitanse.  The  quire,  coro,  is  ordinarily  placed  in  the 
centre  nave,  thus  blocking  it  up  and  concealing  the  high  altar ;  its  back, 
which  fronts  the  spectator  who  enters  from  the  west,  is  called  d 
trascoro ;  the  lateral  sides  are  called  los  respaldos  del  coro,  over  which 
the  organs  are  usually  placed.  The  quire  is  lined  with  stalls,  siUas ; 
the  seats,  siUeria  del  coro,  are  generally  carved,  and  often  most  beauti- 
fully, as  are  the  desks  of  the  quirister's  books,  los  dtriles,  and  the 
lecterns  or  facistoHes, 

Opposite  to  the  coro  an  open  space  marks  the  centre  of  the  transept, 
cntcero,  over  which  rises  the  great  dome,  el  cimhorio ;  this  space  is  called 
the  "entre  los  dos  coros;"  it  divides  the  quire  from  the  high  altar ;  and  is 
usually  isolated  and  fenced  off  by  a  reja,  "  purclose,"^  or  railing  ;  these 
and  the  canceUi,  gratings  (whence  comes  our  term  chancel),  are  among 
the  most  remarkable  and  artistical  peculiarities  of  Spain,  and,  from 
being  made  of  iron,  have  happily  escaped  the  melting-pot.  The  pulpits, 
pudpitos,  cmbones,  generally  two  in  number,  are  {Saced  in  the  angle 
outside-  the  chancel :  they  are  fixed  N.W.  and  S.W.,  in  order  that  the 

Spain,  X.  T£GHNICAL  CHURCH  TERMS.  59 

preaclier  may  face  the  congregation,  who  look  towards  the  high  altar, 
without  his  turning  his  back  to  it.  Ascending  usually  by  steps  is  the 
capiUa  mayor,  el  presbiterio,  where  is  the  high  altar,  el  altar  mayor ^  on 
which  is  placed  a  tabernacle,  el  tahemaGido,  or  dboriOf  under  which 
the  consecrated  wafer  is  placed  in  a  virU,  or  open  *'  monstrance,''  when" 
ever  it  is  displayed,  or  manifestado.  When  the  wafer  is  not  so  ex- 
hibited, it  is  enclosed  in  a  sagrario,  or  tabernacle.  In  some  highly 
privileged  churches,  as  at  Lugo  and  Leon,  the  wafer  is  continually  dis- 
played for  public  adoration ;  in  others,  only  at  particular  times :  but 
generally,  in  great  towns,  this  privilee;e  is  conceded  to  all  the  churches 
by  rotation,  and  continues  during  40  hours,  las  cuarenta  horas,  which 
are  duly  mentioned  in  almanacs  and  newspapers.  From  the  high  altar 
rises  a  screen,  or  reredos,  called  el  retdbHo ;  these,  often  most  magnificent, 
are  reared  high  aloft,  and  crowned  with  a  "  holy  rood,"  la'  Santa  Cruz, 
which  is  the  representation  of  Christ  on  the  Cross,  with  St.  John  and 
the  Virgin  at  his  side.  The  retablos,  most  elaborately  designed,  carved, 
painted,  and  gilt,  estofado,  are  divided  into  compartments,  either  by 
niches  or  intercolumniations ;  the  spaces  are  filled  with  paintings  or 
sculpture,  generally  representing  the  life  of  the  Virgin,  or  of  the  Saviour, 
or  subjects  taken  from  the  Bible,  or  from  the  local  legends  and  tutelars, 
and  do  the  office  of  books  to  those  who  can  see,  but  cannot  read.  The 
place  of  honour  is  usually  assigned  to  la  Santisima,  the  most  blessed 
one,  the  Virgin,  the  "  Queen  of  Heaven "  (Jer.  xliv.  17),  the  real 
goddess,  the  Isis,  Astarte  and  Great  Diana  of  Spain.  The  Virgin  is 
represented  mostly  in  the  attitude  of  her  Conception,  Assumption,  or 
as  bearing  the  Saviour  as  either  infant  or  dead — in  either  case  to  exalt 
her.  To  her,  indeed,  most  of  the  cathedrals  of  Mariolatrous  Spain  are 
dedicated,  whilst  in  every  church  in  the  Peninsula  she  has  her  Lady 

Few  Spaniards  at  any  time,  when  traversing  a  cathedral,  pass  the 
high  altar  without  bowing  and  crossing  themselves,  since  the  incarnate 
Host  is  placed  thereon  :  and  in  order  not  to  offend  the  weaker  brethren, 
every  considerate  Protestant  should  also  manifest  an  outward  respect 
for  this  the  Holy  of  Holies  of  the  natives,  and  of  his  Redeemer  also. 
Sometimes  kings,  queens,  and  princes  are  buried  near  the  high  altar, 
which  is  then  called  a  capiUa  real.  The  sarcophagus,  or  bed  on  which 
the  figures  representing  the  deceased  kneel  or  lie,  is  called  uma» 
Spaniards,  in  designating  the  right  and  left  of  the  altar,  generally  use 
the  terms  Iddo  del  JEvangelio,  lado  de  la  Epistola :  the  Oospel  side,  that 
is  the  right  of  the  celebrant  looking  from  the  altar  ;  the  Epistle  side, 
that  is  tiie  left.  These  are  the  spots  occupied  by  the  minister  while 
reading  those  portions  of  the  service.  The  altar  on  grand  Occasions  is 
decked  with  superbly  embroidered  coverlets  ;  a  complete  set  is  called  el 
temo.  The  piers  of  the  nave  are  then  hung  with  damask  or  velvet 
hangings,  colgaduras ;  the  back  of  the  altar  is  called  el  trasaltar,  and 
bere  in  some  cathedrals  is  el  trasparente,  a  huge  pile  of  elaborately 
worked  marble,  which  is  anything  but  transparent. 

Spanish  cathedrals  generally  have  a  parish  church  attached  to  them, 
la  parroquia,  and  many  have  a  royal  chapel,  urui  capUla  real,  quite 
distinct  from  the  high  altar,  in  which  separate  services  are  performed  by 
a  separate  establishment  of  clergy.    The  chapter-houses  should  alwa' 

60  'X.  CHURCH  PLATE,  Sect.  I. 

"be  visited.  The  sola  dd  cahildoj  sala  capitulary  have  frequently  aa 
ante-room,  antesala,  and  both  generally  contain  carvings  and  pictures. 
The  sagrario  is  a  term  used  for  the  additional  chapel  which  is  some- 
times appended  to  the  cathedral,  and  also  for  the  chamber,  d  relicario, 
where  the  relics  and  sacred  vessels  of  silver  and  gold  are  or  rather  were 
kept,  for  their  portable  and  ready  money  value  were  too  evident  to 
escape  the  greedy  eye  of  French  invaders  and  Spanish  appropriators ; 
in  reality,  to  plunder  church  plate  was  the  paramount  object  of 
almost  every  Buonapartist  Victor ^  to  *'  faire  bien  ses  affaires,"  and  enrich 
themselves  by  sacrilege,  pillage,  and  peculation.  One  of  the  earliest 
thoughts  of  the  Duke  was  how  "  to  make  the  French  generals  disgorge 
the  church  plate  which  they  had  stolen  "  (Disp.,  Aug.  23,  1808)  :  this 
he  settled  by  English  steel  purgatives ;  indeed,  the  hope  of  pillage  is 
what  endear^  war  to  the  revolutionary  upstarts  of  France,  and  to  which 
they  sacrificed  every  military  principle  and  consideration  for  the  lives  of 
their  men  (Disp.  Dec.  29, 1810).  The  crime  entailed  the  punishment ; 
the  impediments  of  plunder  formed  a  marked  feature  both  at  Baylen  and 
Yittoria,  the  first  and  last  blows  dealt  in  Spain  to  the  rapacious  Eagle. 
As  specimens  of  church  plate  worth  notice  are  the  altar  candlesticks, 
candderoSf  hlandones ;  the  calix,  or  sacramental  cup ;  the  porta  pax,  in 
which  relics  are  enclosed,  and  ofifered  to  devout  osculation ;  the  cruces^ 
crosses ;  hacvlos,  croziers ;  and  the  vergers*  staves,  cetros.  The  tra- 
veller should  always  inquire  if  there  be  a  ciustodia,  whether  of  silver, 
plata,  or  of  silver  gilt,  sobredorada.  They  are  called  custodians  because 
in  them,  on  grand  festivals,  the  consecrated  Host  is  kept.  The  cvstodia, 
containing  the  wafer,  thus  guarded,  is  deposited  on  Good  Friday  in  the 
sepulchre,  el  monumento.  This  temporary  monument  in  some  cathedrals 
— Seville,  for  instance — is  of  great  architectural  splendour. 

The  vestry  is  called  la  sacristia,  and  its  official  servant,  el  sacristan ; 
here  the  robes  and  iit^nsils  of  the  officiating  ministers  are  put  away. 
These  saloons  are  frequently  remarkable  for  the  profusion  of  mirrors 
which  are  hung,  like  pictures,  all  around  over  the  presses :  the  looking- 
glasses  are  slanted  forwards,  in  order  that  the  priest,  when  arrayed,  may 
have  a  full-length  view  of  himself  in  these  clerical  Psyches.  The  dresses 
and  copes  of  the  clergy  are  magnificently  embroidered,  for  the  Spaniards 
excel  in  this  art  of  working  silver  and  gold,  which  is  Oriental,  and  in- 
herited from  both  Phoenician  and  Moor. 

The  painted  glass  in  the  windows,  las  vidrierojs  de  las  ventanas,  is 
often  most  superb,  although  the  Spaniards  themselves  have  produced 
very  few  artists  in  this  chemical  branch,  and  mostly  employed  painters 
from  Flanders  and  Germany. 

The  chief  rejeros  or  makers  of  the  exquisite  purdoses,  railings,  are 
Francisco  de  Salamanca,  1533 ;  Christobal  Andino,  1540 ;  Francisco 
de  Villalpando,  1561 ;  Juan  Bautista  Celma,  1600.  Their  works  are  of 
the  highest  merit  and  interest,  and  quite  unrivalled  in  Europe ;  they 
flourished  in  the  gold  and  silver  ages  of  Spain.  The  most  remarkable 
plateros  or  workers  in  silver  are  the  D'Arphe  family,  1500 ;  Juan  Ruiz, 
el  Vandolino,  1533 ;  and  Alonso  Beoerril,  1534.  Unfortunately  the 
value  of  the  mere  material  has  tempted  the  spoiler,  and  consigned  to 
the  melting  pot  many  a  precious  remain  of  ancient  piety,  art,  and 

Spain,        XI.  religious  festivals  tour. — xii.  kings.  61 

XI. — Religious  Festivals  Tour. 

Religion  has  long  been  mixed  up  most  intimately  in  every  public, 
private,  and  social  relation  of  Spain.  There  a  powerful  and  intelligent 
clergy  monopolized  soul  and  body,  dwarfing  both;  and  secured  the 
good  things  of  this  world  to  themselves,  by  promising  to  others  the 
blessings  of  the  next  one.  The  priesthood,  in  order  to  prevent  the 
exercise  of  thought^  furnished  food  for  the  eye— not  mind — and  from 
the  beginning  marshalled  into  their  service  even  popular  amusements, 
making  a  holy  day  and  a  holiday  synonymous.  Moralists  and  philo- 
sophers may  speculate  on  the  changes,  whether  for  better  or  worse, 
wrought  by  the  diminution  of  these  popular  amusements  and  occupa- 
tions. The  masses  at  least  were  not  driven  to  the  pothouse  or  politics ; 
now-a-days,  as  the  cloisters  come  down  in  every  town,  colosseums  arise 
for  the  bloody  brutalizing  bull  fight ;  yet  the  church  ceremonials,  on 
gi-and  days,  although  now  much  shorn  of  their  splendour,  should  always 
be  visited,  and  especially  when  celebrated  in  honour  of  the  tutelar  saint 
or  miracle  of  any  particular  district :  local  costumes  and  manners  will 
be  best  studied  at  the  Fiestas  y  JRomerias,  the  Festivals  and  Pilgrimages 
to  some  high  place  or  shrine,  and  at  the  Veladas,  the  Wakes  or  Vigils,  the 
German  Kirchweihe,  which  in  a  fine  climate  are  at  once  attractive  and 
picturesque.  Akin  to  these  scanty  relaxations  of  the  peasantry  are  the 
Ferias  or  fairs,  a  word  which  also  has  a  double  meaning  for  the 
Spaniards,  who,  imitating  the  Moors  at  Mecca,  have  always  been  per- 
mitted to- combine  a  little  traffic  with  devotion.  These  local  festivities 
are  however  sadly  fallen  off  from  their  pristine  getting  up  and  large 

The  principal  local  saints,  sites  of  pilgrimage,  and  leading  fairs  will 
be  mentioned  in  their  respective  places:  travellers  curious  in  these 
festivals  should  endeavour  to  be  at  Valencia  April  5,  at  Madrid  April  15, 
jRonda  May  20,  and  Santiago  July  25,  and  should  always  remember  to 
be  in  some  great  city  during  the  Holy  Week  or  Semana  Santa  (Seville 
is  the  best),  and  during  Corpus  Christi,  a  moveable  feast  which  takes 
place  the  first  Thursday  after  Trinity  Sunday,  and  is  celebrated  every 
where  in  Spain  with  great  pomp,  especially  at  Seville,  Granada,  Va- 
lencia, Barcelona,  and  Toledo.  All  the  infinite  holy  days  that  are  kept 
in  honour  of  the  Virgin  deserve  notice,  as  do  the  more  gloomy  services 
connected  with  the  dead  on  the  days  of  All  Saints  and  All  Souls  in  the 
beginning  of  November.  The  festivities  of  Christmas  and  Carnival  time 
are  more  joyous,  and  very  national  and  peculiar. 

XII. — Kings  op  Spain.  ' 

In  the  subjoined  chronology  of  the  order  of  succession  of  the  Kings 
of  Spain,  from  the  Goths,  the  years  of  their  deaths  are  given  Trom  the 
official  and  recognised  lists. 

A.D.  1 

£arico     •  . 

Alarico    •  • 

Gesalico  .  •     < 

Amalarico  • 

Theadio  •  • 

Theadesilo  • 

Gothtc  Atngs, 


Ataulfo    .     .     .. 


Sigerico   •     .     • 


Walia       .     .     . 


Theodoredo  .     « 


Tarismundo  •     . 


Tbeodorico    •     . 





Agila  •     • 






Leuva  I.  • 






JElecaredo  I. 



Leuva  \l. 




Sect.  L 

Kings  of  Spain — continued. 




Witerico: .     . 


Garcia*    « 

.     913 

Fernando  IV.  el 

Gundemaro  • 


Ordono  II.     • 

•     923 



Sisebuto  .     • 


Fruela  II.      • 

.     924 

Alonso  XI.    •     • 


Becaredo  II. 


Alonso     IV. 


Pedro  I.  el  Cruel 


Saintila    •     • 


Monge  .     • 

•     930 

Henrique  II.  • 


Sisenanto     ^ . 


Ramiro  II.     • 

«     960 

Juan  I.    •     •     . 


Chintila  .     • 


Ordono  III.  • 

.     966 

Henrique  III.      • 


Tulga       .     . 


Sancho  I. 

.     967 

Juan  II.  •     .     • 




Ramiro  III.  . 

.     982 

Henrique  IV.   el 

Keces^into     • 


Bermudo  II. 

•     999 

Impotente .     . 


Wamba    .     • 


Alonso  V. 

.   1028 

Dona  Isabel,  laCa- 


Ervigio    •     • 


Bermudo  III. 

.   1037 

tolica    .     •     • 


Egica       •     • 
Witiza     .     . 


Dona  Sancha. 

•   1067 

Fernando  V.       • 



Dona  Juana  .     • 


Don  Rodrigo 


Kings  of  Castile  and 

Felipe  I.  •     .     . 



Carlos  v.,  I.  de 

Kings  of  Leon, 

Fernando  I.  . 

.   1067 

Espana       •     • 


Pelayo     .     . 



Sancho  II.     • 

'.  1073 

Felipe  II.      .     . 


Favila      .     . 



Alonso  VI.    • 

.   1108 

Felipe  III.     .     . 


Alonso  I.  el  Cato- 

Dona  Uraca  • 

.   1126 

Felipe  IV.     •     . 


lico       .     . 


Alonso  VII.  Km- 

Carlos  II.      •     • 


Fruela  I. 



.   1157 

Felipe    V.    abdi- 

Aarelio   .     • 


Sancho  III.    . 

,   1158 

cated    .     •     . 


Silo     .     •      . 


Alonso  VIII. 

•   1214 

Luis  I.     •     .     . 


Mauregato     • 


Henrique  I.  • 

.   1217 

Felipe  V.       .     . 


Bermndo  I.  el  Di- 

Fernando  II. 

•  1188 

Fernando  VI.     . 


acono   .     • 



Alonso  IX.     • 

.   1230 

Carlos  III.     .     • 


Alonso  II.  el  Casto 


Dona  Berenguela    1244 

Carlos  IV.,  abdi- 

Ramiro I.      • 



San  Fernando  III.  1262 

cated    .     •     . 


Ordono  I. 



Alonso  X.  elSabio  1284 

Fernando  VII.    . 


Alonso    III. 


Sancho     IV. 


Isabel  II.       .     . 

Magno .     • 



Bravo  •     • 

.   1295 

Xni. — Table  of  Contempobart  Sovereigns. 

The  periods  have  been  selected  during  which  leading  events  in  Spanish 

history  have  occurred. 

England.  France. 

Egbert.     •  Charlemagne 

Alfred .     •  Louis  II.       . 

Ethelred  II.  Hugh  Capet . 

▲.D.  Spain. 

800  Alonso  II.  el  Casto  • 
877  Alonso  III.  el  Magno 
996  Ramiro  III.    •     •     • 

1075  Sancho  II.       .     •     . 

1156  Alonso  VII.    .     . 

1245  San  Fernando       < 
1345  Alonso  XI.      • 
1360  Pedro  el  Cruel     . 
1485  Isabel  la  Catolica 

Henry  II. .     Louis  VII.    • 

Henry  III.  St.  Louis  • 
Edward  in.  Philip  VL  . 
Edward  III.  John  II.  .  • 
Henry  VII.    Charles  VIIL 

1615  Fernando  de  Aragon,  Henry  VIII.  Francis  I. 

1560  Carlos  V Edward  VI.    Henry  II. 

1560  Felipe  II.  .     .     •     •  Elizabeth  .    Charles  IX. 

".44  Felipe  IV.      ...  Charles  I.      Louis  XIV. 

Leo  III. 
John  VII. 
Gregory  V. 

Gregory  VII. 

r Adrian  IV., 
Innocent  IV. 
Benedict  VI. 
Innocent  VI. 
Innocent  VII I» 
Leo  X. 
Paul  III. 
Pius  IV. 
Innocent  X. 

Spain.  xiy.  royal  arms.  6S 

A.D.                   Spain.  England.                 France.                    Rome. 

1705  Felipe  V.  ....  Anne    •     .  Lonis  XIY.  .  Clement  XL 

1760  Carlos  III.      .     .     .  George  III.  Louis  XV.    .  Clement  XIIL 

1808  Fernando  VII.     .     .  George  III.  Buonaparte  .  Pius  VII. 

1840  Isabel  II Victoria     .    Louis-Philippe  {^l^g'^x^' 

XrV. — The  Royal  Arms  op  Spain. 

These,  which  appear  on  most  of  all  religious  and  public  buildings,  offer 
fixed  and  certain  aids  in  marking  dates.  They  have  from  time  to  time 
undergone  many  changes,  and  those  changes  denote  epochs.  The 
**  canting"  Castle  was  first  assumed  for  Castile,  and  the  Lion  for  Lewi ; — 
the  earliest  shields  were  parted  per  cross ;  gules,  a  castle,  or ;  argent,  a  lion 
rampant  gules,  or  more  properly  purpure.  In  1332  Alonso  XL  insti- 
tuted the  order  of  La  Vcmda,  the  "  Band,"  or  scarf,  the  origin  of  "  blue 
and  red  ribbons ;"  the  charge  was  a  bend  dexter  gules  issuing  from  two 
dragons'  heads  vert.  This,  the  charge  of  the  old  banner  of  Castile,  was 
discontinued  in  1369  by  Henry  II.,  who  hated  an  order  of  which  his 
brother  had  deprived  him.  The  colours  of  the  flag  of  Spain  are  red  and 
yellow,  because  Castile  bears  gules  and  or. 

The  union  of  Arragon  and  Castile  in  1479,  under  Ferdinand  and 
Isabella,  caused  changes  in  the  royal  shield,  then  divided  by  coupe 
and  party ;  the  first  and  fourth  areas  were  given  to  Castile  and  Leon 
quartered,  the  second  and  third  to  Arragon — Or,  four  bars,  gules — ^and 
Sicily  impaled ;  Navarre  and  Jerusalem  were  added  subsequently  :  Fer- 
dinand and  Isabella,  who  were  much  devoted  to  St.  John  the  Evangelist, 
adopted  his  eagle,  sable  with  one  head,  as  the  supporter  of  their  common 
shield :  they  each  assumed  a  separate  device :  Isabella  took  a  bundle  of 
arrows,  FlecTias,  and  the  letter  F,  the  initial  of  her  husband's  name  and 
of  this  symbol  of  union.  The  arbitrary  Ferdinand  took  a  Yoke,  Yugo, 
and  the  letter  F,  the  initial  alike  of  his  wife's  name  and  of  the  despotic 
machine  which  he  fixed  on  the  neck  of  Moor  and  Spaniard :  he  added 
the  motto  Tato  mota,  Tanto  monta.  Tantamount,  to  mark  his  assumed 
equality  with  his  Castilian  queen,  which  the  Castilians  never  admitted. 

When  Granada  was  captured  in  1492,  a  pomegranate  stalked  and 
leaved  ^oper,  with  the  shell  open-grained  gvles,  was  added  to  the  point 
of  the  shield  in  base :  wherever  this  is  wanting,  the  traveller  may  be 
certain  that  the  building  is  prior  to  1492.  Ferdinand  and  Isabella  are 
generally  called  los  Reyes  Catdicos,  the  Catholic  Sovereigns :  they  were 
very  great  builders,  and  lived  at  the  period  of  the  most  florid  Gothic 
and  armorial  decorations :  they  were  fond  of  introducing  figures  of 
heralds  in  tabards. 

The  age  of  their  grandson  Charles  V.  was  again  that  of  change :  he 
brought. in  all  the  pomp  of  Teutonic  emblazoning :  the  arms  of  the 
Boman  Empire,  Austria,  Blirgundy,  Brabant,  and  Flanders,  were  now 
added,  and  the  apostolic  one-headed  eagle  gave  way  to  the  double-headed 
eagle  of  the  Empire :  the  shield  was  enclosed  with  the  order  of  the 
Golden  Fleece ;  the  ragged  staff  of  Burgundy,  and  the  pillars  of  Her- 
cules, with  the  motto  Plus  ultra,  plus  mdtre,  were  added.  Philip  II • 
discontinued  the  Imperial  Eagle,  but  added  in  two  escutcheons  of  pre- 
tence the  arms  of  Portugal,  Artois,  and  Charolois.  These  were  omitted 
by  his  grandfion  Philip  IV.  when  Spain  b^an  to  fall  to  pieces  and  ^ 

64  XV.   THE  ERA. — XVI.  SPANISH  LANGUAGE.  Sect.  I. 

kingdoms  to  drop  off;  on  the  accession  of  Philip  V.  the  three  Bourbon 
fleur  de  lys  were  added  in  an  escutcheon  of  pretence. 

The  arms  of  every  important  town  in  ISpain  will  be  found  in  the 
*  Rasgo  Heroico*  of  Ant.  Moya,  Madrid,  1766.  Those  of  private  families 
are  endless.  Few  countries  can  vie  with  Spain  in  heraldic  pride  and 
pedigree  literature,  on  which  consult  *  BiUiotheca  Hispanica  Eistorico 
OenecUogico  Heraldicay'  Q.  E.  de  Frankenau,  4to,,  Leipsig,  1724:  it 
enumerates  no  less  than  1490  works ;  the  real  author  was  Juan  Lucas 
Cortes,  a  learned  Spaniard,  whose  MS.  treatises  on  heraldry  and  juris- 
prudence fell  into  the  hands  of  this  Frankenau,  a  Dane  and  first-rate 
plagiarist,  by  whom  they  were  appropriated  in  the  most  bare-faced 
manner.  On  the  copious  subject  of  Spanish  Heraldry  and  G  enealogy,  our 
paper  in  the  *  Quart.  Review,'  No.  cxxiii.  may  be  consulted.  The  chief 
towns  rejoice  in  magnificent  epithets,  "  Noble,  Loyal,  Faithful,"  &c. 
"  Heroic"  is  so  common,  that  the  French  soldiers,  under  Angoul^me, 
could  not  help  laughing  when  the  poltroon  municipalities  came  out  to 
surrender  their  keys  instanter.  These  craven  corporations  often  enjoy 
personal  rank,  "  excellencies,"  and  so  forth. 

XV.— The  Era. 

The  antiquarian  will  frequently  meet  with  the  date  Era  in  old  books 
or  on  old  inscriptfons.  This  mode  of  reckoning  prevailed  in  the  Roman 
dominions,  and  arose  from  the  date  of  the  particular  payment  of  taxes, 
ces  cera,  "when  all  the  world  was  taxed ;"  therefore  the  Moors  translated 
this  date  by  Bafar,  "copper,"  whence  the  Spanish  word  azofar.  It 
commenced  in  the  fourth  year  of  Augustus  Caesar,  and  according  to 
some,  on  March  25th,  according  to  others  December  26th.  Volumes 
have  been  written  on  this  disputed  point :  consult  *  Ohr(ts  Chronologicas* 
Marques  de  Mondejar,  folio,  Valencia,  1744,  and  the  second  volume  of 
the  ^Espaiia  SagradaJ'  Suffice  it  now  to  say,  that  to  make  the  Era 
correspond  with  the  Anno  Domini,  thirty-eight  years  must  be  added ; 
thus  A,D.  1200  is  equivalent  to  the  Era  1238.  The  use  of  the  Era 
prevailed  in  Spain  down  to  the  twelfth  century,  when  the  modem  system 
of  reckoning  from  the  date  of  the  Saviour  was  introduced,  not,  however, 
to  the  exclusion  of  the  Era,  for  both  were  for  a  long  time  frequently  used 
in  juxtaposition :  the  Era  was  finally  ordered  to  be  discontinued  in  1383, 
by  the  Cortes  of  Segovia. 

The  Moorish  Eegira  commences  from  Friday,  July  16,  a.d.  622, 
Era  660. 

The  New  Style  was  introduced  by  Gregory  XIIL  into  Spain  in  1582, 
at  the  same  time  that  it  was  at  Rome ;  October  5th  of  the  Old  Style  was 
then  called  October  15th.  This  change  must  always  be  remembered  in 
ascertaining  the  exact  date  of  previous  events,  and  especially  in  com- 
paring Spanish  and  English  dates,  since  the  New  Style  was  only  intro- 
duced into  England  in  1751. 

XVI. — Spanish  Language  and  Phrases. 

Some  acquaintance  with  this  noble  idiom  is  absolutely  necessary  to 
get  on  tolerably  in  the  Peninsula,  where,  as  with  Orientals,  no  other  is 
«»)oken  or  understood,  the  large  cities  and  seaports  excepted.     The 

visiting,  unvisited  people  of  Spain  have  never  felt  the  necessity  of 


using  any  other  language  but  their  own,  and  have  left  to  a  fraction  of  their 
so-called  hettera  the  disgrace  of  exchanging  a  nasal  nondescript,  which 
they  call  and  fancy  French,  for  their  sonorous  Castilian,  in  which,  as 
Charles  V.  said,  "  God  ought  alone  to  be  addressed  in  prayer ;"  and  in 
truth  of  all  modem  languages  it  is  the  most  fitting  and  decorous  medium 
for  solenm,  lofty  devotion,  for  grave  disquisitions,  for  elevated,  moral, 
and  theological  subjects ;  an  exponent  of  national  character,  it  partakes 
of  the  virtues  and  vices  of  the  Spaniard — it  is  noble,  manly,  grandilo- 
quent, sententious,  and  imposing.  The  commonest  village  alcalde  pens 
his  placards  in  the  Oambyses  state-paper  style,  more  naturally  than  Pitt 
dictated  king's  speeches,  extemporaneously.  The  pompous,  fine-sounding 
expressions  and  professions,  convey  to  plain  English  understandings 
promises  which  are  seldom  realized  by  Spaniards.  The  words  are  so 
fine  in  themselves  that  they  appear  to  he  the  result  of  thought  and 
talent.  The  ear  is  bewildered  and  the  judgment  carried  away  by  the 
mistakes  we  make  in  translating  all  these  fine  phrases — -palabras,  pala- 
ver, which  are  but  Orientalisms,  and  mean,  and  are  meant  to  mean, 
nothing — into  our  homely,  business-like,  honest  idiom.  We  take 
Spanish  syllabubs  for  English  plum-pudding,  and  deceive  ourselves 
only;  for  no  official  Spaniard  ever  credits  another  to  the  letter:  our 
literalness  induces  us  to  set  them  down  as  greater  boasters,  braggarts, 
and  more  beggarly  in  performance  than  they  really  are.  This  wordy 
exaggeration  is  peculiar  to  southern  imaginative  people,  who  delight  in 
the  ornate  and  gorgeous ;  our  readers  must  therefore  be  on  their  guard 
not  to  take  all  this  conventional  hyperbole  of  Spanish  grandiloquence  au 
pied  de  la  lettre,  for  much  less  is  meant  than  meets  the  ear.  Such  words 
must  be  much  lowered  down,  to  reach  the  standard  of  truth,  and  like 
their  paper,  when  not  protested,  which  is  by  far  the  safest  way,  at  least 
discounted ;  a  deduction  of  25  per  cent,  will  seldom  be  found  enough, 
if  the  bond  fide  value  is  wished  to  be  ascertained.  Again  our  early 
education  at  Public  Schools  and  Universities  leads  us  to  associate  a 
Koman  and  Classical  feeling  with  this  superb  idiom,  in  which  the  Latin 
element  is  less  changed  than  in  any  other  modem  language ;  with  the 
phraseology  of  Caesar  and  Cicero  we  cannot  help  connecting  much  of 
their  greatness.  The  Spanish  idiom,  at  least,  is  the  manly  son  and 
heir  of  the  Latin,  as  the  Italian  is  the  fair  and  elegant  daughter. 

The  repugnance  to  all  commercial  and  mechanical  pursuits  which  has 
been  inherited  from  the  Goths,  and  the  fetters  by  which  national  intel- 
lect and  literature  have  been  so  long  confined,  have  rendered  the  language 
of  Castile  comparatively  unfit  for  most  of  the  practical  purposes  for  which 
there  is  such  a  growing  demand  in  this  business-like,  utilitarian  age.  It 
has  yet  to  be  hammered  on  the  anvil  of  mere  popular  concems,  and  is  from 
its  very  structure  as  unfitted  for  rapid  condensed  conversation,  as  are 
those  Spanish  talkei's  and  twaddlers  who  use  it  in  writing  or  speaking ; 
however,  as  no  other  language  is  in  vogue,  the  traveller  must  either  hold 
his  tongue  or  adopt  theirs.  Nor  will  those  who  imderstand  Latin  and 
French  find  much  difficulty  in  mastering  Spanish ;  while  a  knowledge 
of  Italian,  so  far  from  being  an  assistance,  will  prove  a  constant  stumb- 
ling-block. Both  languages,  as  we  have  said,  are  children  of  the  Latin, 
but  the  one  is  the  son  and  the  other  the  daughter  ;  the  terminations  of 
the  former  end  in  masculine  consonants,  of  the  latter  in  feminine  vowelp 


The  pronunciation  of  Spanish  is  very  easy ;  every  word  is  spoken  as  it 
is  written,  and  with  the  lips  and  month,  not  the  nose ;  the  consonants 
g,  j\  and  x,  before  certain  vowels,  have  a  marked  Arabic  and  German 
guttaral  power,  which  confers  a  force,  manliness,  and  a  back  bone  that 
is  far  from  disagreeable.  In  fact,  this  manliness,  combined  with  gravity 
and  oriental  majesty,  is  what  principally  distinguishes  the  Spanish  from 
the  Italian  language.  Again,  every  word  is  written  and  spelt  as  it  is 
pronounced — ^a  comfort  to  a  student  that  is  denied  in  our  so-called  ortho- 
graphy, in  which  letters  seem  to  have  been  given  to  conceal  the  sounds 
of  words.  The  g,  j,  and  x  before  vowels  is  generally  written  now  with/, 
although  they  may  be  used  optionally.  Thus  the  correct  thing  is  to 
spell  XimeneZf  GhimeneZy  as  Jimenez.  Again,  the  b  and  v  have  long 
been  cognate  and  convertible ;  thus  Aqui  se  bende  huen  bino,  occurs  on 
inn  sign-posts,  as  often  as  Aqui  se  vende  buen  vino. 

The  original  language  of  the  Iberians  was  the  Basque,  which  is  now 
confined  to  its  hilly  comer.  It  was  superseded  by  the  Romance,  or 
corrupt  idiom  formed  from  the  fusion  of  the  Roman  and  Gothic  lan- 
guages ;  this  hybrid  underwent  a  further  change  from  its  admixture 
with  the  Arabic  at  the  Moorish  invasion,  when  two  new  dialects  were 
formed — the  Aljamia  or  Spanish,  as  spoken  by  the  Moors,  and  the 
Algardbia  or  Arabic,  as  spoken  by  the  Spaniards.  This  latter  was  so 
bad,  that  the  term,  in  its  secondary  sense,  is  applied  to  any  gibberish — 
garabia — a  word  which,  strictly  speaking,  means  hgat-ai-drabra,  the 
Arabic  language.  In  Andalucia,  as  might  be  expected,  this  fusion  was 
the  greatest,  and  the  province,  in  the  names  of  her  rivers,  towns,  and 
mountains,  still  retains  the  language  of  her  former  possessors,  although 
the  Spaniards  have  even  forgotten  their  meaning :  thus  they  pleonasti- 
cally  call  the  Wadi  7  kiber,  the  great  river,  el  rio  grande  del  Guadal- 
quivir; los  bancs  de  Alharthay  the  baths  of  the  bath;  el  puente  de 
Alcantara,  the  bridge  of  the  bridge. 

Although  el  hablar  CasteUano  means  emphatically,  speaking  Spanish, 
each  province  has  its  dialect.  These  may  be  conveniently  classed  under 
four  great  branches : — the  primitive  Basque ;  the  Valeftcian  and  Cata- 
Ionian,  which  comes  near  the  Proven9al,  as  the  Arragonese  does  to  the 
langue  d'Oc,  or  Lemosin ;  the  Asturian  and  Gallician ;  and  the  Castilian,^ 
which  thus  may  be  compared  to  a  heap  of  com,  composed  of  many 
different  classes  of  grain.  The  purest  CastUian  is  written  and  spoken  at 
Madrid  and  at  Toledo,  the  most  corrupt  in  the  cities  of  Andalucia.  One 
marked  difference  in  pronunciation  consists  in  the  sound  of  the  th ;  the 
Castilian  marks  it  clearly — Zaragoza,  Tharagotha ;  Andaluz,  AndcUuth ; 
placer,  plather ;  usted,  usteth:  while  the  Andalucian,  whose  ceceo  is 
much  laughed  at,  will  say  Saragosa,  placer,  or  plaser,  Andaluce,  uste. 
The  traveller  should  never  pronounce  the  h  when  at  the  beginning  of  a 
word;  hombre,  hacer,  must  be  Ombre,  cUher.  The  Castilian  speaks 
with  a  grave,  distinct  pronunciation,  ore  rotundo,  enunciating  every 
letter  and  syllable.  The  Andalucian  clips  the  Queen's  Spanish,  and 
seldom  sounds  the  d  between  two  vowels. 

The  Castilians  are  sparing  of  words.  If  speech  be  silver,  silence,  say 
they,  is  often  gold ;  and,  throughout  Spain,  much  intercourse  is  carried 
on  by  signs,  especially  among  the  lower  classes ;  thus,  energetic  defiance 

contempt  (the  national  oath — the  oara/o— expressed  by  telegraph)  is 


irresistibly  conveyed  by  closing  the  fist  of  the  right  hand,  elevating  it, 
and  catching  the  elbow  in  the  palm  of  the  left  hand,  and  thus  raising 
the  right  arm  at  a  right  angle.  People  call  each  other  by  a  polite 
hissing,  or  rather  by  the  labial  sound  Ps,  ps.  The  telegraph  action  of 
this  sibilant — Eoia !  ven  aca,  querido  I — ^is  done  by  reversing  our  form 
of  beckoning ;  the  open  hand  is  raised,  and  the  palm  is.  turned  toward 
the  person  summoned  or  selected,  and  the  four  fingers  drawn  rapidly 
up  and  down  into  the  palm.  Admiration — sohremliente,  que  huena 
mozal — ^is  expressed  by  collecting  the  five. fingers*  tips  to  a  pointy 
bringing  ihem  to  the  lip,  kissing  them,  and  then  expanding  the  hand 
like  a  bursting  shell.  Dissent — what  a  lie — mentiraj  or  have  nothing 
to  do  with  it,  her,  or  him,  no  te  metas  en  eso — is  quietly  hinted  by 
raising  the  single  fore-finger  to  the  nose,  and  wagging  it  rapidly  and 
horizontally  backwards  and  forwards.  Astonishment,  incredulous  sur- 
prise, or  jocular  resignation  under  unavoidable,  irremediable  afflictions 
— is  dumbshowed  by  crossing  oneself,  as  is  done  on  entering  a  church  in 
Spain.  The  ancient  contemptuous"^  of  Spain" — a  fig  for  you — is 
digitally  represented  by  inserting  the  head  of  the  thumb  between  the 
fore  and  middle  fingers,  and  raising  the  back  of  the  hand  towards  the 
person  thus  complimented.  The  fair  sex  carry  on  dumb-show,  but 
most  eloquent  "  conversations  "  with  the  fan,  dbanico ;  and  a  signal-book 
might  be  written  on  the  polyglot  powers  of  this  electric  telegraph.. 
Their  management  of  it,  or  manejo^  is  unique  and  inimitable. 

In  Andalucia,  the  head-quarters  of  the  fancy,  la  Aficion^  a  sort  of 
slang  is  very  current  which  is  prevalent  among  Tnajos,  bull-fighters,  and 
all  who  aspire  to  be  sporting  characters ;  it  is  called  Oermania,  geri- 
goma,  jerga  (whence,  perhaps,  our  Jargon).  It  has  often  been  con- 
founded, but  most  erroneously,  with  Rommany,  or  the  language  of 
Spanish  gipsies,  Gitanos,  which  is  a  Hindu  dialect,  whereas  Germania 
is  simply  a  language  of  metaphor,  or  a  giving  a  new  conventional 
meaning  to  an  dd  word.  Thus  cdegio,  a  college,  in  slang  means  a 
prison,  becausie  there  young  culprits  become  masters  of  sinful  arts. 
Mr.  Borrow,  in  his  graphic  *  Zincali,'  and  A.  F.  Pott,  in  his  learned 
compilation  *  Die  ZigeuneVy'  2  vols.,  Halle,  1845,  have  exhausted  the- 
subject  of  gipsy  philology. 

The  best  method  of  acquiring  the  Spanish  language  is  to  establish 
oneself  in  a  good  casa  de  pupUos,  to  avoid  English  society  and  conversa- 
tion, to  read  Don  Quixote  through  and  aloud  before  a  master  of  a 
morning,  and  to  be  schooled  by  female  tongues  of  an  evening.  The 
ladies  of  Spain  prove  better  mistresses,  and  their  lessons  are  more 
attended  to  by  their  pupils,  than  the  inflections  and  irregular  verbs  of  a 
snuffy  tobaccose  pedagogue,  a  bore,  and  a  button-holder,  majadero  y  bota- 
rate.  Mr.  Lee,  bookseller,  440,  West  Strand,  can  generally  recommend 
a  good  Spanish  language  teacher,  e.g.  DeH  Mar,  whose  grammar  is  very 
good.  The  old  dictionary,  *  Tesoro  de  la  Lengua  Ca^teUana,'  of  Don 
Sebastian  Covarrubias,  Madrid,  1611  and  1674,  abounds  with  quaint 
and  Quixotic  information.  The  Spanish  Diccionario  Naciondl,  with 
Supplement,  is  trustworthy,  and  the  French  and  Spanish  Dictionary  of 
Nufiez  de  Taboada  is  one  of  the  best ;  those  who  wish  to  trace  the  Arabic^ 
influence  on  the  Spanish  language  will  find  in  the  Arte  de  la'Lengua 
Arahica,  and  the  Vocahulario  Arabico,  by  Pedro    de  AlcaU,  4to 



Sect.  T. 

Granada,  1504  (generally  bound  up  together),  the  exact  idiom  spoken 
by  the  Moors  of  Granada. 

As  a  "  wrinkle  "  to  students  it  will  be  found  useful  to  add  to  their 
Taboada  dictionary  sundry  blank  sheets,  and  set  down  on  them  the 
colloquial,  conversational  phrases  which  recur  the  most  frequently,  for 
spoken  language  differs  everywhere  most  essentially  from  written ;  take, 
for  example,  a  couple  of  Ifeaves  from  our  book,  in  which  the  common 
every -day  and  lighter  subjects  have  been  purposely  selected. 

Ojala!  I  wish  I  could,  would  to 
Allah  it  were  so ! 

Si  Dios  quiere,  if  God  pleases.  The 
Inch  allah !  of  the  Moors. 

Valgcune  Dvjs,  God  bless  me. 

Ave  Maria  purisinuiy  a  form  of  ad- 
miration and  salutation. 

Sabe  Dio8,  quien  sabe  ?  God  knows, 
who  can  teU  ? 

JVb  se  sabe,  nobody  knows,  that  de- 

Muy  bien,  very  weU. 

Segun  y  conformed  just  as  it  may  turn 

CorrterUe,  all's  right,  certainly. 

Es  regular  que  si,  I  should  suppose 

No  hay  inconveniente,  it  is  quite  con- 

JSstd  do8  leguas  mas  alia,  it  is  two 
leagues  ftirtber  on ;  mas  aca, 

£n  el  dia  de  hoy,  now-a-days. 

Lo  hdgo  por  amor  de  Vmd,,*  I  do  it 
for  your  sake. 

Ss  casa  de  mucho  aseo,  it  is  a  very 
comfortable  house. 

Me  armd  una  irampa,  he  laid  a  trap 
for  me. 

Con  mucho  descoco  jc  descaro,  with  a 
regular  brazen  face. 

Vaua  Vmd.,  mucho  muy  en  hora  mala, 
ill  luck  betide  you  (an  oath). 

Ya  se  ve,  mas  claro,  certainly,  quite 

Cabal,  no  cahe  duda,  exactly,  there 
can  be  no  doubt. 

JEs  verdad,  tiene  Vmd,  razon,  it  is 
true,  you  are  right. 

Por  supuesto,  of  course. 

Me  lo  presumo,  me  lo  Jiguro,  I  pre- 
sume so,  I  conclude  so. 

Sin  embargo,  d  pesar  de  eso,  never- 
theless, in  spite  of. 

Que  huena  moza  I  what  a  pretty  girl ! 

Muy  guapa,  muy  guapita,  very  nice, 
uncommonly  nice. 

Me  lo  dijd  un  taL  Don  Fulano,  so 
and  so  told  me,  Mr.  What-d'ye- 
call-him.     Fulan  is  pure  Arabic. 

Perdone,  Vmd,,  dispense  Vmd„  ex- 
cuse me,  forgive  me. 

Disimule  Vmd,,  pardon  me. 

Eso  no  puede  ser  de  ningun  mode,  that 
cannot  be  on  any  account. 

Eso  no  era  en  mi  ano,  it  was  not  in 
my  year,  it  did  not  happen  in  my 

Y  no  era  mi  dano,  I  have  no  right  to 

Pues,  senores,  and  so,  sirs,  as  I  was 

Con  que  luego,  and  so  then. 

De  botones  adentro,  inside  outside. 

Me  viene  como  anUlo  al  dedo,  it  suits 
me  like  a  ring  does  a  finder. 

Que  se  aguante  hasta  el  jueues,  let 
him  wait  (till  Thursday). 

Sabe  muy  lien  guisar,  he  is  a  capital 

Muy  hinchada,  que  tono  se  da  !  Yeij 
proud,  what  airs  she  gives  herself! 

No  me  da  la  gana,  I  don't  choose,  I 
am  not  in  the  humour. 

Ya  estd  hecha  la  diligencia,  the  com- 
mission or  thing  is  already  done. 

Que  disparate  !  what  nonsense ! 

Hombre  de  bien,  a  good,  an  honest 

Tunante  y  embustero,  a  good-for- 
nothing  liar. 

Mueran  los  gavachos,  death  to  the 
miscreants  (the  national  wish  as 
regards  the  French). 

Picaro,  picara,  rogue  (may  be  used 

JSuena  alhaja,  buena  prenda  es  Vmd,, 
you  are  a  pretty  jewel. 

Calavera  atolondrado,  empty  noddle 

-    (skull). 

*  Vmd,  fa  explained  in  page  124. 




Mity  ordinario,  yerj  bad  style. 
JVb  vcUe  nada,  it  is  worth  nothing. 
Me  quiere  mucho,  he  is  very  fond  of 

£e  mande  a  un  recado,  I  sent  him  on 

a  message. 
JEs  hombre  tan  formal  como  noaotrosy 

he  is  as  well-bred  as  we  are. 
Con  quien  ne  puede  trutavi  you  can 

Hve,  do  bnsmess  with  him. 
Con  toda  franqueza  JEspanolaf  with 

all  Spanish  fi*ankness. 
JVb  tiene  educacion,  he  is  very  ill- 
iVb  conoce  el  mundo,  has  no  know- 
ledge of  the  world. 
Tiene  cara  de  hereje,  he  is  very  ngly. 
'Tiene  pecho  como  tabla  de  animas, 

she  is  very  scraggy. 
Ha  qnedado  para  vestir  imageneSf  she 

is  an  old  maid; 
JEs  una  erudita  a  la  violetaj  una  mart" 

sabidilla,  she  is  a  bine. 
Jj08  JEspanoles  son  muy  valienteSf  the 

Spaniards  are  very  valiant. 
Algunos  con  las  dientes,  some  with 

their  teeth. 
Mueren  como  chinches,  they  die  in 

Una  esquela,  una  esquelita,  a  note,  a 

A  medio  peh,  half-seas-over. 
Vamos  d  las  tieudas,  let  us  go  shop- 
Vamos,  vamonos  d  la  calUy  let  tis  go 

out  (literally,  into  the  street). 
Que  leutima  I  what  a  pity  I 
Me  da  lastima,  I  am  very  sorry. 
Me  da  tanto  coraje,  it  puts  me  in  such 

a  rage. 
JVb  me  quemes  la  sangre,  don't  vex 

me  (burn  my  blood). 
Me  hace  volver  loco,  he  drives  me  mad. 
Vengo  sqfocado,  I  am  suffocated  with 

Queaarse/resco,  Llevar  chasco,  to  be 

Ah  que  me  hurku,  ah,  you  are  joking 

at  me. 
JLo  dice  en  hroma,  he  says  it  in  jest.^ 
Corazon  de  cuartel,  a  heart  as  roomy 

as  a  barrack. 
Ab  como  pan  de  valde,  I  don't  eat 

my  bread  gratis. 
No  compro  nada  de  gangas,  I  buy 

nothing  a  bargain. 

Le  pone  el  pie  en  el  pescueto,  she 

hen-pecks  him. 
Tengo  mi  angel  de  guarda,  I  have  mj 

guardian  angel. 
Tengo  hula  para  todo,  I  have  a  ball 

for  everything  (I  am  a  privileged 

T^ene  el  diahlo  en  el  cuerpo,  he  has 

the  devil  in  him. 
Que  mas  ledad  Vmd.  f  what  is  that 

to  you  ? 
JVb  le  hace,  it  does  not  signify. 
Nopor  los  lindos  ijos  de  Vmd.,  not  for 

the  sake  of  your  good  looks  (eyes). 
Bezelo  que  to  tomen  d  mal,  I   am 

afraid  th^  may  take  it  amiss. 
Una  cosa  de  tres  semanas,  about  three 

Mande  Fmd,  con  todafranqueza,  com- 
mand me  quite  freely. 
Echaremos  un  paseito,  let  us  take  a 

Tenga  Vmd.  cuidado,  take  care. 
JVo  tenga  Vmd.  miedo,  cuidado,  don't 

be  afraid,  don*t  mind. 
Aqui  estoy  yo,  I  am  here. 
No  lo  repar^,  I  paid  no  attention  to  it. 
He  leido  una  porcion  de  ellas,  I  have 

read  some  of  them. 
Pondr(f  tierra  por  medio,  I  shall  be 

off,  (put  earth  between). 
Hace  mucho  papel,  he  makes  a  great 

Salid  d  las  tablas,  went  on  the  stage 

Echemos  un  cigarrillo,  let  us  make  a 

No  jfumo,  no  gasto  cigarros,  I  do  not 

smoke,  I  never  use  cigars. 
Fuego,  candela,  light  (to  light  cigars). 
Que  tonto  eres!  how  silly  you  are ! 
Me  volvid  la  hoja,  he  changed  the 

subject,  turned  over  a  new  leaf. 
Dice  sandezes,  he  talks  nonsense. 
Sabe  mucho,  he  is  a  clever  fellow. 
Sabe  un  punto  mas  que  el  diahlo,  he 

knows  a  trick  more  than  the  devil. 
Cachaza^  hay  <tfliipo,patience,  there's 

plenty  of  time. 
No  correpriesa,  there  is  no  hurry. 
Conque  se  marcha  Vmd.  de  ueras  f  so 

you  are  really  going  ? 
Espreciso,  no  hay  remedio,  it  must  be, 

tnere's  no  help. 
Holal    Senor  Don  Jose,  que  talf 

Hollo  I  Mr.  Joseph,  what  news? 



Sect.  I. 

Se  dice  en  el  pueblo,  they  say  in  the 

Mentiras,  no  lo  creo,  fibs,  I  don't  be- 
lieve it. 
Que  chismograjia  I  what  tittle-tattle ! 
Mala  lengua  tiene    Conchita,  little 

Concha  has  a  wicked  tongue. 
iVb  te  metas  en  eso,  have  nothing  to 

do  with  it. 
Que  caidas  tiene  1  how  droll  he  is ! 
Que  ocurrencias  !  how  witty ! 
£80  va  largOf  that's  a  long  affiiir. 
Por  lo  que  d  mi  toco,  as  far  as  de- 
pends on  me. 
Que  cara  tan  riauenal  what  a  cheer- 
ful countenance ! 
TVene  Vmd,  huena  cara,  you  are  look- 
ing very  well. 
Que   compuesta    estds!    how    well 

dressed  you  are,  how  well  got  up ! 
Venida  en  batea,  you  seem  to  come 

in  a  waiter  font  of  a  bandbox). 
Ilija  de  mi  alma,  de  mis  ojoSs  de  mi 

corazon,  daughter  of  my  soul,  of 

my  eyes,  of  my  heart. 
Como  V.  guste,  as  you  like  it. 
Toma,  para  echar  un  traguito,  here^s 

something  to  drink. 
Mucha  bulla  para  nada,  much  ado 

about  nothing. 
JEstoy  en  el  uso  de  la  palabra,  I  have 

not  lost  my  speech. 
dalle  Vmd,  hombrey  calle  la  boca! 

hold  your  tongue,  sir  I 
Calle  Vmd,  muger  I  hold  your  tongue, 

madam  I 
Que  leparece  d  Vmd,  f  what  do  you 

think  of  it? 
De  me  Vmd.  el  pico  de  la  cnenta,  give 

me  the  change  of  my  bill. 
£8toy  muy  de  priesa,  I  am  in  a  great 

JSsto  no  acaecerd  otra  vex,  it  shall  not 

happen  another  time. 
Que  enfadoy  que  pesadez — que  moles- 

tia,  que  majaaerial  what  a  bore, 
-  what  a  nuisance  I 
Diga  Vmd.,  mire  Vmd,,  tell  me,  look 

Tenga  Vmd,  la  bondad  de  decirme, 

be  so  good  as  to  tell  me. 
Hagame   Vmd,  el  favor,  do  me  the 

Ouste  d  Vmd,  decirme,  pray  please 

to  tell  me. 

Aca£cid  en  el  tiempo  del  rey  Wamba, 
it  happened  in  the  time  of  Wamba. 

JVb  me  pasa  el  pellejo,  it  does  not  wet 
through  my  skin. 

Tomar  el  aire,  el  fresco,  to  take  an 

Jesus!  que  color  hace  I  how  hot  it  is ! 

Vengo  molido,  hecho  pedazos,  I  am 
knocked  all  to  pieces. 

Manos  blancas  no  ofenden,  white 
hands  (the  fair  sex)  never  hurt. 

Conque  me  marcho,  so  I  must  go 

Vaya  Vmd,  con  Dios,  well,  God  bless 

Quede  Vmd.  con  Dios,  may  you  re- 
main with  God. 

A  los  pies  de  mi  senora,  my  respects 
to  your  wife. 

Agour^  good  bye ;  pronounced  abour, 

Muchas  memorias,  remember  me  to 

Expressiones,  say  everything  civil 
from  me. — Aaios,  adieu. 

HaMa  la  vista,  Hasta  despues,  au 

Cosas  de  Espana — "  Things  of 
Spain ;"  i,  e.  peculiarities  tending 
to  illustrate  national  character. 
The  expression  is  common  among 
all  classes,  and  is  that  by  which 
the  natives  designate  anything 
which  they  either  cannot  or  will 
not  explain  to  strangers. 

Bisonos  —  Wanters ;  Beggars  ;  the 
**  under  which  King,  Bezonian  V  of 
Pistol  is  an  old  Spanish  term,  and 
much  used  by  Toreno  to  express  the 
soldiers  of  a  regular  Spanish  army 
—  Cosas  de  2itan»  paupertas, 
egestas — "  always,"  as  the  Duke 
says,  "  hors-de  combat,  always  in 
want  of  everything  at  the  most 
critical  moment ;"  so  in  Italy,  the 
needy  troops  of  even  Charles  V. 
were  always  asking  for  every- 
thing —  Bisogna  cami,  Bisogna 

JVb«o<r«w— We,   i,e,   the  Spaniards; 

^  the  collective  expression  of  indi- 
vidual egotism ;  each  I  or  item  of 
the  aggregate  considering  himself 
as  No.  1  among  mortals,  as  Spain 
is  No.  1,  the  first  and  foremost  of 

Spain,    XVII.  weights,  etc. — ^xviii.  authorities  quoted.         71 

XVII. — Relative  Scale  op  Spanish  and  English  Weights, 

Distances,  and  Measures. 

Now  that  civilization  is  all  the  rage  in  Spain  a  scheme  is  in  contem* 
plation  to  introduce  one  uniform  rule  in  these  matters,  which  is  to  be 
based  on  the  decimal  and  French  system ;  meanwhile. 


English  Eqalvftlent. 
1  Tomin. 

12  Granos  . 

3  Tomines 
2  Adarmes 
8  Dracmas 
8  Onzas  • 
2  Marcos  • 

25  Libras   . 

4  Arrobas 


1  Adarme. 

1  Dracma  »  « 

1  Onza  .     • 

1  Marco      •  . 

1  Libra       •  • 

1  Arroba    .  « 

1  QaiDtal    •  i 


Pulgada  . 
Pie    .     .     , 





Quarter  of  Cwt. 

Hundred  Weight. 

Lineas  •     •     •     •  1  Pulgada  .     .     •     •  =  Inch. 

Puls:adas   ...  I  Pie =  Foot. 

1  j  Pie^     ....  1  Codo       .  .     .  =  •  Cubit 

^Codos    |_    .  ,^,^ =  Y.«l. 

The  English  foot  is  13  Spanish  inches.  The  English  yard  is  1  Spa- 
nish and  3J  inches.  The  English  mile  is  1925  Spanish  yards,  2  feet. 
The  new  Spanish  legua  is  equal  to  about  3}  English  miles. 

Com  and  Dry  Measures, 
4  Ochavillos  •     •-    .     1  Ochavo    .     •     •     . 

4  Ochayos 
4  Cuartillos 
12  Celemines 
12  Fanegas 



About  one  Cwt. 

1  bushel  is  about 

1  Cuartillo  •  .  •  = 
1  Celemin  .  •  •  •  = 
1  Fanega  .  •  .  •  = 
1  Csdz. 
Our  quarter  is  about  5  Fanegas,  1)  Celemin. 
H  Celemines. 

An  Aranzadtty  or  Spanish  acre,  is  as  much  land  as  a  pair  of  oxen  can 
plough  in  a  day  ;  a  Fcmega  is  that  quantity  which  requires  a  Fanega 
of  grain  to  sow  it. 

Liquid  Measures,  Wine,  &c, 

.  1  Cuartillo. 

•  1  Azumbre    .     •     •  =  Pint. 
.  1  Cuartilla    •     •     •  rs  Quart. 

•  1  Arroba. 
.  1  Bota  o  Pipa     •     •  =  About  110  to  115  gallons. 

About  7  Cuartillos  make  our  Gallon. 

XVlll. — ^Authorities  quoted. 

This  Handbook,  destined  chiefly  for  the  antiquarian  and  dilletante  on 
his  travels,  does  not  profess  to  enter  into  prisons,  poor-law,  power-looms, 
political  economy,  or  statistics,  grave  matters  detailed  in  Madoz  and 
Minutoli,  while  our  lighter  volumes  are  intended  to  go  in  Alforjas  and  be 
handled  on  the  saddle.  In  quoting  authorities  for  statements,  Spanish 
authors  will  be  chiefly  selected,  as  being  the  most  readily  accessible  in 
a  country  where  foreign  books  are  very  rare  ;  when  other  authors  are 

4  Copas  . 
4  Cuartillos  • 
2  Azumbres . 
4  Cuartillas . 
29  Arrobas     . 


quoted,  those  will  be  taken  who,  by  common  consent,  in  Spain  and 
out,  are  held  by  their  respective  countrymen  to  be  most  deserving  of 
credit :  a  fre^iuent  reference  will  be  made  to  authorities  of  all  kinds, 
ancient  as  well  as  modern.  Thus  the  home  reader  or  writer  who  is 
anxious  to  pursue  any  particular  subject  will  find  his  researches  facili- 
tated, and  all  will  have  a  better  guarantee  that  facts  are  stated  correctly 
than  if  they  were  merely  depending  on  the  unsupported  assertion  of  an 


Mariana  (Juan  de),  Historia  General  de  Espaua,  in  books  and 
chapters  :  this  history,  written  originally  in  Latin,  was  also  published 
in  Spanish  with  corrections  and  additions  by  its  learned  author  in 
1628,  who  is  termed  their  "  Livy  "  by  his  countrymen.  The  work, 
continued  and  illustrated  down  to  Charles  III.,  by  Eduardo  Chao, 
4  vols.  8vo.,  Mad.  1849,  offers  a  fair  collection  of  factSy  for  it  was  not 
likely  that  the  author,  a  priest  and  Jesuit,  would  have  taken  liberal  or 
philosophical  views  of  many  of  the  most  important  bearings  of  his 
country's  annals,  even  had  any  truly  searching  spirit  of  investigation 
been  ever  permitted  by  the  censorship  of  the  Government  and  Inqui- 

Mohammedan  Dynasties  in  Spain,  2  vols.  4to.,  London,  1841-43,  by 
Don  Pascual  Oayangos,  the  first  Hispano- Arabic  scholar  of  his  day,  who 
unites  to  indefatigable  industry  a  sound  critical  judgment ;  written  in 
English,  this  work  must  henceforward  take  its  place  as  the  t^t-book 
on  the  subject. 

Historia  de  los  Ardbes  en  Espana,  by  Juan  Antonio  Oonde,  4  vols. 
4to.,  Mad.  1820-21,  is  compiled  entirely  from  Arabic  authorities,  and  is 
very  dry  reading ;  the  premature  death  of  the  author  prevented  his 
giving  it  the  last  finishing  touches,  hence  sundry  inaccuracies,  and  a 
general  want  of  arrangement.  It  was  translated  into  French  by  a  M. 
Maries,  3  vols.,  Paris,  1825  ;  or  rather  murdered,  as  the  original  text  is 
misrepresented  and  rendered  uncertain  by  the  introduction  of  new  and 
inaccurate  matter. 

Diccionario  de  las  Bellas  Artes,  6  vols.  8vo.,  Mad.  1800,  by  Jitan 
Agustin  Cean  Bermvdez,  forms  a  complete  dictiouary  of  all  the  leading 
artists  of  Spain,  with  their  biographies,  lists  of  their  principal  works, 
and  where  they  are  or  were  to  be  seen  ;  for  this  book  in  the  hands  of 
the  Soults  and  Co.  proved  a  catalogue  which  indicated  what  and  where 
was  the  most  valuable  artistical  plunder.  The  substance  has  been  most 
ably  and  agreeably  eviscerated  by  W.  Stirling  in  his  Annals  of  Spain, 
while  the  mass  of  additional  information  is  what  might  be  expected  from 
the  research  of  this  accurate  and  indefatigable  author.  Consult  also 
Handbook  of  the  Spanish  School  of  Painting,  by  Sir  E.  Head,  1848  ;  and 
the  condensed  epitome  of  architecture,  sculpture,  and  painting,  "Die 
Christliche  Ktmst  in  Spanien,*  Leipzig,  1853,  by  J.  D.  Passavant,  the 
director  of  the  Frankfort  Museum,  who  purposes  to  write  an  artistical 
tour  through  the  Peninsula. 

Noticias  de  los  Arquitectos  y  Arquitectura,  by  J.  A.  Cean  Bermudez, 
4  vols.  4to.,  Mad.,  1829,  is  an  excellent  dictionary  of  architecture.  This 
author  edited  and  improved  the  text  of  Don  Eugenic  Llaguno  y  Amirola ; 

Spain,     xvjii.  sp.  historica.l  and  artistical  authorities.      73 

unfortunately  both  wrote  under  the  influence  of  their  purist  pedantic 
GrsBCo-Romano  academical  age,  which  had  little  feeling  ibr  any  of  the 
earlier  styles.  To  investigate  theremains  of  classical  antiquity,  and  tourge 
on  and  eulogise  classical  copyists  was  their  chief  end,  to  the  comparative 
neglect  of  other  branches  of  the  subject.  1l\\q Swmario  de  las  Antigiie- 
dizdes  Romatms  en  Espana,  1  vol.  foL,  Mad.  1832,  by  the  same  author, 
gives  a  correct  summary  of  all  the  chief  remains  of  antiquity  which 
still  exist  in  Spain,  with  copious  indexes. 

An  epitome  of  Spanish  Architecture  will  be  found  in  a  paper  of  ours  in 
the  Quarterly,  No.  cliv.  (1846).  Consult  also  the  useful  Ensayo  ffistorico, 
by  Jos^  Caveda,  8vo.,  Mad.  1849,  in  which  every  style  is  traced  from 
the  Eoman  to  the  present  period,  with  the  still-existing  examples  cited. 

Historia  Critica  of  Juan  Francisco  Masdeu,  20  vols.  4to.,  Mad.  1784, 
18C5.  This  work  of  research,  although  tedious,  contains  a  vast  collec- 
tion of  documentary  information  and  antique  inscriptions ;  these  title- 
deeds  of  the  dead,  saved  from  the  wreck  of  time,  are  now  doubly 
valuable,  as  many  of  the  originals  have  perished.  Here,  while  no  dry 
bone  of  antiquity  is  left  unpicked,  too  much  of  the  mediaeval  and  modern 
has  been  passed  over.  Begun,  like  many  things  of  Spain,  on  too  grand 
and  extensive  a  scale,  this  work  never  was  completed. 

For  the  ancient  geography  of  Spain,  consult  Geographic  von  Hispanien, 
Konrad  Mannert,  8vo.,  3rd  edit.,  Leipsig,  1829  ;  and,  better  still,  BiS' 
panien,  Fr.  Aug.  Ukert,  Weimar,  1821,  second  part,  p.  229.  For  early 
History  down  to  the  Goths,  oow&xAirHistoire  O en e rale  de  I'Espagne,  B. 
Depping,  2  vols.  8vo.,  Paris,  1814 ;  and  excellent,  but  not  yet  com- 
pleted, Histoire  de  VEspagne  of  M.  Eomey.  However,  as  to  her  history, 
few  countries  are  more  indebted  to  another  than  Spain  is  to  English 
and  American  writers ;  suffice  it  to  mention  the  names  of  Bobertson, 
Dunlop,  Coxe,  Irving,  Presoott,  Lord  Mahon,  Stirling,  and  others. 

The  Viaje  de  Espana,  by  Antonio  Ponz,  18  vols..  Mad.  1786-94, 
presents  a  valuable  itinerary  of  Spain  as  it  was,  before  the  most  precious 
monuments  were  destroyed,  and  its  treasures  plundered  by  Vandals 
foreign  and  domestic.  This  Leland  of  Spain  published  his  itineraries 
to  rebut  some  caustic  criticisms  of  the  Vago  Italiano,  the  Padre  Caimo ; 
for  it  is,  and  has  long  been  one  of  the  weaknesses  of  Spain  since  her 
decline,  to  consider  herself/he  object  of  the  envy  and  admiration  of  the 
imiversal  mankind,  and  to  fancy  that  all  are  conspired  to  misunderstand 
and  depreciate  her  superior  excellencies ;  then,  as  now,  those  foreigners 
who  tell  the  truth,  are  set  down  as  liars,  libellers,  and  antagonists,  just 
as  if  a  mariner  should  quarrel  with  his  best  friend,  an  honest  barometer. 
Ponz,  a  kind-hearted  careful  observer,  could  not  escape  the  one-sided  pre- 
judices of  his  age,  which  looked  only  to  the  antique,  or  to  the  imitations 
of  classical  style.  He  was  cruelly  addicted  to  the  Castilian  disease  of  twad- 
dle, and  the  pith  of  his  18  tomes  might  be  condensed  into  half-a-dozen. 

Diccionario  Oeografco,  by  Sebastian  de  Mifiano,  10  vols.  4to.,  Mad. 
1826-9.  This  geographical  and  topographical  description  of  the  Pen- 
insula was  somewhat  "  done  to  order  "  for  the  home  market,  and  over 
coloured  to  flatter  the  government  of  the  day  ;  it  is  now  completely 
superseded  by  the  Diccionario  Qeografico  Estadistico  Bistorico  of 
Pascual  Madoz,  xvi.  vol.  4to.,  Mad.  1848-50.  This  important  work 
is  indeed  a  creditable  monument  of  individual  perseverance,  imaided 

Sfaik. — I.  * 

74  xviii.  sp.  RELIGIOUS  AUTHORITIES.  Sect.  L 

nay  thwarted  by  some  of  the  "powers  that  be."  They  disliked 
**  taking  stock"  when  they  had  no  effects,  and  obstructed  revelations  of 
the  prison-house,  and  of  that  nakedness  of  the  land  brought  about  by 
misgovemment — the  true  source  of  evil  to  which  Madoz  alludes,  as  much 
as  he  dare  do.  The  people,  on  their  parts,  disliked  to  be  numbered,  as  be- 
tidii^  no  good,  and  significative  of  fresh  taxes,  increased  conscription.  Sec, 

The  articles  in  this  work  differ,  having  been  furnished  by  "  1000  " 
local  contributors.  The  amount  of  information  in  statistics,  in  judicial, 
criminal,  commercial,  and  fiscal  details,  is  considerable,  and  must  prove 
of  great  iise  to  original  tour  writers.  The  geologist  also  will  find  much 
new  and  interesting  matter.  P.  Madoz,  a  gallant  partizan,  and  a  Catalan 
liberal,  was  banished  by  Ferdinand  VII.  to  France,  of  whose  young 
school  he  became  a  disciple  ;  hence  he  sneers  at  England — fria  cal- 
culadora — and  attributes  Spain's  independence  to  Spanish  arms 
alone !  Never  weary  of  monstering  her  molehills  into  mountains, 
of  trumpeting  forth  the  bush -fightings  of  partizan  warfare,  as  pro- 
digios  de  valor,  he  escapes  from  the  chronic  atrophy  of  present  pa- 
ralisis,  to  recollections  of  a  glorious  ^pa«^  and  hopes  of  a  brilliant /t^^ure. 
'^Gosas  de  Espan% ;  and  we  may  mention  one  other  "  thing :"  when 
the  real  value  of  this  work  was  recognised,  the  government  felt  bound  to 
offer  some  sort  of  patronage,  and  as  "  funds  were  wanting,"  hit  upon 
this  scheme.  All  cesantes,  widows,  &c.,  who  had  pensions  with  long 
atrdsos,  arrears,  were  allowed  to  take  copies  of  this  work,  without  pay- 
ment, to  the  amount  due  to  them  from  Government,  which  many  did, 
selling  them  forthwith ;  thus  a  work  worth  80  dollars  fell,  from  the 
glut  in  the  market,  to  about  15  or  20. 

The  best  and  rarest  of  the  local  histories  will  be  named  in  their 
respective  localities.  This  branch  of  Spanish  literature  forms  indeed 
a  goodly  row  on  the  book  collector's  shelf — ^praeclara  Supellex. 


La  Espaiia,  Sagrada,  commenced  in  1747,  now  consists  of  47  vols. 
4to. ;  this  a  grand  work,  framed  on  the  scope  of  the  Italia  Sacra  of 
Ughelli,  1644,  and  the  Gallia  Ghristiana  of  the  brothers  Sainte  Marthe, 
1716,  was  compiled  by  the  learned  Padre  Henrique  Florez,  who  maybe 
called  the  Dugdale,  Muratori,  or  Montfaucon  of  Spain.  The  Academia  de 
la  Historia  of  Madrid  is  charged  with  its  continuance,  but  so  many  of  the 
archives  of  cathedrals  and  convents  were  made  cartridges  of  by  the  Soults 
and  Snchets,  and  destroyed  during  the  recent  civil  wars  and  sequestra- 
tions, that  the  treatment  of  the  latter  dioceses  must  of  necessity  be  some- 
what inferior  to  the  former,  from  the  lack  of  those  earliest  and  most 
interesting  documents,  which,  fortunately  printed  by  Florez,  were  thus 
rescued  from  destruction ;  Florez  is  also  the  author  ofMedaUasde  Espana, 
3  vols,  folio.  Mad.  1757,  73.  The  3rd  volume,  rather  rare,  and  smaller 
than  the  two  preceding,  treats  of  the  coins  and  medals  of  Spain  earlier 
than  the  Romans,  and  down  to  the  Goths  :  plates  are  given  of  the  ex- 
amples, and  a  short  account  of  the  mints  in  which  they  were  struck. 
These,  the  portrait  and  picture  books  of  antiquity,  and  of  all  its  re- 
mains' those  which  have  best  escaped,  now  possess  a  value  far  different 
from  their  original  monetary  standard,  and  one  the  ancients  never  con- 
'  "^mplated,  and  illustrate  at  once  the  religion,  war,  and  history  of  the  past. 

Spain^  xvm.  sp.  militaey  authorities.  76 

Flos  Sanctorum^  or  Vida  de  los  Santos,  by  the  Jesuit  Pedro  Riba« 
ileneyra  and  others.  The  Madrid  fol,  edit,  of  1790,  3  vols.,  is  that 
here  quoted.  It  gives  the  present  church  authorised  version  of 
legends  and  monkish  miracles — shorn  indeed  from  the  Legcnda  Aurea 
of  Voragine,  and  suited  to  more  enlightened  and  sceptical  times. 
Fi*-  Pacheco,  in  his  Arte  de  la  Fintura,  also  details  the  correct  colours 
and  attributes  with  which  these  legends  were  to  be  expressed  by  the 
imitative  arts ;  consult  also  Fictor  Chriatianus  Eruditus,  Juan  Justerian 
de  Ayala,  fol..  Mad.  1730 ;  or  the  Spanish  translation  by  Luis  de  Duran, 
2  vols.  4to.,  Mad.  1782.  Without  some  of  these  books  none  can 
hope  to  understand  the  fine  arts  of  the  Peninsula,  whether  in  cathedral 
or  gallery  ;  indeed.  Palomino  (ii.  131)  considered  a  work  of  this  kind 
to  be  absolutely  indispensable  to  every  Spanish  artist,  as  being  to  mo- 
dern papal  hagiography,  what  a  Lempri^re  is  to  ancient  pagan  my- 
thology. Nor  in  many  cases  will  mucn  more  be  found  to  be  changed 
than  the  mere  names. 


These  necessarily  are  of  3  classes,  and  belong  to  the  invader,  th« 
French ;  the  invaded,  the  Spanish ;  and  the  deliverer,  the  English. 
They  correct  and  explain  each  other. 

(Euvres  de  N,  Buonaparte,  5  vols.  8vo.,  Paris,  1822.  Le  Style  est 
rHommej  and  great  as  this  great  general  was  in  victories — Marengo, 
Jena,  Aiisterlitz — and  greater  in  the  number  of  his  reverses — Egypt, 
Bussia,  Leipsig,  and  Waterloo,  he  was  greatest  by  far  as  a  phrasemaker,  a 
writer  of  leading  articles,  and  was  indubitably  the  first  **  Thunderer"  of 
France.  These  tomes  contain  his  Moniteur  proclamations,  bulletins, 
and  information,  "  garbled,"  as  the  Duke  says,  "  in  the  usual  Jacobin 
style,"  and  filled  with  '*  the  usual  philippics  "  against  la  perfide  Albion 
et  son  or.  True  exponents  of  this  true  Italian  and  of  his  machiavellian 
system,  his  compositions  breathe  fire  and  spirit,  splendide  mendax ;  and 
if  occasionally  Ossianic,  and  the  very  reverse  of  the  dispatches  of  our 
plain  veracious  Duke,  were  admirably  suited  for  his  readers  and  pur- 
poses. Although  the  truth  is  seldom  in  them,  they  fascinate  by  their 
**  invention  "  and  daring,  and  bum  like  sparks  struck  from  granite  by 
the  sword.  His  nonsense  suited  the  nonsense  of  a  time  and  followers, 
who  neither  understood  nor  appreciated  a  quiet  undemonstrative  per- 
formance of  duty ;  to  whom,  from  having  no  feeling  for  moral  greatness, 
La  gloire  came  more  acceptable  when  arrayed  in  the  melodramatic  tinsel 
of  a  Franconi  Murat.  These  things  are  matters  of  taste  and  race.  To 
deny  Buonaparte's  military  merits  would  be  absurd,  and  in  none  more 
60  than  an  Englishman,  at  whose  expense  no  single  leaf  of  his  large 
ohaplet  was  earned ;  and  those  who  unjustly  seek  to  curtail  its  fair 
proportions,  rob  our  soldiers  and  sailors  of  naif  their  glory ;  but  as  a 
man  and  a  civilian  he  was  mean,  and  the  incarnation  of  selfish 

Histoire  de  la  Ouerre  dans  la  F^insuU,  General  Foy,  4  vols.,  Paris, 
1827.  This  author,  one  of  the  humble  instruments  of  the  despot  Empire 
and  rule  of  brute  force,  became  a  patriot  under  the  gentle  constitutional 
Restoration.  Like  all  inferior  imitators,  he  out-herods  and  out-buckrams 
Buonaparte.    Even  his  friend  Chateaubriand,  no  foe  in  the  abstract  t 


charlatanism,  describes  him  as  ''homme  dMmagination  et  sujet  k  se 
tromper"  (Congres  de  Ver,  43).  Eloquent  and  clever  as  M.  Foy  was, 
he  could  not  always  invent  facts,  or  guess  numbers  accurately ;  nor 
was  he  equal  to  that  most  difficult  of  all  tasks,  the  sustaining  consist- 
ently throughout  a  "  fiction  of  military  romance."  The  truth  creeps 
out  in  accidental  contradictions.  Foy,  says  Sir  G.  Murray  (*  Quart. 
Keview,'  cxi.  167),  who  knew  him  well  in  peace  and  war,  has  as  "  a 
writer  shown  notoriously  the  grossest  ignorance  in  respect  to  many 
particulars  connected  with  England,  about  which  a  very  slight  inquiry 
would  have  set  him  right."  M.  Foy,  who  was  present  at  every  sauve 
qui  pent  J  from  Roleia  to  Waterloo,  has  the  face  to  deny  to  the  Duke  the 
commonest  military  talent,  attributes  his  successes  to  accident,  and 
ascribes  the  valour  of  British  soldiers  principally  to  "  beef  and  rum  ;'* 
see  i.  230,  259,  290,  325,  et  passim.     Bisum  teneatis  ? 

Jou/maux  des  Sieges  dans  la  PSnin^ule*3.  Belmas,  4  vols.  8vo.,  Paris, 
1836,  projected  by  Buonaparte  in  1812,  and  finished  by  Soult,  professes 
to  be  based  on  authentic  documefiits  (for  what  they  are  see  p.  79)  in 
the  French  war-office — it  details  how  the  English  forces  were  always 
double  in  number  to  the  French,  the  reverse  being  nearer  the  truth. 

Much  the  same  may  be  said  of  the  Victoires  et  Conquites  des  Fran- 
cis, 26  vols.  8vo.,  Paris,  1818-21 ;  this  compilation  of  a  set  of  inferior 
officers  and  small  gens-de-lettres,  aft^  the  second  capture  of  Paris,  ex- 
hibits throughout  an  untrue,  unfair,  and  virulent  tone  against  the 
countrymen  of  Nelson  and  Wellington,  about  whom  they  write  so  much 
in  hate  and  ignorance,  and  so  little  in  fact  or  honour  ;  and  yet  this  is 
the  vomit  to  which  some  of  our  neighbours  return  when  writing  on  this 
subject.  (See  M.  Gagenon  on  the  Duke  of  Wellington,  1852.)  The 
characteristics  of  other  modem  historical  romance  writers  of  the  Lamar- 
tine  and  Thiers  class  are  thus  truly  hit  off  by  our  Napier,  when  dealing 
with  the  latter  little  gentleman's,  "  pages  sparkling  with  paste  bril- 
liants, but  wanting  the  real  jewel  truth." 

The  Itvndraire  descriptif  de  VEspagne,  by  Alez.  de  Laborde,  6  vols., 
Paris,  1827,  Ijke  Murphy's  *  Alhambra,'  was  a  bookseller's  speculation, 
and  in  both  cases  it  is  difficult  to  believe  that  the  authors  ever  were  at 
all  in  Spain,  so  gross,  palpable,  and  numerous  are  the  inaccuracies : 
some  idea  of  the  multitudinous  and  almost  incredible  mistakes  and  mis- 
statements of  Laborde  may  be  formed  by  reading  the  just  critique  of 
the  *  Edin.  Rev.'  xv.  6.  The  third  edition,  1827,  was  tickled  up  by 
one  Bory  de  St.  Vincent,  an  aide-de-camp  to  Soult,  a  rabid  Buonapart- 
ist,  and  author  of  a  poor  Guide  des  Voyageurs  en  Espagne,  Paris, 
1823.  Of  his  qualifications  he  gives  an  account  in  the  D^cace — 
"  having  galloped  in  less  than  a  year  more  than  1400  leagues."  "  Vous 
jugerez  par  ce  rapide  narr^,  des  facilit^s  que  j'ai  eu  pour  hien  voir 
I'Espagne,  et  concevrez  quefaicruipouvoiT  en  ^crire  avec  connaissance  de 
catise.'*  This  Bory  afterwards  became,  like  Foy,  a  patriot^  andf  in 
1815  edited,  under  a  false  name,  a  jacobin  paper  at  Ghent. 

Biographie  UniverseUe,  74  vols.  8vo.,  Paris,  1811-43,  is  a  respectable 
compilation,  although  not  free  from  bias  whenever  tender  national 
subjects  are  concerned. 

The  materials  for  writing  political  and  military  history,  under 
"^uonaparte,  were  systematically  tampered  with,  and  the  sources  of 

Spain,  xvui.  sp,  military  authorities.  77 

correct  information  were  corrupted  as  a  matter  of  course ;  his  throne 
was  hung  around  with  a  curtain  of  falsehood,  lined  with  terror ;  or,  in 
the  words  of  his  own  agent,  I'Abb^  de  Pradt,  with  ruse  doublee  de  terreur. 
Under  him,  says  even  Foy,  i.  17,  "  La  presse  ^tait  esclave ;  la  police 
repoussait  la  v^rit^  avec  autant  de  soins,  que  s*il  fiit  agi  d'<Scarter 
I'invasion  de  I'ennemi."  "  At  all  times,"  says  the  Duke  (*  Disp.,' 
July  8,  1815)  "  of  the  French  revolution,  the  actors  in  it  have  not 
scrupled  to  resort  to  falsehood,  either  to  give  a  colour  or  palliate  tlieir 
adoption  or  abandonment  of  any  line  of  policy ;  and  they  think,  pro- 
vided the  falsehood  answers  the  purpose  of  the  moment,  it  is  fully 

Under  the  system,  formed  in  the  school  of  such  revolutions,  the  truth 
could  seldom  be  known,  when  a  disaster  was  represented  as  a  victory,  and 
the  meaning-pregnant  word  honour  was  narrowed  into  mere  honneur,  or 
exhibition  of  personal  bravery  in  the  field ;  it  followed,  in  the  utter  want 
of  moral  principle,  that  neither  to  lie  or  steal  were  held  to  disgrace  a 
general,  provided  he  was  not  beaten  in  battle.  Buonaparte  renewed,  in 
war  and  politics,  the  old  "  Dolus  an  virtus  quis  in  hoste,  requirit  j**  and 
to  him  again  is  applicable  the  character  given  by  Livy  to  Hannibal 
(xxi.  4) :  "  Has  tantas  viri  virtutes,  ingentia  vitia  equabant ;  inhumana 
crudelitas,  perfidia  plusquam  Punica,  nihil  veri,  nihil  sancti,  nuUus 
Deilm  metus,  nullum  jus  jurandum,  nulla  religio." 

Nor  can  it  be  wondered  at,  when  sans-culottes  were  thus  placed  at  the 
head  of  chivalrous  civilized  France,  that  a  low  morality  should  have  been 
too  much  the  order  of  the  day ;  tel  maitre,  teU  valets.  When  Lefebvre  broke 
his  parole^  his  master — instead  of  sending  him  back,  as  the  Duke  would 
have  done,  "  had  any  English  officer  been  capable  of  such  dishonour  " 
(*Disp.'  Oct.  20,  1809) — approved  of  the  foul  deed,  and  promoted 
him !  Under  such  circumstances,  the  Duke  "  could  place  no  confidence 
in  their  parole  "  (June  30, 1811).  Now  the  farceur  Foy,  who  ascribes  the 
bravery  of  our  dull  slow  soldiers  to  **  beef  and  rum,"  thinks  that "  honour 
is  a  motive  too  delicate  for  their  dense  organization,  and  that  our  ofiicers 
lack  the  exclusive  idolatry  of  it  of  the  French"  (i.  235,  241),  and  this 
while  Buonaparte  was  doing  his  best  to  bring  back  those  dark  ages,  when 
telling  a  lie  was  but  a  familiar  jest,  and  a  breach  of  parole  and  perjury 
only  a/ofon  de  parler,  "  Francis  familiare  erat  ridendo  fidem  frangere  " 
(F.  Vopiscus  Proculus).  "  Si  pejeret  Francus  quid  novi  faceret,  qui 
jDcrjurium  ipsum  sermonis  genus  putat  esse,  non  criminis  "  (Salvien  de 
G.  D.  iv).  The  Duke  knew  exactly  what  he  might  venture  to  believe, 
for  he  distrusted  even  their  honour  among  each  other :  **  Although  we 
rarely  find  the  tmth  in  the  public  reports  of  the  French  government  w 
of  their  officers,  I  believe  we  may  venture  to  depend  upon  the  truth  of 
what  is  written  in  cipher  "  (*  Disp.'  January  29, 1813).  But  according 
to  M.  Foy,  Wellington  was  "  un  General  vulgaire !"  (i.  325) ;  "  d*un 
port^e  ordinaire  1"  (i.  259),  when  compared  with  the  Marshals  of  the 
Empire,  "  Demigods  of  the  *  Iliad'  "  (i.  325) ;  whom — ^par  parenth^se 
— he  defeated  one  after  the  other,  as  easily  as  he  did  their  master. 
And  now  in  1852 1  according  to  M.  Thiers,  Nelson,  when  not  at  sea, 
is  still  un  homme  hom^ !  emd.  Wellmg,ton  d^un  peu  d'entendu!  These 
historical  romancers  become,  however,  authorities  when  admitting  any- 
thing against  themselves.    Such  confession  is  so  diametrically  oppose*^ 


to  their  whole  system,  that  the  reluctant  testimony  of  an  unwilling 
witness  becomes  admissible :  how  great  indeed  a  defeat  must  that  be 
which  they  term  a  "  nwi  sticch,**  or  do  not  claim  as  a  victory,  such  as 
Talavera,  Barrosa,  Albuera,  Fuentes  de  Ouoro,  Toulouse,  &c. — si  videos 
TioCy  gentibus  in  nostris,  risu  qtuitiare  \  It  is  indeed  strange  that  any 
individuals  of  a  nation  so  chivalrously  martial,  of  such  undisputed 
bravery,  should  not  understand  how  well  it  could  afford  to  admit  a 
reverse  in  a  fair  well-fought  fight,  and  that  any  one  of  a  people  of  such 
singular  cleverness  should  not  perceive  that  honesty,  in  the  end,  is  the 
best  and  the  most  manly  policy ;  and  passing  strange,  that  their  power 
and  keen  sensitiveness  of  ridicule  should  not  observe  the  smile  and  pity 
with  which  the  rest  of  the  world,  who  know  the  truth,  peruse  such 
braggadocio  balderdash  and  sheer  military  romancing,  as  Walter  Scott 
happily  terms  what  the  Foys,  Bory  St.  Vincents  and  Co.,  put  forth  as 
History  I  Meantime  no  English  traveller  who  values  his  time,  temper, 
or  breath,  will  argue  these  points.  It  is  useless  to  attempt  to  convince 
men  against  their  will,  and  cruel  to  undeceive  their  cherished  delusion, 
animi  gratissimiis  error  ;  qui  decijpi  vult  decipiatur, 


They  have  two  objects :  one  to  detail  the  systematic  razzias  and 
the  wrongs  which  they  sustained  from  their  invaders ;  the  second,  to 
blink  as  much  as  possible  the  assistance  afforded  by  England,  and  to 
magnify  their  own  exertions.  They  all  demonstrate,  to  their  own  and 
Spain's  entire  satisfaction,  that  the  Peninsula  and  Europe  also,  was  de- 
livered from  the  iron  yoke  of  Buonaparte  by  Nosotros,  and  by  them  alone. 
Their  compilations  are  wearisome  to  read,  floundering  through  paltry 
partisan  gtterriUas,  "  little  wars,"  by  which  the  issue  of  the  great  cam- 
paign was  scarcely  ever  influenced ;  they,  in  a  word,  join  issue  with 
the  Duke,  who  when  a  conqueror  in  France,  Spain's  salvation  being 
accomplished,  wrote  thus : — "  It  is  ridictdous  to  suppose  that  the 
Spaniards  or  the  Portuguese  could  have  resisted  for  a  moment  if  the 
British  force  had  been  withdrawn''  (*  Disp.*  Dec.  21, 1813).  The  tra- 
veller, when  standing  on  the  battle-plains  of  Talavera,  Barrosa,  and 
Salamanca,  will  hear  the  post  of  superiority  assigned  to  Nosotros,  by 
whose  misconduct  on  each  of  these  very  occasions  our  full  triumph  was 

Histoire  de  la  Revolution  d^Espagnef  3  vols.  Leipsig,  1829-31,  by 
Schepeler,  a  Westphalian,  holding  a  commission  in  the  Spanish  service, 
uid  imbued  with  all  the  worst  national  prejudices.  Hispanis  Hispanior, 
he  vents  his  dislike  to  the  French  by  appalling  details  of  sacks,  &c.,  and 
his  hatred  to  the  English  by  sneering  at  her  generals  and  soldiers. 

La  Historia  Pditica  y  Militar,  3  vols.  Madrid,  1833,  was  compiled 
"  to  order"  of  the  grateful  Ferdinand  VII.  by  one  Jos^  Mufioz  Maldo- 
nado,  from  official  Spanish  papers,  in  order  to  fool  Spanish  pride, 
"  orguUo  nacional,^^  to  the  top  of  its  bent>  and  to  write  down  Col, 
Napier's  truthful  and  therefore  most  unpopular  revelations.  Hear  the 
Duke's  opinions  on  these  Peninsular  sources  of  historical  information : — 
"  In  respect  to  papers  and  returns,  I  shall  not  even  take  the  trouble  of 
reading  them,  because  I  know  that  they  are  ^^/ahricated  for  a  par- 
tictdar  purpose,  and  cannot  contain  an  answer  to  the  strong  fact  from 

Spain.  xvui.  sp.  military  authorities.  79 

me."  **  Nothing  shall  induce  me  even  to  read,  much  less  to  give  an 
answer  to  documentos  very  ingeniously  framed,  but  which  do  not  contain 
one  word  bearing  on  the  point."  (*  Disp.'  June  4,  1811.)  "  I  have  no 
leisure  to  read  long  papers,  which  are  called  documents^  but  which 
contain  not  one  syUcMe  of  truth  J^  These,  like  the  pieces  qfficielles  et 
jmtijicatives  of  the  Buonapartists,  on  which  certain  authors  base  their 
astounding  romances,  are,  Anglice,  lies,  and  from  them  Maldonado 
ascribes  the  glorious  result  to  the  petty  war  of  the  guerriUeros,  and  not 
to  Salamanca  and  Yittoria  nominatim  (iii.  442),  for  the  part  of  Hamlet 
is  pretty  much  omitted ;  it  was  the  Spanish  armies  that  the  Duke  led 
to  victory  (iii.  594),  the  English  are  not  even  named :  the  Spanish 
military  conduct  throughout  humbled  Buonaparte,  and  **  obfuscated  in 
sublimity  anything  in  Greek  or  Roman  history"  (iii.  601).  What 
hellebore  cau  cure  a  disease  like  this  ? 

The  Historia  del  LevantamientOy  >d:c,  de  Espanay  5  vols.  4to.  Madrid, 
1133-27,  by  the*Conde  de  Toreuo,  the  celebrated  loan  financier  and 
minister,  is  written  in  pure  Gastilian,  although  tainted  with  an  affecta- 
tion of  quaint  phraseology :  he  has  alio  borrowed  largely  from  Southey, 
without  acknowledgment. 

All  these  works,  written  either  by  official  personages  or  under  the 
eye  of  the  Government,  are  calculated  also  to  suppress  the  true,  and 
suggest  the  false ;  they  advocate  the  few  at  the  expense  of  the  many  ; 
they  defend  the  shallow  heads  and  corrupt  hearts  by  which  the  honest 
members  of  the  Spanish  nation  were  sacrificed,  by  which  whole  armies 
were  left  wanting  in  everything  at  the  most  critical  moment,  and  brave 
individiidl^  exposed  to  certain  collective  defeat.  As  Orpheus  and  San 
Antonio  charmed  brutes,  by  dulcet  strains  and  sermons,  so  Spanish 
juntas  and  authors  manage  to  seduce  their  countrymen  by  flattering 
tales,  and  by  cramming  them  with  La  Magnanima  Mensogna,  or 
Boinance,  so  congenial  to  their  ardent  imaginations  and  self-conceit : 
the  universal  nation  believes  greedily  what  it  vehemently  desires ; 
they  are  told,  and  doubt  not,  that  their  Guerilla  or  petty  war  was 
the  battle  of  giants ;  that  their  puddle  was  the  ocean,  their  minnows 
the  tritons,  and  a  very  small  supply  of  the  oil  of  facts  suffices  for  the 
lamp  of  their  so-called  history.  The  inveterate  Eastern  idiosyncracy 
seeks  to  be  deceived  with  false  prophesies,  and  "  the  people  love  to 
have  it  so."  Hence,  as  in  the  days  of  Jeremiah  (v.  31),  "  The  priests 
have  rule  by  these  means ;  and  Spanish  histories  of  the  war  are  only  to 
be  paralleled  by  Spanish  histories  of  monkish  miracles  and  legends. 

Far  be  it  from  us  to  imitate  their  example ;  for,  however  thwarted  by 
their  miserable  leaders  in  camp  and  cabinet,  honour  eternal  is  due  to  the 
PEOPLE  OP  Spain,  worthy  of  better  rulers  and  a  better  fortune !  And 
now  that  the  jobs  and  intrigues  of  their  Juntas,  the  misconduct  and  inca- 
pacity of  their  wretched  Generals,  are  sinking  into  the  deserved  obscurity 
of  oblivion,  the  national  resistance  as  a  whole  rises  nobly  out  of  the 
ridiculous  details,  a  grand  and  impressive  feature,  which  will  ever  adorn 
the  annals  of  hauschty  Spain.  That  resistance  was  indeed  wild,  disor- 
ganized, imdisciplined,  and  Algerine,  but  it  held  out  to  Europe  an 
example  which  was  not  shown  by  the  civilized  Italian  or  intellectual 
German.  A  wide  distinction  must  ever  be  drawn  between  individuals 
and  their  country  at  large.    Thus  in  speaking  of  chivalrous,  intellectual 


afti  mighty  France,  never  is  the  time-honoured  glory  of  the  white 
panache  of  her  Henri  IV.  intended  to  be  stained  by  the  foul  deeds  com- 
mitted in  camp  or  cabinet,  in  cloister  or  city,  by  criminals  whom  a 
Robespierre  Revolution  raised  to  a  momentary  command ;  and  we  gladly 
hail  in  our  present  ally,  a  foe  whom  we  ever  have  found  worthy  of  our 
steel  in  war,  and  now  in  peace  a  no  less  noble  competitor  in  all  that 
humanises  and  ennobles  mankind.    Esto perpetual 


These  are  of  all  classes  and  quality.  Among  the  minor  and  most 
entertaining  are  the  works  of  Gleig,  Sherer,  and  Kincaid.  Hamilton's 
AnThoU  of  the  Peninsular  Campaigns,  revised  by  P.  Hardman,  1849,  is 
on  the  whole  one  of  the  fairest  compilations  from  the  best  authorities. 
We  shall  chiefly  quote  three  others. 

Southey's  History  of  the  Peninsvlar  War  is  a  true  exponent  of  its 
author,  a  scholar,  poet,  and  blind  lover  of  the  Spaniards,  their  ballads 
and  chronicles.  It  breathes  a  high,  generous,  monarchical  tone;  a 
detestation  of  the  tyrannical  and  revolutionary,  and  a  loathing  for 
cruelty,  bad  faith,  and  Vandalism.  It  is  somewhat  descriptive,  excur- 
sive, and  romantic,  and  the  work  of  a  civilian  and  professional  man  of 
letters;  indeed,  military  men  assert  that  the  author  had  not  the 
slightest  perception  of  their  craft,  or  ever  grappled  with  the  object  of 
any  campaign,  or  understood  a  single  battle.  The  Duke  thought  the 
"  book  a  romance,  and  so  I  told  him  " — ^ipse  dixit. 

The  History  of  the  War  in  the  Peninsvla,  by  Napier,  in  most  respects 
the  antithesis  to  Southey,  is  the  book  of  a  real  soldier,  and  characterized 
by  a  bold,  nervose,  and  high-toned  manliness.  The  style  is  graphic, 
original,  and  attractive.  He  scourges  with  a  whip  of  steel  our  own  and 
the  Spanish  governmental  mediocrities,  such,  without  the  Duke's  Dis- 
patches, as  the  world  never  could  have  believed.  He  has  placed  on 
record  "  the  ignorance  and  incapacity,  the  vanity,  cowardice,  hope- 
less imbecility,  insane  arrogance,  and  restless,  intriguing,  false,  and 
treacherous  spirit  of  our  Peninsular  allies,"  and  has  demonstrated, 
irrefragably  as  a  problem  in  Euclid,  that  "  Spain  at  the  end  was 
as  helpless  as  she  had  been  at  the  beginning  and  all  through  the  war, 
and  quite  unequal  to  her  own  deliverance  either  by  arms  or  policy ; 
that  it  was  English  valour  and  English  steel,  directed  by  the  genius  of 
an  English  general,  which,  rising  superior  to  all  obstacles,  whether  pre- 
sented by  his  own  or  the  Peninsular  governments,  or  by  the  perversity 
of  national  character,  alone  worked  out  her  independence ;"  and  his  best 
efforts,  it  may  be  added,  were  thwarted  by  a  malignant  opposition, 
whose  hopes  of  getting  into  place,  based  on  Buonaparte's  success,  led 
them  to  bully  and  hamper  a  feeble  ministry ;  in  fact,  to  defeat  the 
foe  in  the  field  was  the  easiest  of  the  Duke's  herculean  labours. 

In  vain  have  authors  on  both  sides  of  the  Pyrenees  tried  to  write 
down  Napier's  facts,  stern  things  and  sternly  expressed  in  the  rough-rider, 
double-shotted  style  of  a  hard-hitter  and  gooi  hater ;  and  be  his  political 
and  strategic  opinions  what  they  may,  his  stated /acfe  are  trustworthy ; 
for  the  Great  Duke,  who  liked  the  gallant  soldier  as  a  man,  readily 
afforded  him  any  information.  The  author,  although  anxious  to  be 
"'•npartial,  is  unaware  of  his  strong  under-current  of  democratic  preju- 

Spain.  xviii.  napier's  history.  81 

dices ;  his  ultra-advocacy  of  Soult,  and  idol-worship  of  Buonaparte,  not 
merely  as  a  general,  but  as  a  man  and  statesman,  justify  the  excellent 
criticism  of  Lord  Mahon,  that  this  work  is  by  far  the  best  French 
account  of  the  war.  If  Napier's  modem  Csesar  be  the  superhuman  perfec- 
tion of  civil  and  military  genius,  what  must  that  far  greater  Man  be 
who  cropped  all  his  blushing  honours  to  make  a  garland  for  his  own 
crest  ?  that  man  who  never  lost  a  gun,  who  never  had  a  sauve  qui  pent 
— ^no  Egypt,  Leipsig,  Eussia,  or  Belgium — one  whose  coup-de-grace, 
Waterloo,  "  settled  Boney,"  decided  the  fate  of  the  world,  and  gave  it 
peace  for  half  a  century — whose  Waterloo  is  an  epic  of  itself,  to  which 
Marengo,  Austerlitz,  and  Jena,  are  mere  glorioles  and  episodes,  full  of 
sound  and  fury,  and  signify  nothing  ? 

Colonel  Napier  deals  gently  ^vith  the  Duke's  opponents  in  the  field, 
treating  their  systematic  plunder,  &c.,  as  customs  of  war.  Soult,  who 
never  met  the  English  but  to  be  defeated,  is  in  fact  the  Achilles  of  his 
Iliad, <>f  which  the  ill-fated  Moore  is  the  "  Hector."  Meantime,  the  real 
**  Deusex  machina^^ — ^the  Duke — is  constantly  criticised ;  the  faults  he 
committed  are  set  right,  and  he  is  shown  how  much  better  the  campaign 
might  have  been  managed  in  Napier's  opinion ;  all  these  commentaries 
were  indeed  written  more  for  the  benefit  of  posterity  than  of  his  Grace, 
who  thus  wrote  to  Mr.  D.  Perceval,  June  6, 1835  : — "Notwithstanding 
my  great  respect  for  Colonel  Napier  and  his  work,  I  have  never  read  a 
line  of  it,  because  I  wished  to  avoid  being  led  into  a  literary  discussion, 
which  I  should  probably  find  more  troublesome  than  the  operations 
which  it  is  the  design  of  the  Colonel's  work  to  describe  and  record." 
Those  curious  to  see  the  critic  criticised,  may  turn  to  the  reviews 
of  Napier's  History,  written  in  the  'Quarterly'  by  Sir  George 
Murray,  a  brother  soldier,  and  one  who  fought  every  inch  of  the  cam- 

The  recent  edition  of  Napier  (1863)  is  valuable,  from  the  crushing 
rejoinder  made  by  the  fearless  author  to  the  "inventions"  of  M. 
Thiers's  real  French  version.  A  soldier  like  Napier  may  indeed 
give  his  opinion  in  councils  of  war  and  battle;  and  no  Polybius 
ever  described  the  actual  conflict  with  more  spirit-stirring  touch; 
but  when  Monsieur  Thiers  lectures  a  Wellington  on  the  art  of  war, 
the  old  story  of  the  pedant  Phormio  and  Hannibal  at  once  occurs: 
— "  I  have  indeed  seen  many  dotafds  in  my  life,"  said  the  greatest 
general  of  antiquity,  "  but  none  so  bad  as  this." 

Napier's  new  edition  is  unfortunately  disfigured  by  multitudinous  mis- 
spellingB  and  mistakes  in  Spanish  names  and  orthography ;  a  reference  to 
the  commonest  map  and  dictionary  might  have  obviated  this  "  intre- 
pidity of  error,"  to  use  one  of  our  author's  criticisms  of  Sir  Walter 
Scott's  History.  In  any  future  edition  an  index  will  add  much  to  the 
utility  of  the  work. 

Dispatches  of  "  tJie  DvkeJ*^  This  is  the  true  English  book,  which 
with  the  companion  volumes  of  immortal  Nelson  posterity  will  never 
let  die :  this  is  the  antidote  and  corrective  of  all  libels,  and  the  final 
court  of  appeal  in  all  questions  of  real  facts.  Here  is  the  truth,  the 
whole  truth,  and  nothing  but  the  truth,  and  no  mistake ;  nothing  is 
extenuated,  nothing  is  set  down  in  malice.  Wellington,  bom,  bred,  and 
educated  like  a  gentleman,  could  not  lie,  like  revolutionary  upstart? 

B  3 


whose  low-birth  habits  no  subsequent  titles  could  eradicate.  La  casque 
sent  toujours  le  hareng.  In  this  country,  where  "  character  "  makes  or 
mars  a  man,  the  Duke  would  just  as  soon  have  thought  of  robbing  a 
church,  as  of  telling  a  lie.  Clear  in  his  "  great  office,"  he  never  alloyed  his 
glory  with  the  dross  of  pillage  or  peculation.  Honesty  was  his  policy ;  his 
shrine  of  immortality  was  approached  through  the  temple  of  virtue,  and 
he  trusted  to  a  grateful  country  to  provide  means  to  support  a  dignity 
which  he  had  carved  out  with  an  untarnished  sword.  A  conqueror  of 
conquerors,  he  scorned  to  bully,  and  was  too  really  powerful  to  exchange 
the  simplicity  of  greatness  for  bulletin  bombast,  the  hectoring  rhodo- 
montade  of  theatrical  clap-trap.  He  scouted  all  the  balderdash  of 
"  driving  leopards  into  the  sea,"  of  "  finishing  campaigns  with  thun- 
derbolts," and  similar  feats,  sooner  said  than  done.  He  was  too  just 
and  generous  to  deny  merit  to  a  brave  although  a  vanquished  opponent. 
Serene  and  confident  in  himself — a%tog  wv — ^he  pursued  his  career  of 
glory,  without  condescending  to  notice  the  mean  calumnies,  the  "  things 
invented  by  the  enemy,"  who  judged  of  others  by  themselves :  for 
wisdom  and  goodness  to  the  vile  seem  vile.  The  Duke's  writings  are 
the  exponent  of  the  man ;  the/  give  a  plain  unvarnished  tale,  with  no 
fine  writing  about  fine  fighting.  Every  line  bears  that  honest  English 
impress  Truth,  without  which  there  can  be  no  real  manliness  or 
greatness  ;  and  when  will  any  of  the  "  demigods"  of  the  Revolution  dare 
to  publish  his  private  correspondence  ?  The  Duke's  own  portraiture  is 
unprecedented,  and  the  moraX  exhibition  of  abnegation  of  self,  and  of 
that  first  and  paramount  duty,  tJie  serving  King  and  country,  is  more 
valuable  than  this  record  of  unparalleled  military  achievements,  itself 
one  more  enduring  than  bronze. 

Wellington,  the  real  editor  of  his  works,  read  all  in  proof,  and  cor- 
rected every  page  with  his  own  hand.  The  papers  were  set  up  in  type 
exactly  as  they  had  been  written.  But  now,  when  the  campaign  was 
concluded,  always  considerate  for  others,  he  struck  out  every  name  and 
sentence  which  might  give  pain,  and  to  such  an  extent,  that  matter 
sufficient  for  six  ^ditional  volumes  was  cancelled.  One  copy  alone 
exists  of  the  entire  work,  and  consists  of  the  identical  sheets  marked 
by  the  Duke's  revising  pen.  And  when  the  present  generation  is  past» 
when  personal  considerations  cease  to  operate,  and  history  can  fairly 
claim  its  entire  rights,  these  now  sealed-up  volumes  will  raise  their 
author  to  even  a  higher  pinnacle,  by  a  more  complete  display  of  all 
his  qualities,  both  as  a  man  and  as  a  general,  and  by  a  further  revela- 
tion of  the  inadequacy  of  the  means  by  which  ends  so  great  were 
accomplished.  Then,  as  he  remarked  himself,  "  When  my  papers  are 
read,  many  statues  will  have  to  be  taken  down." 

The  publication  of  this  code  of  the  "  Soldier  and  Gentleman,"  this 
encyclopaedia  of  military  and  administrative  science,  forced  om* 
opposition  to  admit  the  union  in  him,  of  all  those  high  qualities  which 
the  glorious  profession  of  arms  peculiarly  calls  forth.  In  these  un- 
affected documents,  they  who  run  must  read  his  love  for  King  and 
country,  his  spotless  honour  and  honesty,  exalted  sense  of  duty,  god- 
Mke  presence  of  mind,  self-relying  courage  in  danger,  serene  equanimity 
like  in  reverse  or  victory ;  his  lofty  contempt  of  calumniators — ^his 

^f-denial  and  scrupulous  consideration  of  others —his  sagacity  and 

Spam,  XIX.  HINTS  to  book  collectors.  83 

foretbonglit — ^his  unsparing,  intense  labour  of  body  and  mind — ^last, 
not  least,  his  modesty  and  simplicity. 

The  nervous,  perspicuous,  idiomatic  style  of  these  despatches,  drawn 
from  deep  wells  of  pure  Anglo-Saxon  undefiied,  is  no  less  truly  English 
in  word  than  in  thought ;  they  tell  their  own  story,  with  the  una- 
dorned eloquence  of  real  patriotism.  The  iron  energy  of  his  sword 
passed,  like  Caesar*s,  into  his  didactic  pen,  and  he  used  either  instrument 
with  equal  facility,  to  turn  his  antagonists  to  flight  or  shame.  He  fought 
as  he  wrote,  and  so  he  spoke.  Hyperbolical  only  in  the  defence  of 
comrades,  he  knew  how  cheering  the  note  of  praise  is  to  the  distant  soldier 
fighting  for  his  King,  and  how  depressing  the  cold  blast  of  a  factious 
parliamentary  Op])Osition.  He  was  no  Athenian  sophist  skilled  in  logo- 
machies— no  practised  debater,  no  intellectual  gladiator ;  he  just  said 
the  right  thing  at  the  right  time,  constantly  expressing  the  most  in  the 
fewest  words,  and  his  character  carried  conviction.  All  understood  his 
blimt  discourse — soldier-like,  as  if  giving  the  word  of  command  ;  and 
few  took  offence  at  his  honest  home-thrusts,  or  could  resist  his  sledge- 
hammer blows  on  the  naiPs  head.  He  used  his  words  to  explain,  not 
conceal  his  thoughts ;  not  a  few  terse  phrases  have  passed  into  pro- 
verbs already — but  a  quiver  might  be  filled  with  the  pithy,  pointed 
shafts  shot  from  his  mind,  that  arsenal  of  sound  judgment,  wide  expe- 
rience, and  conmion  sense — mens  sana  in  corpore  sano. 


The  Duke's  Dispatches,  so  far  as  they  go,  give  the  best  idea  of  Spain 
and  Spaniards,  and  of  a  true  Spanish  Handbook  he  must  form  the  hero ; 
and  many  are  the  sites  which,  gilded  by  his  name  and  fame,  stir  up 
the  inner  heart  of  his  countrymen.  The  other  works,  native  and  foreign, 
which  treat  on  local  and  general  subjects,  will  be  pointed  out  in  their  pro- 
per places,  and  form  a  new  branch  of  literature,  well  worth  the  considera- 
tion of  the  traveller  and  bibliophile.  The  Btbliotheca  Hispana  Vetus  et 
Nova,  by  Nicolas  Antonio,  4  vols,  folio,  Mad.,  1788,  and  edited  by  the 
learned  Bayer ;  although  the  arrangement  is  very  inartificial  and  confused, 
it  is  one  of  the  best  bibliographical  works  of  Spain.  The  lover  of  black 
letter  and  of  books  printed  in  Spain  before  1500,  cannot  dispense  widi 
the  Typographia  EapandULy  Francisco  Mendez,  4to.,  Mad.,  1796.  The 
Index  Expurg<xt<mus,  published  at  Madrid  by  the  orthodox  Church,  is 
also  an  excellent  vade  mecum  and  guide  to  all  about  to  form  a  really 
good  library,  as  the  priests,  deadly  foes  to  mind,  carefully  inserted  every 
book  likely  to  furnish  useful  and  entertaining  knowledge. 

XIX. — ^HiNTS  TO  Book  Collectobs. 

A  word  to  our  beloved  brethren  bibliophiles.  Books  in  Spain  have 
always  been  both  scarce  and  dear,  for  where  there  are  few  purchasers, 
prices  must  be  high  to  remimerate  the  publisher  or  importer.  The 
public  libraries  of  Spain  are  few  and  imperfect.  Those  recently  formed 
in  provincial  towns  consist  of  brands  rescued  from  the  suppressed 
convents,  and  chiefly  relate  to  monastic  and  legendary  lore.  Every 
collection  or  library,  again,  in  Spain  is  subject  to  dilapidations  of 
various  kinds.    There  is  seldom  any  catalogue,  and,  should  one  exist 

34  XIX.  SPANISH  BOOKS.  Spain. 

it  is  Boon  mislaid.  None  then  can  check  directors  and  Empleados,  who 
pick  out  the  plums,  exchange  imperfect  copies  for  the  good  ones,  and 
thus  men,  beggars  by  birth,  end  with  fine  galleries  and  libraries.  Seiior 
Conde  for  example.     Quis  custodes,  custodiat  ? 

The  works  mentioned  in  this  Handbook,  and  principally  the  topo- 
graphical, have  become  rarer  and  dearer  since  the  publication,  as  more 
collectors  have  been  put  on  the  scent  in  England,  and  in  France  also,  as 
Monsieur  Maison,  in  his  pirated  Guide  du  Voyageur,  appropriated  all 
our  bibliographical  information,  in  common  with  everything  else  that 
suited  the  French  market.  Most  of  the  Spanish  classic  authors  have 
been  reprinted  in  Paris  by  the  bookseller  Baudry,  under  the  direction 
of  Senor  Ochoa,  one  not  over-qualified  for  the  difficult  task. 

The  lighter  literature  of  Spain  of  the  Picaresque,  Salas  Barbadillo 
class,  Los  libros  de  entretenimiento,  are  very  rare.  Few  copies  were 
printed  originally,  and  they  have  either  perished  in  the  use  of  thumbs 
at  home,  or  were  exported  to  Mexico  in  the  reign  of  (Charles  II.,  when 
they  met  with  no  sale  at  home  from  mystical  books  being  all  the  fashion. 
Many  more  were  burnt  by  the  priests,  who,  on  the  death  of  collectors, 
frightened  the  widows  and  women  (like  Don  Quixote's  neice)  with  the 
idea  of  their  sensual,  Satanic,  and  heretical  tendency. 

In  the  rare  instances  where  books  prohibited  by  the  Inquisition  were 
permitted,  they  were  kept  caged  like  wild  beasts  under  lock  and  key,  and 
those  semi-permitted  were  first  emasculated,  the  best  passages  borrado  or 
inked  over  by  the  Inquisition,  who  watched  with  eye  of  Argus  and 
hand  of  harpy  over  the  smallest  expression  of  truth,  or  the  slightest 
hint  that  might  set  human  intellect  on  thinking.  The  males  of  the  Sp. 
masses  to  this  day  read  little  but  their  old  ballads,  and  the  Cid  is  still 
their  hero ;  while  the  females  love  lives  of  saints,  monkish  miracles,  and 
such  like  ohras  de  devotion  which  their  Church  substitutes  for  the  Bible. 

The  commonest  editions  of  the  classics  are  hardly  to  be  had.  The 
Spaniard  never  was  much  of  a  critic  or  learned  annotator ;  and  in 
general  there  are  very  few  of  his  books  by  which  a  foreigner,  accus- 
tomed to  better  works  on  the  same  subjects,  will  be  much  benefited  or 
amused.  Spanish  literature,  depressed  and  tinctured  by  the  Inquisition, 
was  a  creature  of  accident,  and  good  productions  occurred  only  like 
palms  in  the  desert;  it  never  exercised  a  connected  influence  on 
national  civilization,  excepting  its  chronicles  and  ballads — the  chap, 
the  household  books  of  the  people,  and  the  delight  of  the  vulgar 
to  this  day,  consist  much  of  this  poetry  of  national  heroism,  which 
the  learned  despised,  while  vast  indeed  was  the  proportion  dedi- 
cated to  scholastic  theology,  monkish  legends,  and  polemical  research, 
and  the  cloister  was  the  best  customer.  In  general  there  is  a  want  of 
sound  critical  judgment,  of  bold,  searching,  truth-gi-appling  philosophy. 
The  Spaniards  themselves  are  aware  of  this  comparative  inferiority, 
although  none  dared,  for  fear  of  the  furnace,  to  name  the  real  cause. 
Half  their  works  on  literature  take  the  explanatory  and  apologetical 
tone.  Since  the  recent  changes,  matters  have  had  a  tendency  to  im- 
prove, but  still  theology,  law,  and  medicine,  form  the  chief  subjects. 
There  are  very  few  classical  works  beyond  mere  school-books,  and  those 
mostly  in  Latin.     Greek,  indeed,  was  never  much  known  in  Spain ; 

"in  learned  men  quoted  from  Latin  translations,  and,  when  they  used 

Spain,  '     XIX.  Spanish  booksellers.  85 

the  Greek  word,  often  printed  it  in  Roman  letters.  Greek  books  were 
either  printed  in  Flanders  or  procured  from  Italy,  owing  to  the  scarcity  of 
its  type  in  Spain.  The  Latin  Vulgate,  in  fact,  superseded  the  Greek 
Testament.  German  is  altogether  modem  Greek  to  Spaniards.  There 
is  a  sprinkling  of  English  works,  grammars,  *  Vicars  of  Wakefield,'  and 
*  Buchan's  Domestic  Medicine.'  *  Valter  Scott,'  double  done  into  Spanish 
from  the  French,  fares  no  better  than  the  Bard  of  Avon — *  Chespire,  que 
les  Anglais  ^crivent  Schakspir ;'  who,  travestied  "  en  Fran<;ais,"  is  like 
Niagara  passed  through  a  jelly-bag.  Eeal  French  books  are  more  common, 
and  especially  those  which  treat  on  medical,  chemical,  and  mechanical 
subjects ;  and  as  Spain  imports  her  literature  and  paletots  from  Paris, 
one  of  her  worst  misfortunes  is  that  she  is  mistaught  what  is  going  on  in 
intellectual  Germany  and  practical  England,  through  the  unfair,  garbled, 
and  inaccurate  alembic  of  French  translation.  This  habit  of  relying  on 
other  nations  for  original  works  on  science  has  given  a  timidity  to 
Spanish  authors,  as  it  is  easier  to  translate  and  borrow  than  to  invent. 
They  distnist  each  other's  compositions  as  much  as  they  do  each  other's 
word,  and  turn  readily  to  a  foreign  book,  in  spite  of  all  their  dislike  to 
foreigners,  which  is  more  against  persons  than  things.  The  bulk  of 
Spaniards  would  as  soon  think  of  having  a  cellar  as  a  library,  and  gene- 
rally speaking  the  trash  offered  for  sale  has  few  attractions  for  a 
foreigner.  A  "  reading  public "  in  Spain,  long  among  the  things 
wanting  out  of  the  Church,is  still  in  an  infant  state,  and  is  still  rocked  in 
the  cradle  of  Liceos,  Casinos,  and  other  copies  of  trans- Pyrenaean  club 
civilization.  Most  of  the  curious  private  Spanish  libraries  were  dispersed 
during  the  war  of  independence,  when  those  which  were  not  stolen  by 
the  Junots,  made  into  cartridges  by  the  Soults  and  Suchets,  or  burnt 
to  heat  their  camp-kettles,  escaped  to  England,  and  even  the  best  books  of 
these  are  seldom  in  good  condition ;  the  copies  are  torn,  worm-eaten, 
stained,  and  imperfect,  for  the  Spaniards,  like  the  Orientals,  never  were 
collectors  or  conservators,  nor  had  a  real  keen  relish  or  perception 
of  matters  of  taste  and  intellectual  enjoyment ;  they  axe  to  modern 
nations  what  the  old  Romans  were  to  the  Greeks — soldiers,  conquerors, 
and  colonists,  rather  than  cultivators  of  elegance,  art,  fancy,  and 
aesthetic  enjoyments.  The  collector  of  rare  and  good  books  may  rest 
assured  that  a  better  and  cheaper  Spanish  library  is  to  be  formed 
in  one  month  in  London  than  in  one  year  in  Spain.  The  native 
bookseller,  sui  generis,  and  one  of  the  true  Cosas  de  Espaiiay  is  indeed 
a  queer,  uncomfortable  creature  for  an  eager  English  collector  to  fall 
foul  of.  He  sets  ensconced  among  his  parchment-bound  wares,  more 
indifferent  than  a  Turk.  His  delight  is  to  twaddle  with  a  few  cigaresque 
clergymen  and  monks  (when  there  were  monks) ;  and  in  fact  they  were 
almost  the  only  purchasers.  He  acts  as  if  he  were  the  author,  or  the  col- 
lector, not  the  vendor  of  his  books.  He  scarcely  notices  the  entrance  of 
a  stranger  ;  neither  knows  what  books  he  has  got  or  what  he  has  not ; 
he  has  no  catalogue,  and  will  scarcely  reach  out  his  arm  to  take  down 
any  volume  which  is  pointed  out ;  he  never  has  anything  which  is  pub- 
.  iished  by  another  bookseller,  and  will  not  send  and  get  it  for  you,  nor 
always  even  tell  you  where  it  may  be  procured.  As  for  gaining  the 
trade  allowance  by  going  himself  for  a  book,  he  would  not  stir  if  it 
were  twenty-five  hundred  instead  of  twenty-five  per  cent.    Becent  trp 

86  XX,  HINTS  TO  AUTHOES.       '  Sect.  I^ 

Tellers  report  that  now-a-days  the  genus  Biblwpolum  Ihericum  is  get- 
ting a  trifle  sharper.  In  the  days  of  Ferdinand  VII.,  whenever  we- 
were  young  enough  to  hint  at  the  unreasonable  proposition  of  begging^ 
one  of  them  to  get  us  any  book,  the  certain  rejoinder  was,  "  Ah  que !  1 
must  mind  my  shop ;  you  have  nothing  else  to  do  but  run  up  and 
down  streets  "—^en^fo  qiie  gtuxrdar  la  tienda,  V,  estd  corriendo  las 
calles.  When  one  of  them  happens  not  to  be  receiving  visitors,  and,, 
for  want  of  anything  better,  will  attend  to  a  customer,  if  you  ask  him 
for  any  particular  work — say  Caro's  *  Antiquities  of  Seville,*  he  will 
answer,  "  Veremos — Call  again  in  a  day  or  two."  When  you  re- 
turn the  third  or  fourth  time,  he  will  hand  you  Pedraza's  *  Antiquities 
of  Granada.'  It  is  in  vain  to  remonstrate,  as  he  will  reply,  "  No  le 
hace,  lo  mismo  tiene,  son  siempre  antigiiedades " — "  What  does  it 
signify  ?  it  is  the  same  thing,  both  are  antiquities."  If  you  ask  for 
a  particular  history,  ten  to  one  he  will  give  you  a  poem,  and  say, 
**  This  is  thought  to  be  an  excellent  book."  A  book  is  a  book,  and  you 
cannot  drive  him  from  that.  If  you  do  not  admit  the  proposition,  he- 
will  say,  "  Why,  an  Englishman  bought  a  copy  of  it  from  me  five- 
years  ago."  He  cannot  understand  how  you  can  resist  following  the 
example  of  Apatsano — a  fellow-countryman.  If  he  is  in  good  humour, 
and  you  have  won  his  heart  by  a  reasonable  waste  of  time  in  gossiping 
or  cigarising,  he  will  take  down  some  book,  and,  just  as  he  is  going  to- 
ofiFer  it  you,  say,  "  Ah  I  but  you  do  not  understand  Spanish,"  which  is 
a  common  notion  among  Spaniards,  who,  like^the  Moors,  seldom  them- 
selves understand  any  language  but  their  own ;  and  this,  although,  as 
you  flatter  yourself,  you  have  been  giving  him  half  an  hour's  proof  to 
the  contrary ;  then,  by  way  of  making  amends,  he  will  produce  some 
English  grammar  or  French  dictionary,  which,  being  unintelligible  to 
him,  he  concludes  must  be  particularly  useful  to  a  foreigner,  whose 
vernacular  they  are.  An  odd  volume  of  Kousseau  or  Voltaire  used  to 
be  produced  with  the  air  of  a  conspirator,  when  the  dealer  felt  sure 
that  his  customer  was  a  safe  person,  and  with  as  much  self-triumph  aa 
if  it  had  been  a  Tirante  lo  Blanc  ;  and,  in  fact,  in  the  good  old  times, 
selling  such  books  was  as  dangerous  as  fireworks — a  spark  might  blow 
up  shop  and  keeper.  His  dismay  at  the  contemptuous  bah  I  with 
which  these  tomes  of  forbidden  knowledge  were  rejected  could  only  be 
depicted  by  Hogarth. 

XX. — Hints  to  Authobs. 

The  necessity  of  a  third  edition  of  this  Ecmdhook — con  perdan  sea 
dicho  —  is  one  proof  that  %l  n^y  a  plus  de  Pyrenees,  so  far  as  they 
existed  to  bar  out  our  nomade  travellers.  Nor  has  the  volume  been 
altogether  useless  to  many,  who  think  a  visit  to  Spain  entails  the  ne- 
cessity of  "  writing  a  book,"  just  as  if  it  were  to  Timbuctoo.  The 
missionaries  from  Albemarle  Street,  the  first  in  many  a  field,  have  been 
best  served,  and  if  sorne  of  the  substance  printed  by  their  followers  has 
been  anticipated  by  them,  the  public  may  not  necessarily  be  the  loser ; 
those  who  travel  and  write  the  quickest,  who  indite  ^^Bevelatums''*  from 

^  tops  of  dillys,  and  "  Olimpses^'  from  the  decks  of  steamers,  may 

Spain.  XX.  Spanish  sensitive^jess.  8T 

not  always  benefit  mankind  by  discussing  matters  they  do  not  quite 
understand,  whether  original  or  appropriated. 

Meantime,  to  pillage  the  things  of  Spain,  in  peace  as  well  as  war,  seems 
to  be  considered  fair  game  by  some  across  the  channel.  Thus  one  Mon- 
sieur Maison  has  larded  his  second  edition  of  his  own  meagre  Guide  de 
Voyageurs  en  Espoffne,  Paris,  1851,  by  wholesale  piratical  appropriatioa 
of  this  Handbook,  emasculated,  indeed,  by  much  suppression  of  the 
truth  as  regards  the  Bonapartist  invasion.  It  is  seldom  that  French 
travellers  have  done  justice  to  their  neighbour.  Light,  clever,  and  amus- 
ing, they  have  chiefly  skimmed  the  surface,  writing  down  on  their 
tablets  the  scum  that  floats  up ;  thus,  from  their  Voyage  de  Figaro  down 
to  Dumas,  they  have  indulged  in  a  travestie,  quizzing  tone,  to  the  un- 
speakable wrath  of  Spaniards,  who,  taking  the  syllabubs  seriously, 
employ  ponderous  authors  to  upset  them  instead  of  swallowing  the 
joke  ;  so  Marliani  was  set  on  Thiers,  to  refute  his  version  of  Trafalgar^ 
and  a  heavier  treatise  is  concocting  to  rebut  his  bulletin  of  Bailen. 

The  grave  and  sensitive  Castilians  are,  and  with  justice,  pained  by 
hasty  glances  bestowed  by  the  barbarian  eye  on  only  that  half  of  the 
subject,  of  which  they  are  most  ashamed,  and  consider  the  least  worth 
notice ;  this  prying  into  the  nakedness  of  their  land  and  exposing  it 
afterwards,  has  increased  their  dislike  towards  the  impertinente  curioso. 
They  well  know  and  deeply  feel  their  country's  decline  ;  but  like  poor 
gentlefolks,  who  have  nothing  but  the  past  to  be  proud  of,  are  anxious 
to  keep  these  family  secrets  concealed,  even  from  themselves.  This 
dread  of  being  shown  up  sharpens  their  inherent  suspicions,  when 
strangers  wish  to  examine  into  their  ill-provided  arsenals,  and  the  beg- 
garly account  of  their  empty-box  institutions ,  just  as  Bums  was  scared 
even  by  the  honest  antiquarian  Grose — 

A  duel's  amang  ye,  takiii'  notes. 

At  the  same  time,  when  Spaniards  are  once  satisfied  that  no  harm  is  in- 
tended in  sketching,  &c.,  no  people  can  be  more  civil  in  ofifering  assistance 
of  every  kind,  especially  the  lower  classes,  who  gaze  at  the,  to  them,  magi- 
cal performance  with  wonder :  the  higher  classes  seldom  take  any  notice, 
partly  from  courtesy  and  much  from  the  nil  admirari  principle  of 
Orientals,  which  conceals  both  inferiority  and  ignorance.  Let  no 
author  imagine  that  the  fairest  account  of  Spain  as  she  is,  setting  down 
nought  in  malice,  can  content  a  Spaniard;  morbidly  sensitive  and 
touchy,  as  the  worst  class  of  Americans,  both  are  afflicted  with  the 
notion  that  all  the  world,  who  are  never  troubling  their  heads  about 
them,  are  thinking  of  nothing  else,  and  joined  in  one  common  conspi- 
racy, based  in  envy,  jealousy,  or  ignorance :  "  you  don't  understand  us, 
I  guess."  He  considers  it  no  proof  either  of  goodness  of  breeding,  heart, 
or  intellect,  to  be  searching  for  blemishes  rather  than  excellences,  for 
toadstools  rather  than  violets,  and  despises  those  curmudgeon  smell- 
funguses  who  find  all  a  wilderness  from  La  Mancha  to  Castile — who  see 
motes  rather  than  beams  in  the  brightest  eyes  of  Andalucia.  Many 
blots  exist,  indeed,  and  Spain  and  Spaniards  have  much  too  long  been 
taken  at  tbeir  own  magniloquent  and  magnificent  valuation.  How 
shortlived  this  imix)sing  kingdom's  real  greatness  I  begun  under  Ferdi- 
nand and  Isabella,  and  waning  even  under  Philip  II.    How  much  war 


XXI.   ford's  SPANISH  WORKS. 

Sefct.  I. 

owing  to  accident  and  externals — to  the  possession  by  Charles  V.  of  the 
New  World,  of  Italy,  the  Low  Countries,  and  Germany !  How  soon, 
as  these  dropped  off  and  Spain  was  left  by  herself,  did  poverty  and 
weakness,  her  normal  and  present  condition,  return !  After  years  of 
systematic  national  self-puffing,  an  honest  Handbook,  we  repeat,  is 
bound  like  an  appraiser,  to  do  his  duty  to  his  employer,  yet  the  whole 
unpalatable  truths  told  here  in  strict  confidence,  need  not  be  repeated 
to  the  thin-skinned  natives,  by  those  who  consult  and  put  faith  in  a 
Red  Murray ;  and  assuredly  the  Peninsula  affords  room  for  other  and 
more  pleasant  topics,  and  many  and  sweet  are  the  flowers  to  be  yet 

Those  kind  readers  who  do  the  author  of  this  Handbook  the  honour 
of  trusting  to  his  lucubrations  on  the  things  of  Spain,  will  find  several 
other  matters  discussed  at  more  length  in  his  first  edition  of  this 
work,  1845,  out  indeed  of  print,  but  of  which  copies  occasionally  may 
be  obtained  of  Mr.  Lee,  440,  West  Strand ;  and  also  in  his 

Historical  Inquiry  of  the  Unchangeable  Character  of  a  War  in 

Spain.     Murray.     1837. 

Gathering  in  Spain.     Murray.     1846. 

On  Cob  Walls — the  Moorish  and  Arabic)  ^^     «x   t»        xr 

yr    yj^  >yuart.  Kev,,  Wo.  cxvi. 

The  Theatre  of  Spain 

Banditti     . 

Heraldry,  Genealogy,  Grandees. 

Bull  Fights 

Ronda  and  Granada 

The  Age  of  Ferdinand  and  Isabella 

Architecture  of  Spain 

Spanish  Ladies*    Love — The    sack  of) 

Cadiz  by  l^ord  Essex | 

The  Paintings  of  Spain 

The  Literature  of  Spain 

ijharles  V.  at  Yuste 

Spain  in  1466 — the  Bohemian  Embassy 
Apsley  House — The  Duke  .... 
Spanish  Ballads    ....... 

Bible  in  Spain 

Larpent's  Journal  in  Spain  .... 

Gipsies  of  Spain Brit,  and  For.  Rev.,  No.  xxvi. 

Ballads  of  Spain Westminster  Rev.,  No.  Ixv. 

Biography  of  Velazquez  .     .     .      Penny  Cyclopaedia. 
Campaigns  of  Wellington      .     •      Illustrated.    Brettell.     1852. 
Bull  Fights  illustrated     .     .     .      Hogarth.     1852. 






















'  do. 




















No.  cxlvi. 







XXI. — The  BuLL-FianT. 

The  bull-fight,  say  what  moralists  may,  is  the  sight  in  Spain,  and 
to  see  one  certainly  forms  the  first  object  of  all  the  younger  portion  of 
travellers  from  every  nation  ;  and  as  not  to  understand  after  some  sort  the 
order  of  the  course,  the  salient  features,  and  the  language  of  the  "  ring," 

Spain.  XXI.   THE  BULL-FIGHT.  89 

argues  in  the  eyes  of  the  natives  an  entire  want  of  liberal  education, 
no  Handbook  for  Spain  can  be  complete  without  some  elementary  hints 
as  to  **  what  to  observe,*^  and  what  to  say  in  the  arena ;  there  the  past  is 
linked  with  the  present,  and  Spanish  nationality  is  revealed,  and  no  mis- 
take, for  trans-Pyrenean  civilization  has  not  yet  invaded  this  sacred  spot. 
The  bull-fight,  or,  to  speak  correctly,  the  Bull-Feast,  Fiesta  de  Toros,  is  a 
modern  sport,  and  never  mentioned  in  any  authors  of  antiquity.  Bulls 
were  killed  in  ancient  amphitheatres,  but  the  present  modus  operandi  is 
modern,  and,  however  based  on  Roman  institutions,  is  indubitably  a 
thing  devised  by  the  Moors  of  Spain,  for  those  in  Africa  have  neither 
the  sport,  the  ring,  nor  the  recollection.  The  principle  is  the  exhibition 
of  horsemanship,  courage,  and  dexterity  with  the  lance,  which  consti- 
tuted the  favourite  accomplishments  of  the  children  of  the  desert.  In 
the  early  bull-fight,  the  animal  was  attacked  by  gentlemen  armed  only 
with  the  Rejon,  a  short  projectile  spear  about  four  feet  long.  This,  the 
pQum  of  the  Romans,  was  taken  from  the  original  Iberian  spear,  the 
Sparus  of  Sil.  Ital.  (viii.  523),  the  Lancea  of  Livy  (xxxiv.  15),  the 
oKovriov  of  Strabo  (iii.  150),  and  is  seen  in  the  hands  of  the  horsemen  of 
the  old  Iberian-Romano  coinage.  To  be  a  good  rider  and  lancer  was 
essential  to  the  Spanish  CahcSlero,  This  origiiial  form  of  bull-fight, 
now  only  given  on  grand  occasions,  is  called  a  Fiesta  real.  Such  a  one 
Philip  IV.  exhibited  on  the  Plaza  Mayor  of  Madrid  before  our  Charles  I. ; 
and  Ferdinand  VII.  another  in  1833,  as  the  ratification  of  the  Juramento, 
the  swearing  allegiance  ^o  Isabel  II.  (See  our  paper  Quar.  Rev.,  cxxiv. 

These  Fiestas  Bedles  form  the  coronation  ceremonial  of  Spain,  and  the* 
CabaUeros  mi  Plaza  represent  our  champions.  Bulls  were  killed,  but 
no  beef  eaten ;  as  a  banquet  was  never  a  thing  of  no-dinner-giving  Iberia 
"  NuUus  in  festos  dies  epularum  apparatus  "  (Justin,  xliv.  2). 

The  final  conquest  of  the  Moors,  and  the  subsequent  cessation  of  the 
border  chivalrous  habits  of  Spaniards,  and  especially  the  accession  of 
Philip  v.,  which  deluged  the  Peninsula  with  Frenchmen,  proved  fatal 
to  this  ancient  usage  of  Spain.  The  monkey-puppies  of  Paris  pro- 
nounced the  Spanish  bulls,  and  those  who  baited  them,  to  be  brutes  and 
barbarous.  The  spectacle,  which  had  withstood  the  influence  of  Isabella 
the  Catholic,  and  had  beaten  the  Pope's  bulls,  bowed  before  the  despotism 
of  fashion.  But  while  the  periwigged  courtiers  deserted  the  arena  on 
which  the  royal  eye  of  Philip  V.,  who  only  wanted  a  wife  and  a  mass-book, 
looked  coldly,  the  sturdy  lower  classes,  foes  to  foreign  innovation,  clung  all 
the  closer  to  the  pastime  of  their  forefathers ;  by  becoming,  however, 
their  game,  instead  of  that  of  gentlemen,  it  was  stripped  of  its  chivalrous 
character,  and  degenerated  into  the  vulgar  butchery  of  low  mercenary 
bull-fighters,  just  as  our  rings  and  tournaments  of  chivalry,  did  into 
those  of  ruffian  pugilists. 

The  Spanish  bulls  have  been  immemorially  famous.  Hercules,  that 
renowned  cattle-fancier,  was  lured  into  Spain  by  the  lowing  of  the  herds 
of  Geryon — Oiron, — ^the  ancestor  (se  dice)  of  the  Duque  de  Osuna. 
The  best  bulls  in  Andalucia  are  bred  by  Cabrera  at  IJtrera,  in  the 
identical  pastures  where  Geryon's  herds  were  pastured  and  "lifted  "  by  the 
<lemigod,  whence,  according  to  Strabo  (iii.  169),  they  were  obliged,  after 
fifty  days'  feeding,  to  be  driven  off  from  fear  of  bursting  from  fat.     The 

90  XXI.   THE  BULL-FIGHT.  Sect.  I^ 

age  of  lean  kine  has  succeeded.  Notwithstanding  that  Spaniards  assert 
that  their  bulls  are  braver  than  all  other  bulls,  because  Spaniards,  who 
are  destined  to  kill  and  eat  them,  are  braver  than  all  other  mortal  men, 
they  (the  bulls)  are  far  inferior  in  weight  and  power  to  those  bred  and 
fed  by  John  Bull ;  albeit,  the  latter  are  not  so  fierce  and  active,  from  not 
being  raised  in  such  wild  and  unenclosed  countries.  Some  of  the  finest 
Castilian  bulls  are  bred  on  the  Jarama,  near  Aranjuez,  by  the  Duque 
de  Yeraguas,  a  great  torero  and  descendant  of  Columbus,  but  one  who 
has  not  yet  discovered  a  new  world.  To  our  graziers  these  bulls  would 
seem  poor  brutes,  and  gain  few  prizes  at  "  the  Show,"  being  raised  for 
baiting  not  breeding.  We  are  not  going  to  describe  a  bull-fight ;  the 
traveller  will  see  it.  Our  task  is  to  put  him  in  possession  of  some  of 
the  technical  rules  and  terms  of  art,  which  will  enable  him  to  pass  his 
judgment  on  the  scene  as  becomes  a  true  amateur,  un  qficumado.  This 
term  qficion  is  the  origin  of  our  "  fancy." 

Bull-fights  are  extremely  expensive,  costing  from  300Z.  to  4001,  a 
time ;  accordingly,  out  of  the  chief  capitals  and  Andalucia,  they  are 
only  got  up  now  and  then,  on  great  church  festivals  and  holy  days  of 
saints,  royal  and  public  rejoicings.  As  Andalucia  is  the  head  quarters 
of  the  ring,  and  Seville  the  capital,  the  alma  mater  of  the  tauromachists 
of  the  Peninsula,  the  necessity  of  sending  to  a  distance  for  artists  and 
animals  increases  the  expense.  The  prices  of  admittance,  compared  to 
the  wages  of  labour  in  Spain,  are  very  high. 

Kor  are  all  bulls  fit  for  the  plaza:  only  the  noblest  and  bravest 
animals  are  selected.  The  first  trial  is  the  Eerradura,  "  Ferradura :  k 
ferro,"  the  branding  with  hot  iron.  The  one-year-old  calf  bulls  are 
charged  by  the  conocedor,  the  herdsman,  with  his  garrochay  the  real 
Thessalian  goad,  ofnn^.  Those  which  flinch  are  thrown  down  and  con- 
verted into  oxen.  The  kings  of  Spain,  from  Philip  IV.  to  Ferdinand  VII,» 
attended  by  their  delicate  queens  and  maids  of  honour,  invariably  wit- 
nessed this  operation  at  Aranjuez !  The  bulls  which  pass  this  "  little 
go^^  the  Novillos,  are  in  due  time  again  tested  by  being  baited  with 
tipped  horns,  emholados ;  but,  since  they  are  not  killed,  this  pastime,  as 
based  on  fiction  and  impotent  in  conclusion,  is  despised  by  the  true  torero 
and  aficionado,  who  aspire  only  to  be  in  at  the  death,  at  toros  de  mtierte^ 
The  sight  of  the  bull-calf  is  amusing,  from  the  struggle  between  him 
and  his  majesty  the  mob ;  nor  is  there  any  of  the  blo<S  and  wounds  by  . 
which  delicate  strangers  are  offended,  as  at  the  full-grown  fight.  Bull- 
baiting  in  any  shape  is  irresistible  to  the  lower  classes  of  Spaniards, 
who  disregard  injuries  done  to  their  bodies,  and,  what  is  far  worse,  t<> 
their  cloaks.  The  hostility  to  the  bull,  his  second  nature,  grows  with 
his  growth.  The  very  children  play  at  toro,  just  as  ours  do  at  leap- 
frog, when  one  represents  the  bull,  who  is  killed  secundttm  artem.  Few 
grown-up  Spaniards,  when  on  a  journey,  can  pass  a  bull  (or  hardly  even 
a  cow)  without  bullying  and  insulting  him,  by  waving  their  cloaks  in 
the  defiance  of  d  capeo.  As  bull-fights  cost  so  much,  the  smaller  towns- 
indulge  ODly  in  mock-turtle,  in  the  noviUos  and  emholados.  In  the 
mountain  towns  few  bulls,  or  even  oxen,  are  brought  in  for  slaughter 
without  first  being  baited  through  the  streets.  They  are  held  by  a  long 
rope,  toros  de  euerda,  de  gaUumho,  Ferd.  VII.,  at  the  instigation  of  the 
Conde  de  Estrella,  and  of  Don  Jos^  Manuel  de  Arjona,  founded  a  tauro- 

Spain.  XXI.  the  bull-fight.  9i 

machian  university,  a  BvU-ford,  at  Seville,   near  the  matadero,  or- 
slaughter-bouse,  which  long  had  been  known  by  the  cant  term  of  el 
coUgio.     The  inscription  over  the  portal  ran  thus  ; — Ferdinando  VII, ,. 
FiOf  Feliz,  Bestaurador,  para  la  ensenanza  preservadora  de  la  Escuda  de 
Tauromachia:  Ferd.  VII.,  the  pious,  fortunate,  and  restored,  for  the- 
jpr€8ervative  teaching  of  the  Tauromachian  School.    In  fact,  bread  and 
bulls,  pan  y  toroSy  the  Spanish  cry,  is  but  the  echo  of  the  Roman  Panem 
et  Circenses,     The  pupils  were  taught  by  retired  bull-fighters,  the 
counterpart  of  the  lanistce  of  antiquity.     Candida  and  Bomero  were  the 
first  professors :  these  tauromachian  heroes  had  each  in  their  day  kill^ 
their  hecatombs,  and,  like  the  brother-lords  Eldon  and  Stowell,  may  be 
said  to  have  fixed  the  practice  and  equity  of  their  arenas  on  sound 
principles  which  never  will  be  upset. 

The  profits  of  the  bull-fight  are  usually  destined  for  the  support  of 
hospitals,  and,  certainly,  the  fever  and  the  frays  subsequent  to  the  show, 
provide  both  patients  and  funds.  The  Plaza  is  usually  under  the 
superintendance  of  a  society  of  noblemen  and  gentlemen — arenas  per- 
petui  oomites.  These  corporations  are  called  Maestranzas,  and  were 
instituted  in  1562,  by  Philip  II.,  in  the  hope  of  improving  the  breed  of 
Spanish  horses  and  men  at  arms.  The  king  is  always  the  Eermano 
mayor,  or  elder  brother.  These  tauromaquian  brotherhoods  were  con- 
fined to  four  cities,  viz.  Honda,  Seville,  Granada,  and  Valencia,  to  which 
Zaragoza  was  added  by  Ferdinand  VII.,  the  only  reward  it  ever  obtained 
for  its  heroic  defence  agai  nst  the  invaders.  The  members,  or  TMiestranteSy . 
of  each  city  are  distinguished  by  the  colour  of  their  uniforms :  as  they 
must  all  be  of  gentle  blood.  Hidalgos^  and  are  entitled  to  wear  a  gaudy 
costume,  the  person-decorating  honour  is  much  sought  for. 

The  day  appointed  for  the  bull-feast  is  announced  by  placards  of  all 
colours.  We  omit  to  notice  their  contents,  as  the  traveller  will  sec 
them  on  every  wall. 

The  first  thing  is  to  secure  a  good  place  beforehand,  by  sending  for 
a  Bdetin  de  Somhra,  a  shade-ticket.  The  prices  of  the  seats  vary 
according  to  position,  as  the  great  object  is  to  avoid  the  san ;  the  best 
places  are  on  the  northern  side,  in  the  shade.  The  transit  of  the  sun 
over  the  Plaza,  the  zodiacal  progress  into  Taurus,  is  certainly  not  the 
worst  calculated  astronomical  observation  in  Spain  :  the  line  of  shadow 
defined  on  the  arena  is  marked  by  a  gi*adation  of  prices.  The  sun  of 
torrid,  tawny  Spain,  on  which  it  once  never  set,  is  still  not  to  be  trifled 
with,  and  the  summer  season  is  selected  because  pastures  are  plentiful, 
which  keep  the  bulls  in  good  condition,  and  the  days  are  longer.  The 
fights  take  place  in  the  afternoon  when  the  sun  is  less  vertical.  The 
different  seats  and  prices  are  detailed  in  the  bills  of  the  play,  with  the 
names  of  the  combatants  and  the  colours  and  breeds  of  bulls. 

The  day  before  the  fight  the  bulls  destined  for  the  spectacle  ar^ 
brought  to  a  site  outside  the  town.  N.B.  No  amateur  should  fail  to  ride- 
out  to  see  what  the  ganado,  the  hichos  or  cattle,  is  like.  The  encierrOf 
the  driving  them  from  this  place  to  the  arena,  is  a  service  of  danger,  but 
is  extremely  picturesque  and  national.  No  artist  or  aficionado  should 
omit  attending  it.  The  bulls  are  enticed  by  tame  oxen,  cahestroSy  into  a 
road  which  is  barricaded  on  each  side,  and  then  are  driven  full  speed  by 
the  mounted  conocedores  into  the  Plaza,    It  is  so  exciting  a  spectacle* 

92  XXI.    THE  BULL-FIGHT.  Sect.  I. 

that  the  poor  who  cannot  afford  to  go  to  the  bull-fight  risk  their  lives 
and  cloaks  in  order  to  get  the  front  places,  and  best  chance  of  a  stray 
poke  enpoMarU, 

The  next  afternoon  (St.  Monday  is  usually  the  day)  all  the  world 
crowds  to  the  Plaza  de  toros ;  nothing,  when  the  tide  is  full,  can  exceed 
the  gaiety  and  sparkle  of  a  Spanish  public  goin^r,  eager  and  dressed  in 
their  best,  to  the  fight  They  could  not  move  faster  even  if  they  were 
running  away  from  a  real  one.  All  the  streets  or  open  spaces  near  the 
outside  of  the  arena  are  a  spectacle.  The  merry  mob,  always  on  the 
scene,  like  the  chorus  in  a  Greek  plaj^,  is  everythingr.  The  excite- 
ment of  these  salamanders  under  a  burning  sun,  and  their  thirst  for 
the  blood  of  bulls  is  fearful.  It  is  the  bird-lime  with  which  the 
devil  catches  many  a  male  and  female  soul,  lliere  is  no  sacrifice  even 
of  chastity,  no  denial  which  they  will  not  undergo  to  save  money  for 
the  bulI-Hght.  It  is  to  Madrid  what  a  Review  is  to  Paris,  and  the  Derby 
to  London.  Sporting  men  now  put  on  all  their  r»ayo-6nery :  the 
distinguished  ladies  wear  on  these  occasions  white  lace  mantillas ;  a 
fan,  cAanico,  is  quite  necessary,  as  it  was  among  the  Komans  (Mart, 
xiv.  28).  They  are  sold  outside  for  a  trifle,  made  of  rude  paper,  and 
stuck  into  a  handle  of  common  reed.  The  aficionados  and  '*  the  gods  " 
prefer  the  pit,  the  tendido,  or  hs  andamios^  the  lower  range,  in  order,  by 
being  nearer,  that  they  may  not  lose  the  nice  traits  of  tauromaquia. 
The  real  thing  is  to  sit  across  the  opening  of  the  toril^  which  gives  an 
occasion  to  show  a  good  leg  and  an  embroidered  gaiter.  The  plaza  has 
a  langua  :e  to  itself,  a  dialect  peculiar  to  the  ring.  The  coup  d'oeil  on 
entrance  is  unique  ;  the  foreigner  is  carried  back  to  the  coliseum  under 
Commodus.  The  classical  scene  bursts  on  him  in  all  the  glory  of  the 
South.  The  president  sits  in  a  centre  box.  The  despejo^  or  clearing  out 
the  populace  from  the  arena,  precedes  his  arrival.  The  proceedings  open 
with  the  procession  of  the  performers,  the  mounted  spearmen,  ^a€?ore«; 
then  the  chvlos^  the  attendants  on  foot,  who  wear  their  silk  cloaks,  capos 
de  duranciUo,  in  a  peculiar  manner,  with  the  arms  projecting  in  front ; 
then  follow  the  slayers,  the  matadoreSf  and  the  mule- team,  el  tiro, 
which  is  destined  to  carry  off  the  slain.  The  profession  of  bull-fighter 
is  very  low-caste  in  Spain,  although  the  champions  are  much  courted 
by  some  young  nobles,  like  our  blackguard  boxers,  and  are  the  pride  and 
darlings  of  all  the  lower  classes.  Those  killed  on  the  spot  are  denied 
the. burial  rites,  as  dying  without  confession.  Springing  from  the 
dregs  of  the  people,  they  are  eminently  superstitious  ;  they  cover  their 
breasts  with  relics,  amulets,  and  papal  charms.  A  clergyman  is  in 
attendance  with  su  magestad,  the  consecrated  host,  the  Incarnate  Deity 
kept  waiting  in  person,  in  case  of  being  wanted !  for  a  dying  combatant 
whose  carcase  was  long  denied  Christian  burial. 

When  all  the  bull-fighting  company,  thus  glittering  in  their  gorgeous 
costume,  have  advanced  and  passed  the  president,  a  trumpet  sounds ; 
the  president  throws  the  key  of  the  torilj  the  cell  of  the  bull,  to  the 
algiiacil  or  pdice  man,  which  hs  ought  to  catch  in  his  feathered  hat. 
This  gentleman  is  unpopular ;  the  people  dislike  the  finisher  of  the  law, 
and  mob  him  by  instinct  as  little  birds  do  a  hawk ;  as  the  alguacil 
generally  rides  like  a  judge  or  a  Lord  Mayor,  many  are  the  hopes  and 
kind  wishes  that  he  may  tumble  off  and  be  gored  by  a  bull  of  Nemesis, 

Spain.  XXI.   THE  BULL-FIGHT-  93 

The  dififerent  performers  now  take  their  places  as  our  fielders  do  at  a 
cricket-match.  The  bull-fight  is  a  tragedy  in  three  acts,  lasts  about 
twenty  minutes,  and  each  consists  of  precisely  the  same  routine.  From 
six  to  eight  bulls  are  usually  killed ;  occasionally  another — a  toro  de 
Oracia — is  conceded  to  popular  clamour,  which  here  will  take  no  denial. 
When  the  door  of  the  toril  is  opened  the  public  curiosity  to  see  the 
first  rush  out  is  intense,  and  as  none  know  how  the  bull  will  behave, 
well  or  ill,  all  are  anxious  to  catch  his  character.  The  animal  feels  the 
novelty  of  his  position,  turned  from  his  dark  cell  into  glare  and  crowd. 
He  is  the  foredoomed  Satan  of  the  Epic ;  ignorant  indeed  of  his  fate,  for  die 
he  must,  however  skilful  or  brave  his  fight.  This  death,  the  catastrophe 
foreshadowed  again  as  in  a  Greek  play,  does  not  diminish  the  sustained 
interest  of  the  spectators,  as  the  varied  chances  in  the  progress  of  the 
acts  offer  infinite  incidents  and  unexpected  combinations.  In  the  first 
of  the  three  acts  the  picadores  are  the  chief  ])erformers ;  three  of  them 
are  now  drawn  up,  one  behind  the  other,  to  the  right  at  the  tablas^  the 
barrier  between  the  arena  and  spectators ;  each  sits  bolt  upright  on  his 
Bosinante,  with  his  lance  in  his  rest,  and  as  valiant  as  Don  Quixote. 
They  wear  the  broad-brimmed  Thessalian  hat ;  their  legs  are  cased 
with  iron  and  leather,  which  gives  a  heavy  look  ;  and  the  right  one, 
which  is  presented  to  the  bull,  is  the  best  protected.  This  grieve  is  termed 
the  espiniUera — the  fancy  call  it  la  mona — the  more  scientific  name  is 
gregortara,  from  the  inventor,  Don  Oregorio  Gallo — just  as  we  say  a 
spencer,  from  the  noble  Earl.  The  spear,  garrocha,  is  defensive  rather 
than  offensive  ;  the  blade,  la  pua,  ous;ht  not  to  exceed  one  inch  ;  the 
sheathing  is,  however,  pushed  back  when  the  picador  anticipates  an 
awkward  customer,  and  they  know  a  bull's  qualities  better  than  any 
Lavater  or  Spurzheim.  A  butcherous  bull  is  called  camic&iOf  who 
charges  home,  and  again  one  charge  more ;  siempre  Uegando  y  con  recargo. 
None  but  a  brave  bull  will  face  this  garrocha,  which  they  recollect 
of  old.  They  dislike  kicking  against  the  pricks,  and  remember  these  rods 
of  their  youth.  Those  who  shrink  from  the  punishment,  castigoy  are 
scientifically  termed  hlandos,  parados,  temerosoSj  recdosos,  tardos  apartir, 
huyendose  de  la  suerte,  tardos  a  las  varas.  When  the  bull  charges,  the 
picador,  holding  the  lance  under  his  right  arm,  pushes  to  the  right, 
and  turns  his  horse  to  the  left ;  the  bull,  if  turned,  passes  on  to  the 
next  picador.  This  is  called  redbir,  to  receive  the  point — recibid  dos 
puyazos,  tomd  tres  varas.  If  a  bull  is  turned  at  the  first  charge,  he 
seldom  comes  up  well  again — feme  el  castigo,  A  bold  bull  sometimes 
is  cold  and  shy  at  first,  but  grows  warmer  by  being  punished — poco 
prometia  a  su  salida,  hravo^pero  reparondUo,  solid  frio,pero  credo  en 
las  varas ;  ducit  opes  animumque  ferro.  Those  who  are  very  active — 
alegres,  ligeros,  con  muclias  piemas :  those  who  paw  the  ground — que 
aranan,escarban  la  tierra — are  not  much  esteemed ;  they  are  hooted  by  the 
populace,  and  execrated  as  hlandos,  ca&ra«,  goats,  becerritos,  little  calves, 
vac(zs,  cows,  which  is  no  compliment  to  a  bull ;  and,  however  unskilled 
in  bucolics,  all  Spaniards  are  capital  judges  of  bulls  in  the  ring.  Such 
animals  as  show  white  feathers  are  loathed,  as  depriving  the  public  of 
their  just  rights,  and  are  treated  with  insult,  and,  moreover,  soundly 
beaten  as  they  pass  near  the  taUas,  by  forests  of  sticks,  la  cachiporra. 
The  stick  of  the  elegant  mc^'o,  when  going  to  the  bull-fight,  is  sui 

•94  XXI.   THE  BULL-FIGHT.  Sect.  I, 

generis,  and  is  called  la  chivata ;  taper,  and  between  4  and  5  feet  long, 
it  terminates  in  a  lump  or  knob,  while  the  top  is  forked,  into  which  the 
thumb  is  inserted.  This  chivata  is  peeled,  like  the  rods  of  Laban,  in 
alternate  rings,  black  and  white  or  red.  The  lower  classes  content 
themselves  with  a  common  shillelah  ;  one  with  a  knob  at  the  end  is 
preferred,  as  administering  a  more  impressive  whack.  Their  stick  is 
called  porra,  because  heavy  lumbering.  While  a  slow  bull  is  beaten 
and  abused,  nor  even  his  mother's  reputation  spared,  a  murderous  bull, 
duro  chocante  camicero  y  pegajoso,  who  kills  horses,  upsets  men,  and 
•clears  the  plaza,  becomes  deservedly  a  universal  favourite ;  the  conquer- 
ing hero  is  hailed  with  "  Viva  toro !  viva  toro  I  hravo  toro  / "  Long  life 
is  wished  to  the  poor  beast  by  those  who  know  he  must  be  killed  in  ten 
minutes.  The  nomenclature  of  praise  or  blame  is  defined  with  the 
nicety  of  phrenology :  the  most  delicate  shades  of  character  are  dis- 
tinguished ;  life,  it  is  said,  is  too  short  to  learn  fox-hunting,  let  alone 
bull-fighting  and  its  lingo.  Sufiice  it  to  remark  that  claro,  bravo,  and 
hoyante  are  highly  complimentary.  Seco,  carnndo,  pegajoso  imply  ugly 
customers :  there  are,  however,  always  certain  newspapers  which  give 
Jancy  reports  of  each  feat.  The  language  embodies  the  richest  portions 
of  Andalucian  salty  and  is  expressed  without  any  parliamentary  peri- 
phrasis ;  during  these  saturnalia  the  liberty  of  speech  is  perfect ;  even 
the  absolute  king  bows  now  to  the  people's  voice ;  the  vox  populi  is 
the  vox  Dei  in  this  levelling  rendezvous  of  bloodshed.  The  nice  dis- 
tinction of  praise  or  blame,  of  merit  or  demerit,  in  bulls  and  artists, 
are  expressed  in  scientific  terms,  which  all  the  toresque  "  fancy  "  have 
^t  their  tongues'  tips,  and  students  will  find  in  the  lucid  glossaries  of 
the  great  works  of  Pepe  lUo  and  Montes. 

The  horses  destined  for  the  plaza  are  those  which  in  England  would 
be  sent  to  the  more  merciful  knacker ;  their  being  of  no  value  renders 
Spaniards,  who  have  an  eye  chiefly  to  what  a  thing  is  worth,  indifferent 
to  their  sufferings.  If  you  remark  how  cruel  it  is  to  "  let  that  poor 
horse  struggle  in  death's  agonies,"  they  will  say,  "  Ah  qtie !  no  vale  nd," 
Oh  !  he  is  worth  nothing.  When  his  tail  quivers  in  the  last  death- 
struggle,  the  spasm  is  remarked  as  a  jest,  mira  que  cola !  or  when  the 
blood-boltered  bull  is  mantled  with  crimson,  your  attention  is  called  to 
the  bel  cuerpo  de  sangre.  The  torture  of  the  horse  is  the  hlot  of  the 
bull-fight :  no  Englishman  or  lover  of  the  noble  beast  can  witness  his 
sufferings  without  disgust;  these  animals  being  worth  nothing  in  a 
money  point  of  view  increase^  the  danger  of  the  rider  ;  it  renders  them 
slow,  difficult  to  manage,  and  very  unlike  those  of  the  ancient  combats, 
when  the  finest  steeds  were  chosen,  quick  as  lightning,  turning  at 
touch,  and  escaping  the  deadly  rush :  the  eyes  of  these  poor  animals, 
who  will  not  face  the  bull,  are  often  bound  with  a  handkerchief  like 
criminals  about  to  be  executed ;  thus  they  await  blindfold  the  fatal 
gore  which  is  to  end  their  life  of  misery.  If  only  wounded  the  gash  is 
sewed  up  and  stopped  with  tow,  as  a  leak  1  and  life  is  prolonged  a 
minute  for  new  agonies.  When  the  poor  brute  is  dead  at  last,  his 
carcase  is  stripped  as  in  a  battle,  and  looks  poor  and  rippish  indeed. 

The  picadores  are  subject  to  hair-breadth  escapes  and  severe  falls : 

few  have  a  sound  rib  left.    The  bull  often  tosses  horse  and  rider  in 

■^6  ruin ;  and  when  the  victims  fall  on  the  ground,  exhausts  his  rage 

Spain,  XXI.  the  bull-fight.  95 

on  Ms  prostrate  enemies,  till  lured  away  by  the  glittering  cloaks  of  the 
•chtdos,  who  come  to  'the  assistance  of  the  fallen  picador.  These  horse- 
men show  marvellous  skill  in  managing  to  place  their  horses  as  a  ram- 
part between  them  and  the  bull.  When  these  deadly  struggles  take 
place,  when  life  hangs  on  a  thi*ead,  the  amphitheatre  is  peopled  with 
heads.  Every  expression  of  anxiety,  eagerness,  fear,  horror,  and  delight 
is  stamped  on  speaking  countenances.  These  feelings  are  wrought  up 
to  a  pitch  when  the  horse,  maddened  with  wounds  and  terror,  plunging 
in  the  death-struggle,  the  crimnon  streams  of  blood  streaking  his  foam 
and  sweat  whitened  body,  flies  from  the  infuriated  bull,  still  pursuing, 
still  goring;  then  is  displayed  the  nerve,  presence  of  mind,  and  horse- 
manship of  the  undismayed  picador.  It  is,  in  truth,  a  piteous,  nay, 
disgusting  sight  to  see  the  poor  dying  horses  treading  out  their  entrails, 
yet  saving  their  riders  unhurt.  The  miserable  steed,  when  dead,  is 
dragged  out,  leaving  a  bloody  furrow  on  the  sand,  as  the  river-beds  of 
the  arid  plains  of  Barbary  are  marked  by  the  crimson  fringe  of  the 
flowering  oleanders.  A  universal  sympathy  is  shown  for  the  horseman 
in  these  awful  moments ;  the  men  shout,  and  the  women  scream,  but  this 
soon  subsides.  The  picador,  if  wounded,  is  carried  out  and  forgotten 
— los  muertos  y  idos,  no  tienen  amigos,  the  dead  and  absent  have  no 
friends, — a  new  combatant  fills  the  gap,  the  battle  rages,  he  is  not 
missed,  fresh  incidents  arise,  and  no  time  is  left  for  regret  or  reflection. 
We  remember  at  Granada  seeing  a  matador  gored  by  a  bull ;  he  was 
carried  away  for  dead,  and  his  place  immediately  taken  by  his  son,  as 
coolly  as  a  viscount  succeeds  to  an  earl's  estate  and  title.  The  bull 
bears  on  his  neck  a  ribbon,  la  devisa ;  this  is  the  trophy  which  is  most 
acceptable  to  the  querida  of  a  huen  torero.  The  bull  is  the  hero  of  the 
scene,  yet,  like  Milton's  Satan,  he  is  foredoomed  and  without  reprieve. 
Nothing  can  save  him  from  a  certain  fate,  which  awaits  all,  whether 
brave  or  cowardly.  The  poor  creatures  sometimes  endeavour  in  vain 
to  escape,  and  they  have  favourite  retreats  in  the  pHa^,  su  qtierencia ;  or 
they  leap  over  the  barrier,  barrera,  into  the  tendido,  among  the  spec- 
tators, upsetting  sentinels,  water-sellers,  &c.,  and  creating  a  most 
amusing  hubbub.  The  bull  which  shows  this  craven  turn — unturuinte 
coharde  picaro—is  not  deemed  worthy  of  a  noble  death  by  the  sword. 
The  cry  of  dogs,  perros,  perros,  is  raised.  He  is  baited,  pulled  down, 
and  stabbed  in  the  spine.  A  bull  that  flinches  from  death  is  scouted 
by  all  Spaniards,  who  neither  beg  for  their  own  life  nor  spare  that  of  a 
foe.  The  tension  of  their  excitement  is  only  to  be  discharged  by 
blood :  and,  if  disappointed  in  that  of  beasts,  they  will  lap  that  of  men : 
from  insulting  bad  bulls,  they  pass  to  the  empresa,  the  management. 
The  cries  cahestros  el  circo  and  a  la  carreta  are  anything  but  compli- 

At  the  signal  of  the  president,  and  sound  of  a  trumpet,  the  second 
act  commences  with  the  chtdos.  This  chtdo  signifies,  in  the  Anibic,  a 
lad,  a  merryman,  as  at  our  Astley's.  They  are  picked  young  men,  who 
commence  in  these  parts  their  tauromaquian  career.  The  duty  of 
this  light  division  is  to  draw  off  the  bull  from  the  picador  when  endan- 
gered, which  they  do  with  their  coloured  cloaks ;  their  address  and 
agility  are  surprising,  they  skim  over  the  sand  like  glittering  humming- 
birds, scarcely  touoiing  the  earth.    They  are  dressed,  a  lo  majoy  m 

96  XXI.   THE  BULL-FIGHT.  Sect.  I. 

short  breeches,  and  without  gaiters,  just  as  Figaro  is  in  the  opera  of 
the  *  Barhiere  de  SeviUaJ  Their  hair  is  tied  into  a  knot  behind,  monOf 
and  enclosed  in  the  once  universal  silk  net,  the  retecilla — the  identical 
reticvlum—oi  which  so  many  instances  are  seen  on  ancient  Etruscan 
vases.  No  bull-fighter  ever  arrives  at  the  top  of  his  profession  without 
first  excelling  as  an  apprentice,  chvlo ;  then  he  begins  to  be  taught  how  to 
entice  the  bull  to  them,  Uamar  al  toro,  and  to  learn  his  mode  of  attack, 
and  how  to  parry  it.  The  most  dangerous  moment  is  when  these  chulos 
venture  out  into  the  middle  of  the  pla^a,  and  are  followed  by  the  bull 
to  the  barrier,  in  which  there  is  a  small  ledge,  on  which  they  place  their 
foot  and  vault  over,  and  a  narrow  slit  in  the  boarding,  through  which 
they  slip.  Their  escapes  are  marvellous  ;  they  seem  really  sometimes, 
so  close  is  the  run,  to  be  helped  over  the  fence  by  the  bull's  horns.  Oc- 
casionally some  curious  suertes  are  exhibited  by  chulos  and  expert 
toreros,  which  do  not  strictly  belong  to  the  regular  drama,  such  as  the 
suerie  de  la  capa,  where  the  bull  is  braved  with  no  other  defence  but  a 
cloak :  another,  the  scdto  tras  cuemo,  when  the  performer,  as  the  bull 
lowers  his  head  to  toss  him,  places  his  foot  between  his  Tioms  and  is 
lifted  over  him.  (N.B. — The  correct  term  in  toresque  euphuism  is 
astas,  spears  ;  cuemos,  horns,  is  seldom  mentioned  to  ears  polite,  as  its 
secondary  meaning  might  give  offence ;  the  vulgar,  however,  call  things 
by  their  improper  names  )  The  chulos,  in  the  second  act,  are  the  sole 
performers ;  another  exclusive  part  is  to  place  small  barbed  darts,  ban- 
deriUcts,  which  are  ornamented  with  cut  paper  of  different  colours,  on 
each  side  of  the  neck  of  the  bull.  The  banderiUeros  go  right  up  to  him, 
holding  the  arrows  at  the  shaft's  end,  and  pointing  the  barbs  at  the  bull ; 
just  when  the  animal  stoops  to  toss  them,  they  dart  them  into  his  neck 
and  slip  aside.  The  service  appears  to  be  more  dangerous  than  it  is^ 
but  it  requires  a  quick  eye,  a  light  hand  and  foot.  The  barbs  should  be 
placed  exactly  on  each  side — a  pretty  pair,  a  good  match — huenos  pares. 
Sometimes  these  arrows  are  provided  with  crackers,  which,  by  means 
of  a  detonating  powder,  explode  the  moment  they  are  afBxed  in  the 
neck,  banderiUas  de  fuego.  The  agony  of  the  tortured  animal  fre- 
quently makes  him  bound  like  a  kid,  to  the  frantic  delight  of  the 
people ;  while  the  fire,  the  smell  of  singed  hair,  and  roasted  flesh 
mingled  with  blood  (a  bifstek  a  VEspafkiC),  faintly  recalls  to  many  a 
dark  scowlinc;  priest  the  superior  attractions  of  his  former  amphitheatre, 
the  auto  defe.    But  ceremonious  murder  delights  all  classes. 

The  last  trumpet  now  sounds ;  the  arena  is  cleared  for  the  third  act ; 
the  rtuitador,  the  executioner,  the  man  of  death,  stands  before  his  victim 
dUmCy  and  thus  concentrates  in  himself  an  interest  previously  frittered 
among  the  number  of  combatants.  On  entering,  he  addresses  the  pre- 
sident, and  throws  his  montera,  his  cap,  to  the  ground,  and  swears  he 
vTill  do  his  duty.  In  his  right  hand  he  holds  a  long  straight  Toledan 
blade,  la  espada ;  in  his  left  he  waves  the  muleta,  the  red  flag,  the 
engano,  the  lure,  which  ought  not  (so  Romero  laid  down  in  our  hearing) 
to  be  so  large  as  the  standard  of  a  religious  brotherhood,  or  co/radia^ 
nor  so  small  as  a  lady's  pocket-handkerchief,  panuelito  de  senorita ;  it 
should  be  about  a  yard  square.  The  colour  is  red,  because  that  best 
irritates  the  bull  and  conceals  blood.  There  is  always  a  spare  matadoTy 
in  case  of  accidents,  which  may  happen  in  the  best  regulated  bulU 

Spain.  XXI.  the  bull-fight.  97 

fights  ;  lie  is  called  media  espada,  or  sdbresaliente.  The  matador  (el 
diestro,  the  cunning  in  fence  in  olden  books),  advances  to  the  bull,  m 
order  to  entice  him  towards  him — citarlo  a  la  suerte,  a  la  Jurisdiccion 
del  engano — to  subpoena  him,  to  get  his  head  into  chancery,  as  our  ring 
would  say ;  he  next  rapidly  studies  his  character,  plays  with  him  a 
little,  allows  him  to  run  once  or  twice  on  the  muleta,  and  then  prepares 
for  the  coup  de  grace.  There  are*  several  sorts  of  bulls — levantados,  the 
bold  and  rushing ;  parados,  the  slow  and  sly ;  aplomados,  the  heavy 
and  leaden.  The  bold  are  the  easiest  to  kill;  they  rush,  shutting 
their  eyes,  right  on  to  the  lure  or  flag.  The  worst  of  all  are  the  sly 
bulls ;  when  they  are  m^rrajos,  y  de  sentidot  cunning  and  not  running 
straight,  when  they  are  revueltos,  cuando  ganan  terreno  y  rematen  en  el 
ImltOj  when  they  stop  in  their  charge,  and  run  at  the  man  instead  of 
the  flag,  they  are  most  dangerous.  The  matador  who  is  long  killing 
his  bull,  or  shows  a  white  feather,  is  insulted  by  the  jeers  of  the  im- 
patient populace ;  he  nevertheless  remains  cold  and  collected,  in  propor- 
tion as  the  spectators  and  bull  are  mad,  and  could  the  toro  reason,  the 
man  would  have  no  chance.  There  are  many  suertes  or  ways  of  killing 
the  bull ;  the  principal  is  la  suerte  de /rente,  6  Vi  veronica — the  matador 
receives  the  charge  on  his  sword,  lo  mato  de  tm  recihido.  The  volapie, 
or  half-volley,  is  beautiful,  but  dangerous  ;  the  matador  takes  him  by 
advancing,  corriendose  lo.  A  firm  hand,  eye,  and  nerve,  form  the  essence 
of  the  art ;  the  sword  enters  just  between  the  left  shoulder  and  the 
blade.  In  nothing  is  the  real  fancy  so  fastidious  as  in  the  exact  nicety 
of  the  placing  this  death-wound ;  when  the  thrust  is  true — buen  estoque 
—death  is  instantaneous,  and  the  bull,  vomiting  forth  blood,  drops  at 
the  feet  of  his  conqueror,  who,  drawing  the  sword,  waves  it  in  triumph 
over  the  fallen  foe.  It  is  indeed  the  triumph  of  knowledge  over  brute 
force  ;  all  that  was  fire,  fury,  passion,  and  life,  falls  in  an  instant,  still 
for  ever.  The  team  of  mules  now  enter,  glittering  with  flags,  and  tink- 
ling with  bells,  whose  gay  decorations  contrast  with  the  stem  cnielty 
and  blood ;  the  dead  bull  is  carried  oflF  at  a  rapid  gallop,  which  always 
delights  the  populace.  The  matador  wipes  the  ,hot  blood  from  his 
sword,  and  bows  with  admirable  sangfroid  to  the  spectators,  who  throw 
their  hats  into  the  arena,  a  compliment  which  he  returns  by  throwing 
them  back  again  :  when  Spain  was  rich,  a  golden,  or  at  least  a  silver, 
shower  was  cast  to  the  favourite  matador — those  ages  are  past.  These 
hats— the  type  of  Grandeza — are  the  offerings,  now  that  cash  is  scarce, 

i  of  generous  poverty  not  will,  and  as  parts  and  parcels  of  themselves — 

^11  shocking  bad  some,  it  must  be  admitted. 

When  a  bull  will  not  nin  at  all  at  the  picador,  or  at  the  mvleta,  he 
is  called  a  toro  abanto,  and  the  media  luna,  the  half-moon,  is  called  for ; 
this  is  the  cruel  ancient  Oriental  mode  of  houghing  the  cattle  (Joshua 
xi.  6).  The  instrument  is  the  Iberian  bident — a  sharp  steel  crescent 
placed  on  a  long  pole.  The  cowardly  blow  is  given  from  behind ;  and, 
when  the  poor  beast  is  crippled,  an  assistant,  the  cachetero,  pierces  the 
spinal  marrow  with  his  cachete — puntiUa,  or  pointed  dagger — ^with  a 
traitorous  stab  from  behind.  This  is  the  usual  method  of  slaughtering 
cattle  in  Spain.  To  perform  all  these  vile  operations,  el  desjarretar,  is 
considered  beneath  the  dignity  of  the  matador ;  some,  however,  will 
kill  the  bull  by  plunging  the  point  of  their  sword  in  the  vertebrre,  e7 
Spain. — ^I.  f 

98  XXI.  THE  BULL-FIGHT.  Sect.  I. 

descaheUar — ^the  danger  gives  dignity  to  the  difficult  feat.  The  iden- 
tical process  obtains  in  each  of  the  fights  that  follow.  After  a  short 
collapse,  a  fresh  object  raises  a  new  desire,  and  the  fierce  sport  is 
renewed :  nor  is  it  assuaged  with  less  than  eight  repetitions ;  and  when 
darkness  covers  the  heavens,  the  mob— /cex  rumdum  satiata — retires  to 
sacrifice  the  rest  of  the  night  to  Bacchus  and  Venus,  with  a  passing 
homage  to  the  knife. 

The  Spaniards,  sons  of  "  truces  Iberi,"  are  very  tender  on  the  subject 
of  the  cruelty  or  barbarity  of  this  spectacle,  which  foreigners,  who 
abuse  it  the  most,  are  always  the  most  eager  to  attend.  Much  may  be 
said  on  both  sides  of  the  question.  Mankind  has  never  been  over- 
considerate  in  regarding  the  feelings  or  sufferings  of  animals,  when 
influenced  by  the  spirit  of  sporting.  This  sentiment  rules  in  the  arena. 
In  England  no  sympathy  is  shown  for  game — fish,  flesh,  or  fowl.  They 
are  preserved  to  be  destroyed,  to  afford  sport,  the  end  of  which  is  death. 
The  amusement  is  the  playing  the  salmon,  the  fine  run,  as  the  pro- 
longation of  animal  torture  is  termed  in  the  tender  vocabulary  of  the 
chace.  At  all  events,  in  Spain  horses  and  bulls  are  killed  outright, 
and  not  left  to  die  the  lingering  death  of  the  poor  wounded  hare  in 
countless  hattites.  Mr.  Windham  protested  "  against  looking  too 
microscopically  into  bull- baits  or  ladies'  faces ;"  and  we  must  pause 
before  we  condemn  the  bull  in  Spain,  and  wink  at  the  fox  at  Melton 
or  the  pheasant  in  Norfolk.  As  far  as  the  loss  of  human  life  is  con- 
cerned, more  aldermen  are  killed  indirectly  by  turtles,  than  Spaniards 
are  directly  by  bulls.  The  bull-fighters  deserve  no  pity ;  they  are  the 
heroes  of  low  life,  and  are  well  paid — volenti  non  fit  injuria.  We 
foreigners  come  coldly  and  at  once  into  the  scene,  without  the  prepara- 
tory freemasonry  of  previous  acquaintance,  and  are  horrified  by  wounds 
and  death  to  which  the  Spaniards  have  become  as  familiar  as  hospital- 

It  is  difficult  to  change  long-established  usages,  customs  of  our  early 
days,  which  come  down  to  us  connected  with  interesting  associations 
and  fond  remembrances.  We  are  slow  to  suspect  any  evil  or  harm  in 
such  practices,  dislike  to  look  the  evidence  of  facts  in  the  face,  and 
shrink  from  a  conclusion  which  would  require  the  abandonment  of  a 
recreation  long  regarded  as  innocent,  and  in  which  we,  as  well  as  our 
parents  before  us,  have  not  scrupled  to  indulge.  Children,  L*age  sans 
pitie,  do  not  speculate  on  cruelty,  whether  in  bull-baiting  or  birds'- 
nesting.  The  little  dons  and  dttenas  connect  with  this  sight  their  first 
notions  of  reward  for  good  conduct,  finery,  and  holidays,  where  amuse- 
ments are  few ;  they  return  to  their  homes  unchanged,  playful,  timid, 
or  serious,  as  before  ;  their  kindly  social  feelings  are  unimpaired.  And 
where  is  the  filial,  parental,  and  fraternal  tie  more  affectionately  che- 
rished than  in  Spain?  The  Plaza  is  patronised  by  the  Queen  our 
Lady,  Q.  D.  G.,  whom  God  preserve !  is  sanctified  and  attended  by 
the  cler^,  and  conducted  with  state  show  and  ceremony,  and  never  is 
disgraced  by  the  blackguardism  of  our  disreputable  boxing-matches. 
The  one  is  honoured  by  authority,  the  other  is  discountenanced.  How 
many  things  are  purely  conventional !  No  words  can  describe  the 
horror  felt  by  Asiatics  at  our  preserving  the  blood  of  slaughtered 
-•nimals  (Deut.  xii.  16 ;  Wilkinson,  ii.  375).    The  sight  of  our  bleeding 

Spain,  XXI,   THE  BDLL-FIGHT.  99 

shambles  appears  ten  times  more  disgusting  to  them  than  the  battle- 
woimds  (the  order  of  the  day)  of  the  bull-fight.  Nor  would  it  be  very 
essy  to  conceive  a  less  amiable  type  of  heart  and  manner  than  is  pre-* 
flented  by  a  mounted  English  buteher-cad.  Foreigners  who  argue  that 
the  effects  produced  on  Spaniards  are  exactly  those  which  are  produced 
on  themselves,  are  neither  logical  nor  true  reasoners  ;  and  those  who 
contend  that  the  Spaniards  massacre  women  and  defenceless  prisoners 
because  they  are  bull-fighters — post  hoc  et  propter  hoc — forget  that  the 
unvaried  testimony  of  all  ages  has  branded  the  national  character  with 
cold-blooded  cruelty.  They  have  never  valued  their  own,  nor  the  lives 
of  others. 

Fair  pUxy,  which  at  least  redeems  our  ring,  is  never  seen  in  or  out  of 
the  bull  fight  (yet  as  yet  there  is  no  betting  in  their  "  ring,"  no  bull 
backed  to  kill  so  many  horses,  or  a  man  at  long  odds).  The  Tlazou 
but  holds  up  a  mirror  to  nationality.  In  it,  as  out  of  it,  all  true 
Spaniards  scout  the  very  idea  of  throwing  away  a  chance, — "  ddus  an 
virtus  quis  in  hoste  requirat  ?"  How  much  of  the  Punica  fides  and 
Carthaginian  indoles  is  retained,  witness  the  back-stabbings  and  trea- 
cheries, by  which,  from  the  assassins  of  Sertorius  down  to  the  Morenos, 
Marotos,  and  Nogueras  of  to-day,  Europe  has  been  horrified  ;  these 
unchanged,  unchangeable  features  in  Oriental  and  Iberian  character 
imply  little  disgrace,  and  create  less  compunction.  "Happy  shall 
he  be  that  taketh  and  dasheth  thy  little  ones  against  the  stones.*'  They 
rarely  observe  amnesties,  seldom  pardon  or  forgive  opponents  when  in 
their  power.  These  characteristic  tendencies,  which  slumber  in  quiet 
times,  but  are  not  extinct ;  which,  however  condemned  by  Spaniards  in- 
dividually, hardly  ever  fail  to  guide  them  when  assembled,  whether  in 
cortes  or  junta;  have  long  preceded  the  bull-fight,  which  is  rather  an  effect 
than  a  cause.  The  Spanish  have  always  been  guertUeroSy  bush-fighters, 
and  to  such,  a  cruel  mimic  game  of  death  and  cunning  must  be  extremely 
congenial.  From  long  habit  they  either  see  not,  or  are  not  offended  by 
those  painful  and  bloody  details,  which  most  distress  the  unaccustomed 
stranger,  while,  on  the  other  hand,  they  perceive  a  thousand  novelties  in 
incidents  which,  to  untutored  eyes,  appear  the  same  thing  over  and  over 
again.  They  contend  that  the  more  the  toresque  intellect  is  cultivated 
the  greater  the  capacity  for  tauromachian  enjoyment.  A.thousand  minute 
beauties,  delicate  shades,  are  appreciated  in  the  character  and  conduct  of 
the  combatants,  biped  and  quadruped.  The  first  coup-^^ceil  of  the 
gay  costume  and  fiashing  eyes  of  the  assembled  thousands  is  mag- 
nificent ;  this  novel  out-of-door  spectacle,  d  Vantique,  under  no 
canopy  save  the  blue  heavens,  fascinates,  and  we  turn  away  our  eyes 
during  moments  of  painful  details — which  are  lost  in  the  poetical 
ferocity  of  the  whole.  These  feelings  are  so  infectious,  that  many  a 
stranger  merges  into  the  native.  The  interest  of  the  awful  tragedy  is 
undeniable,  irresistible,  and  all-absorbing.  The  display  of  manly 
courage,  nerve,  and  agility,  and  all  on  the  very  verge  of  death,  is  most 
exciting.  There  are  features  in  a  bold  bull  and  accomplished  comba- 
tants, which  carry  all  before  them ;  but  for  one  good  bull,  how  many  are 
the  bad!  Those  whose  fate  it  has  been  to  see  99  bulls  killed  in  one 
week  (Madrid,  June,  1833),  and  as  many  more  at  different  places  and 
times,  will  have  experienced  in  succession  the  feelings  of  admiiation 

P  2 

100  XXI.  THE  BULL-FIGHT.  Sect  I. 

pity,  and  hore,  Spanish  women,  against  whom  every  puny  scribbler 
darts  his  petty  handeriUa,  are  relieved  from  the  latter  Infliction  by  the 
never-flagging,  ever-sustained  interest,  in  being  admired.  They  have  no 
abstract,  no  Pasiphaic  predilections,  no  crudelia  amor  tauri ;  they  were 
taken  to  the  bull-fight  before  they  knew  their  alphabet,  or  what  love 
was.  Nor  have  we  heard  that  it  has  ever  rendered  them  particularly 
cruel,  save  and  except  some  of  the  elderly  and  tougher  lower-classed 
females.  The  younger  and  the  more  tender  scream  and  are  dreadfully 
affected  in  all  real  moments  of  danger,  in  spite  of  their  long  familiarity. 
Their  grand  object,  after  all,  is  not  to  see  the  bull,  but  to  be  seen  them- 
selves, and  their  dress.  The  better  classes  generally  interpose  their  fans 
at  the  most  painful  incidents,  and  certainly  show  no  want  of  sensibility. 
They  shrink  from  or  do  not  see  the  cruel  incidents,  but  adore  the  manly 
courage  and  address*  that  is  exhibited.  The  lower  classes  of  females, 
as  a  body,  behave  quite  as  respectably  as  those  of  other  countries  do  at 
executions,  or  other  dreadful  scenes,  where  they  crowd  with  their  babies. 
The  case  with  English  ladies  is  far  different.  They  have  heard  the  bull- 
fight not  praised,  bat  condemned,  from  their  childhood :  they  see  it  for 
the  first  time  when  grown  up,  when  curiosity  is  their  leading  feeling,  and 
an  indistinct  idea  of  a  pleasure,  not  unmixed  with  pain,  of  the  precise 
nature  of  which  they  are  ignorant,  from  not  liking  to  talk  on  the  subject. 
The  first  sight  delights  them :  as  the  bloody  tragedy  proceeds,  they  get 
frightened,  disgusted,  and  disappointed.  Few  are  able  to  sit  out  more 
than  one  course,  corrida,  and  fewer  ever  re-enter  the  amphitheatre. 
Probably  a  Spanish  woman,  if  she  could  be  placed  in  precisely  the  same 
condition,  would  not  act  very  differently,  and  the  fair  test  would  be  to 
bring  her,  for  the  first  time,  to  an  English  brutal  boxing-match. 

Thus  much  for  practical  tauromachia ;  those  who  wish  to  go  deeper  into 
its  philosophy — ^and  more  books  have  been  written  in  Spain  on  toresque 
than  on  most  surgical  operations — are  referred  to  "  Xa  Carta  historica  sobre 
d  Origen  y  Progresos  de  las  Fiestas  de  ToroSy'*  Nicholas  Fernandez  de  Mo- 
ratin,  Madrid,  1777 ;  **  Taurmnaquia,  o  Arte  de  Tartar ;  porun  Aficiona^ 
do,''^  Madrid,  1804.  This  was  written  by  an  amateur  named  Gomez ; 
Jose  Delgado  {Pepe  lUo)  furnished  the  materials.  It  contains  thirty 
engravings,  which  represent  all  the  implements,  costumes  and  different 
operations ;  "  La  Tauromaquia,  o  Arte  de  Torear^*^  Madrid,  1827 ; 
"  Elogio  de  las  Corridas  de  Toros^^  Manuel  Martinez  Rueda,  Madrid, 
1831 ;  "  Pom  y  Toros^^  Gaspar  Melchor  de  Jovellanos,  Madrid,  1820 ; 
and  the  "  Tauromaquixi  completa,^*  Madrid,  1836,  by  Francisco  Montes, 
the  Pepe  lUo  of  his  day,  long  the  joy,  glory,  and  boast  of  Spain.  The 
antiquity  of  the  bull-fight  has  b^sn  worked  out  in  our  paper  in  the 
*  Quarterly  Review,'  No.  cxxiv.  4.  See  also  the  graphic  illustrations  of 
Mr.  Price,  London,  Hogarth,  1852. 

To  conclude  it  may  be  remarked,  that  latterly,  since  the  recent  lUtiS' 
tracion,  the  march  of  intellect,  civilization,  and  constitutions,  nothing  has 
progressed  more  than  the  bull-fight.  Churches  and  convents  have  been 
demolished,  but,  by  way  of  compensation,  amphitheatres  have  been 
erected ;  hut  now-a-days  the  battlement  comes  down  and  the  dung-heap 
rises  up— i^a/an  los  adarves  y  dlzanse  las  muladares. 

Spain.  xxu.  Spanish  theatre.  101 

XXII.  Spanish  Theatre. 

The  theatre,  dances,  and  songs  of  Spain  form  an  important  item  in  the 
means  of  a  stranger  passing  his  evenings.  The  modern  drama  of  Europe 
may  be  said  to  have  been  formed  on  this  model,  whence  was  borrowed 
the  character  and  conduct  of  The  Play,  as  well  as  the  arrangements  of  the 
Theatre ;  and  Spain  is  still  tJie  land  of  the  Fandango,  the  JBolerOj  and 
the  guitar. 

The  Spanish  drama  rose  under  the  patronage  of  the  pleasure-loving 
Philip  IV. ;  but  its  glory  was  short-lived,  and  now  it  hardly  can  b3 
called  flourishing,  as  few  towns,  except  the  largest,  maintain  a  theatre. 
In  Spain  actors,  long  vagabonds  by  Act  of  Parliament,  were  not  allowed 
to  prefix  the  cherished  title  of  Don  before  their  names — a  remnant  of  the 
opposition  of  the  clergy  to  a  profession  which  interfered  with  their 
monopoly  of  providing  the  public  with  religious  melodramas  and 
**  mysteries ;"  the  actor  was  not  only  excluded  from  decent  society 
when  alive,  but  refused  Christian  burial  when  dead,  accordingly,  in  a 
land  where  the  spirit  of  caste  and  self-love  is  so  strong,  few  choose 
to  degrade  themselves  alive  or  dead. 

The  drama,  too,  of  Spain  has  declined  with  the  country  itself,  and  is 
almost  effaced  from  the  repertoire  of  Europe.  The  plays  of  Lope  de 
Vega  and  Calderon  have  given  way  to  pieces  translated  from  the  French ; 
thus  Spain,  as  in  many  other  things,  is  now  reduced  to  borrow  from  the 
very  nation  whose  Comeilles  she  first  instructed,  those  very  amusements 
which  she  once  taught !  The  old  theatre  was  the  mirror  of  the  manners 
of  the  time,  when  the  bearded  Hidalgos  strutted  on  the  stage  repre- 
senting the  bravoes  and  bugbears  of  Europe.  Spain  was  not  then  ashamed 
to  look  herself  in  the  face ;  now  her  flag  is  tattered,  she  shrinks  from  the 
present,  and  either  appears  in  foreign  garb  or  adopts  the  Cids  and  Alvas 
of  a  more  glorious  past.  Meanwhile  the  sainete  or  Farce  is  admirably 
performed  by  the  Spaniards,  for  few  people  have  a  deeper  or  more  quiet 
relish  for  humour,  from  the  sedate  Castilian  to  the  gay  Andalucian.  In 
playing  these  farces,  the  performers  seem  to  cease  to  be  actors,  and 
simply  to  go  through  a  part  and  parcel  of  their  daily  life ;  they  fail  in 
tragedy,  which  is  spouted  in  a  sort  of  unnatural  rant,  something  between 
German  mouthing  and  French  gesticulation.  The  Spanish  theatres, 
those  of  Madrid  scarcely  excepted,  are  badly  lighted  and  meagerly  sup- 
plied with  scenery  and  properties. 

The  first  Spanish  playhouses  were  merely  open  courtyards,  corrales, 
after  the  classical  fashion  of  Thespis.  They  were  then  covered  with  an 
awning,  and  the  court  was  divided  into  different  parts  ;  the  yard,  the 
patio,  became  the  pit.  The  rich  sat  at  the  windows  of  the  houses  round 
the  court,  whence  these  boxes  were  called  ventanus ;  and  as  almost  all 
Spanish  windows  are  defended  by  iron  gratings,  rejas,  the  French  took 
their  term  loge  griU^e  for  a  private  box.  In  the  centre  was  a  lower 
gallery,  la  tertulia,  the  quarter  chosen  by  the  erudite,  among  whom  it 
was  the  fashion  to  quote  Terttdian — los  Tertuliarws,  The  women,  excluded 
from  the  pit,  have,  as  at  our  rails,  an  exclusive  "  ladies'  carriage,"  la  ter- 
ttdia  de  las  mugeres,  reserved  for  themselves,  into  which  no  males  are  al- 
lowed to  enter.    This  feminine  preserve  used  to  be  termed  La  Cazuda— 

1G2  xxn»  SPANISH  Musia  Sect.  I* 

the  pipkin  or  (Ma^  from  the  hodgepotch  or  mixture,  and  also  "  lajaiUa 
de  las  mugeres,**  the  women*s  cage.  There  they  congregated,  as  in  church, 
dressed  in  black,  and  with  mantillas.  This  dark  assemblage  of  tresses 
might  seem  like  the  gallery  of  a  nunnery  ;  let  there  be  but  a  moment's 
pause  in  the  business  of  the  play,  then  arose  such  a  cooing  and  cawing 
in  this  rookery  of  turtle-doves,  such  an  ogling,  such  a  flutter  of  man- 
tillas, such  a  rustling  of  silks,  such  telegraphic  workings  of  fans,  such 
an  electrical  communication  with  the  pittites  below,  who  looked  up  with 
wistful,  foxite  glances,  on  the  dark  clustering  vineyard  so  tantalizingly 
placed  above  their  reach,  as  to  dispel  all  ideas  of  monastic  seclusion, 
sorrow,  or  mortification.  The  separation  of  combustible  materials  in  an 
inflammable  climate  dates  from  Augustus  (Suet.,  44).  In  the  fourth 
century,  at  Constantinople,  the  women  sat  apart  in  an  upper  gallery  of 
the  churches,  to  the  injury  and  interruption  of  male  devotion. 

Good  music  is  seldom  heard  in  Spain,  notwithstanding  the  eternal 
strumming  and  singing.  Even  the  masses,  as  performed  in  their  cathe- 
drals,  from  the  introduction  of  the  pianoforte  and  the  violin,  are  devoid 
of  impressive  or  devotional  character ;  there  is  sometimes  a  poorish  Italian 
opera  in  Madrid  and  elsewhere,  which  is  patronised  by  the  upper  classes 
because  a  thing  of  London  and  Paris;  it  bores  the  true  Spaniards  to 
extinction ;  they  are  saltatory  and  musical  enough  in  their  own  Oriental 
way,  and  have  danced  to  their  rude  songs  from  time  immemorial,  but  are 
neither  harmonious,  nor  have  any  idea  of  the  grace  and  elegance  of  the 
French  ballet;  bad  imitators  of  their  neighbours,  the  moment  they 
attempt  it  they  become  ridiculous,  whether  in  cuisine,  language,  or 
costume ;  indeed  a  Spaniard  ceases  to  be  a  Spaniard  in  proportion  as  he 
becomes  an  Afrancesado ;  when  left  to  their  original  devices,  they  take, 
in  their  jumpings  and  chirpings,  after  the  grasshopper,  and  have  a 
natural  genius  for  the  guitar  and  bolero ;  indeed  one  charm  of  the  Spanish 
theatres  is  their  own  national  i?aiZe— matchless,  unequalled,  and  inimit- 
able, and  only  to  be  really  performed  by  Andalucians.  This  is  la  scUsa  de 
la  comediay  the  essence,  the  cream,  the  sauce  piquante  of  the  nights'  enter- 
tainments ;  it  is  attempted  to  be  described  in  every  book  of  travels — for 
who  can  describe  sound  or  motion  ? — it  must  be  seen.  Yet  even  this  is 
somewhat  scornfully  treated  by  the  very  upper  classes  as  the  uncivilized 
feat  of  picturesque  barbarians,  and  it  is,  indeed,  the  expression  of  Spain, 
and  owes  nothing  to  civilization ;  the  whole  body  and  soul  of  the  south  is 
represented  by  movements,  as  poetry  is  by  words,  whereas  in  France 
people  dance  only  with  their  leojs.  However  languid  the  house,  laughable 
the  tragedy,  or  serious  the  comedy,  the  sound  of  the  Castanet  awakens 
the  most  listless ;  the  sharp,  spirit-stirring  click  is  heard  behind  the 
scenes ^the  effect  is  instantaneous — it  creates  life  under  the  ribs  of  death 
— it  silences  the  tongues  of  women — on  n'^coute  que  le  ballet.  The 
curtain  draws  up ;  the  bounding  pair  dart  forward  from  the  opposite 
scenes,  like  two  separated  lovers,  who,  after  long  search,  have  found  each 
other  again,  and  who,  heedless  of  the  public,  are  thinking  only  of  each 
other.  The  glitter  of  the  gossamer  costume  of  the  Majo  and  Maja,  in- 
vented as  for  this  dance — ^the  sparkle  of  gold  lace  and  silver  filigree — ^adds 
to  the  lightness  of  their  motions ;  the  transparent,  form-designing  saya 
of  the  women  heightens  the  charms  of  a  faultless  symmetry  which  it  fain 
"^ould  conceal ;  no  cruel  stays  fetter  serpentine  flexibility.     Their  very 

Spain.  xxu.  Spanish  danc£s.  103 

bones  seem  elastic ;  their  frame  and  physique  is  the  voluptuous  exponent  of 
beings  with  real  bodies  who  dance,  and  very  unlike  the  wiry  over-trained 
professional  dancer.  They  pause — ^bend  forward  an  instant — prove  their 
supple  limbs  and  arms :  the  band  strikes  up,  they  turn  fondly  towards 
each  other,  aud  start  into  life.  What  exercise  displays  the  ever-varying 
charms  of  female  grace,  and  the  contours  of  manly  form,  like  this  fasci- 
nating dance  ?  The  accompaniment  of  the  Castanet  gives  employment 
to  their  arms,  upraised  as  if  to  catch  showers  of  roses.  C^est  k  pantO" 
mime  dfamcyur.  The  enamoured  youth — the  coy,  coquettish  maiden ; 
who  shall  describe  the  advance — her  timid  retreat,  his  eager  pursuit,  like 
Apollo  chasing  Daphne  ?  Now  they  gaze  on  each  other,  now  on  the 
ground ;  now  all  is  life,  love,  and  action ;  now  there  is  a  pause— they 
stop  motionless  at  a  moment,  and  grow  into  the  earth.  There  is  a  truth 
which  overpowers  the  fastidious  judgment.  Away,  then,  with  the 
studied  grace  of  the  foreign  danseuse,  beautiful  but  artificial,  cold  and 
selfish  as  is  the  flicker  of  her  love,  compared  to  the  real  impassioned 
abandon  of  the  daughters  of  the  South !  There  is  nothing  indecent  in 
this  dance ;  no  one  is  tired  or  the  worse  for  it.  "  Un  ballet  ne  saurait 
6tre  trop  long,  pourvu  que  la  morale  soit  bonne,  et  la  m^taphysique  bien 
entendue,"  says  Molifere.  The  jealous  Toledan  clergy  wished  to  put  this 
dance  down,  on  the  pretence  of  immorality.  The  dancers  were  allowed  in 
evidence  to  "  give  a  view  "  to  the  court :  when  they  began,  the  bench 
and  bar  showed  symptoms  of  restlessness,  and  at  last,  casting  aside 
gowns  and  briefs,  joined,  as  if  tarantula-bitten,  in  the  irresistible  caper- 
ing.— Verdict  for  the  defendants,  with  costs  ;  Solvuntur  risu  tabulae. 

The  Bolero  is  not  of  the  remote  antiquity  which  many,  confounding 
it  with  the  well-known  and  improper  dances  of  the  Gaditanas,  have 
imagined.  The  dances  of  Spain  have  undergone  many  changes  in  style 
and  name  since  the  times  of  the  Philips  (see  Pellicer,  Don  Quixote,  i. 
156).  The  fandango  is  considered  to  be  an  Indian  word.  The  now 
disused  zarahcmda  was  probably  the  remnant  of  the  ancient  dances  of 
Gades,  which  delighted  the  Romans,  and  scandalized  the  fathers  of  the 
church,  who  compared  them,  and  perhaps  justly,  to  the  capering  per- 
formed by  the  daughter  of  Herodias.  They  were  prohibited  by  Theo- 
dosius,  because,  according  to  St.  Chrysostom,  at  such  balls  the  devil 
never  wanted  a  partner.  The  well-known  statue  at  Naples  of  the 
Venere  Callipige  is  the  undoubted  representation  of  a  Cadiz  dancing- 
girl,  probably  of  Telethusa  herself  (see  Martial,  E.  vi.  7,  and  Ep.  ad 
Priap.  18  ;  Pet.  Arbiter,  Var"*-  Ed.  1669).  In  the  Museo  Borbonico 
(Stanza  iii.  503)  is  an  Etruscan  vase  repi*esenting  a  supper-scene,  in 
which  a  female  dances  in  this  precise  attitude.  She  also  appears  in  the 
paintings  in  the  tomb  at  Cumse,  where  the  persons  applaud  exactly  as 
they  do  now,  especially  at  the  pause,  the  Men  paradoy  which  is  the 
signal  of  clapping  and  cries — mas  pitede!  was  puede!  dejala,  que  se 
canse.     Orza,  orza  I  zas  punaladaf  mxis  ajo  al  pique ! 

These  most  ancient  dances,  in  spite  of  all  prohibitions,  have  come 
down  unchanged  from  the  remotest  antiquity ;  their  character  is  com- 
pletely Oriental,  and  analogous  to  the  ghawassee  of  the  Egyptians  and 
the  Hindoo  nautch.  They  existed  among  the  ancient  Egyptians  as  they 
do  still  among  the  modems  (compare  Wilkinson,  ii.  243,  with  Lane,  ii. 
98).    They  are  entirely  different  from  the  hdero  or  fandango^  and  are 


never  performed  except  by  gipsies  ;  and,  as  the  company  is  not  select, 
and  more  heads  than  hearts  broken,  are  likened  to  "gipsy's  fare," 
"  merienda  de  OitanosJ**  Every  young  antiquarian  should  witness  this 
exhibition  which  delighted  Martial,  Petronius,  Horace,  and  a  funcion 
can  always  be  got  up  at  Seville.  This  singular  dance  is  the  romalis  in 
gipsy  language,  and  the  ole  in  Spanish ;  the  xtipovoiJtia,  hrazeo,  or 
balancing  action  of  the  hands, — the  Xaicri(r/ia,  the  zapateddo,  los  taconeoSf 
the  beating  with  the  feet, — the  crissatura,  meneo,  the  tambourines  and 
castanets,  Bcetica  crusmata,  crotola, — the  language  and  excitement  of 
the  spectators,  —  tally  in  the  minutest  points  with  the  prurient  descrip- 
tions of  the  ancients,  which  have  been  elucidated  so  learnedly  by 
Scaliger,  Burman,  the  Canon  Salazar  (Grandezas  de  Cadiz,  iv.  3),  and 
the  Dean  Marti  (Peyron,  i.  246).  These  Gaditanian  dances,  which  the 
aesthetic  Huber  (Skitzen,  i.  293)  pronounces  "  die  Poesie  der  WoUust," 
are  perhaps  more  marked  by  energy  than  by  grace,  and  the  legs  have 
less  to  do  than  the  body,  arms,  and  hips.  The  sight  of  this  unchanged 
pastime  of  antiquity,  which  excites  the  lower  classes  of  Spaniards  to 
frenzy,  will  rather  disgust  an  English  spectator,  possibly  from  some 
national  mal-organization,  for,  as  Moliere  says,  "  PAngleterre  a  produit 
des  grands  hommes  dans  les  sciences  et  les  beaux  arts,  mais  pas  un 
grand  danseur !  AUez  lire  I'histoire."  However  indecent  these  gipsy 
dances  may  be,  yet  the  performers  are  inviolably  chaste ;  young  girls 
go  through  them  before  the  applauding  eyes  of  their  parents  and 
brothers,  who  would  resent  to  the  death  any  attempt  on  their  sister's 
virtue,  and  were  she  in  any  weak  moment  to  give  way  to  a  husnCy  or 
one  not  a  gipsy,  and  forfeit  her  "kLcha,  ya  trupoSy  her  unblemished 
corporeal  chastity,  the  all  and  everything  of  their  moral  code,  her  o\vn 
kindred  would  be  the  first  to  kill  her  without  pity. 

The  dances  of  other  Spaniards  in  private  life  are  much  the  same  as 
in  other  parts  of  Europe,  and,  having  nothing  national,  cease  to  have  a 
particle  of  interest,  nor  is  either  sex  particularly  distinguished  by  grace 
in  this  exercise,  to  which,  however,  they  are  much  attached.  •  Escozesas 
and  Bigodones  form  a  common  conclusion  to  the  tertvliay  where  no  great 
attention  is  paid  either  to  music  or  custume.  The  lower,  uncivilized 
classes  adhere,  as  in  the  East  (Wilk.,  ii.  239  ;  Lane,  ii.  64-74),  to  their 
primitive  dances  and  primitive  Oriental  accompaniments — the  "  tabret 
and  the  harp ;"  the  guitar  and  tambourine — toph,  tabor,  tympanum^ 
'  with  the  Castanet :  tympoma  vos  Imxtisqvs  vocat.  No  people  play  on  these 
castanets,  castanvMas  paliUos,  so  well  as  the  Andalucians ;  they  begin 
as  children  by  snapping  their  fingers,  or  clicking  together  two  bits  of  slate 
or  shell ;  these  castanets  are  the  Baetican  crusmata  and  crotcla,  and  crotalo 
is  still  a  Spanish  term  for  the  tambourine,  and  their  use  still,  as  in  the 
days  of  Petronius  Arbiter,  forms  the  delicice  populi.  Cervantes  describes 
the  "  bounding  of  the  soul,  the  bursting  of  laughter,  the  restlessness  of 
the  body,  and  the  quicksilver  of  the  five  senses,"  when  this  clicking 
and  capering  is  set  going.  It  is  the  rude  sport  of  people  who  dance 
from  the  necessity  of  motion ;  and  of  the  young,  the  healthy,  and  the 
joyous,  to  whom  life  is  of  itself  a  blessing,  and  who,  like  bounding  kids, 
thus  give  vent  to  their  superabundant  lightness  of  heart  and  limb. 
_  Sancho,  a  true  Manchegan,  after  the  saltatory  exhibitions  of  his  master, 
ofesses  his  ignorance  of  such  elaborate  dancing,  but  for  a  zapateo,  a 

Spain.  xxn.  the  seguidilla  and  guitar.  105 

knocking  of  shoes,  he  was  as  good  as  a  gerilfante.  Unchanged  as  are 
the  instruments,  so  are  their  dancing  propensities.  All  night  long,  says 
Strabo  (iii.  249),  and  Sil.  Italicus  (iii.  349),  did  they  dance  and  sing, 
or  rather  jump  and  yell  out,  "  vlulantes"  the  unchanged  "  howlings 
of  Tarshish." 

The  Iberian  warriors  danced  armed ;  like  the  Spartans,  even  their  re- 
laxations preserved  the  military  principle,  and  they  beat  time  with  their 
swords  on  their  shields.  When  one  of  their  champions  wished  to  show 
his  contempt  for  the  Eomans,  he  retired  before  them  dancing  a  derisive 
atep  (  App.  jBcZ?.  Hisp.  410).  T\n&pynrica  saltatio  is  of  all  ages  and  climes ; 
thus-the  aXbanatico  of  the  Grecian  Archipelago  is  little  changed  from  what 
it  was  in  Homer's  time ;  the  Goths  had  it,  and  the  Moors  likewise ;  our 
tnorm-dance  is  but  the  Moorish  one,  which  John  of  Gaunt  brought  into 
England,  the  peasants  in  Spain  occasionally  dance  it  still  in  all  the  per- 
fection of  ancient  step  and  costume.  The  most  picturesque  exhibition 
of  these  wild  dances  which  we  ever  saw  was  at  Quintana  Duenas.  This 
armed  dance,  mimic  war,  was  invented  (se  dice)  by  Minerva,  who  capered 
for  joy  after  the  overthrow  of  the  rebel  angels,  giants.  Titans — the  victory 
of  knowledge  over  brute  force.  Masdeu  in  the  last  century  describes  these 
unchanged  dances  as  he  saw  them  at  Tarragona  (^Hist.  Crit.  ii.  7),  when 
some  of  the  performers  got  on  each  other's  shoulders  to  represent  the 
Titans,  and  the  Dance  retained  its  Pagan  name — el  Titcms,  BayUs  de 
los  Titanes, 

The  seguidiUa,  the  guitar,  and  dance,  at  this  moment  form  the  joy  of 
careless  poverty,  the  repose  of  sunburnt  labour.  The  poor  forget  for 
them  their  toils,  sans  six  scms  et  sans  scmci,  nay,  sacrifice  even  tbeir  meals, 
like  Pliny's  friend  Claro,  who  lost  his  supper,  Boetican  dives  and  gaspa- 
cho,  to  run  after  a  Gaditanian  dancing-girl  (Plin.  Ep.  i.  15),  and,  as  of  old, 
this  dancing  is  their  relaxation  and  Bequies  (Sil.  It.  iii.  346).  In  venta 
and  court-yard,  in  spite  of  a  long  day's  walk,  work,  and  scanty  fare,  at  the 
sound  of  the  guitar  and  click  of  the  castanet  a  new  life  is  breathed  into 
their  veins  ;  so  far  from  feeling  past  fatigue,  the  very  fatigue  of  the  dance 
seems  refreshing,  and  many  a  weary  traveller  will  rue  the  midnight  frolics 
of  his  noisy  and  saltatory  fellow-lodgers.  Supper  is  no  sooner  over  than 
"  apres  la  pause  la  danse," — some  black-whiskered  performer,  the  very 
antitliesis  of  Farinelli,  "  screechin'  out  his  prosaic  verse,"  screams  forth 
his  "  coflas  de  zarabanda,  Las  Canas,^*  either  at  the  top  of  his  voice,  or 
drawliS  out  his  ballad,  "  melancholy  as  the  drone  of  a  Lincolnshire  bag- 
pipe ;"  both  feats  are  done  to  the  imminent  danger  of  his  own  trachea,  and 
of  all  un-Spanish  acoustic  organs,  and  after  the  fashion  of  Gray's  critique, 
"  des  miaulemens  et  des  hurlemens  effroyables,  m$l^s  avec  im  tintamare 
dudiable — voilalamusiqueFran9aiseenabr^g^."  As,  however,  in  Paris, 
so  in  Spain,  the  audience  are  in  raptures ;  "all  men's  ears  grow  to  his 
tunes  as  if  they  had  eaten  ballads."  This  Cana,  the  unchanged  Arabic 
Oamiia,  for  a  song,  is  sad  and  serious  as  love,  and  usually  begins  and  ends 
with  an  ay  1  or  sigh.  The  company  takes  part  with  beatings  of  feet, 
**  taconeos ;"  with  clapping  of  hands,  the  xP^'^^Si  "  palm^ido,^*  and 
joining  in  chorus  at  the  end  of  each  verse.  There  is  always  in  every 
company  of  Spaniards,  whether  soldiers,  civilians,  or  muleteers,  some 
one  who  can  play  the  guitar,  poco  mas  o  menos.  Qodoy,  the  Prince  of 
the  Peace,  one  of  the  most  worthless  of  the  multitude  of  worthies' 

F  3 


ministers  by  whom  Spain  has  been  misgoverned,  first  captivated  the 
royal  Messalina  by  his  talent  of  strumming  on  the  guitar.    Isaiah  gives 
the  truest  image  of  the  desolation  of  an  Eastern  city,  the  **  ceasing  of 
the  mirth  of  the  guitar  and  tambourine."    In  most  villages  the  barhero 
is  the  Figaro,  who  seldom  fails  to  stroll  down  to  the  venta  unbidden 
and  from  pure  love  of  harmony,  gossip,  and  the  ftoto,  where  his  song 
secures  him  supper  and  welcome  ;  a/uncion  is  soon  armada^  or  a  parti/ 
got  up  of  all  ages  and  sexes,  who  are  attracted  by  the  tinkling,  like- 
swarming  bees,  and  the  more  if  the  stranger  volunteers  to  pay  for  re- 
freshments.   The  guitar  is  part  and  parcel  of  the  Spaniard  and  his 
ballads,  and,  so  say  the  political  economists,  has  done  more  injury  to 
Spain  than  hailstorms  or  drought,  from  fostering  sins^ug,  dancing,  and 
idleness ;  the  i^erformer  slings  it  across  his  shoulder  with  a  ribbon,  as  was 
depicted  on  the  tombs  of  Egypt  4000  years  ago  (Wilkinson,  ii.  ch.  vi.). 
It  is  the  unchanged  kinoor  of  the  East,  the  KiOapa,  cithera,  g^uitarra, 
githorne ;  the  "  guiteme  Moresche "  of  the  ministrellers  (Ducange). 
The  performers,  seldom  scientific  musicians,  content  themselves  with 
striking  the  chords,  sweeping  the  whole  hand  over  the  strings,  rasque^ 
cmdo,  or  flourishing,  floreando,  and  tapping  the  guitar-board  with  the 
thumb,  gdpeando,  at  which  they  are  very  expert.    Occasionally  in  the 
towns  there  is  a  zapatero  or  a  maestro  of  some  kind,  who  has  attained 
more  power  over  this  ungrateful  instrument ;  but  the  attempt  is  generally 
a  failure,  for  it  responds  coldly  to  Italian  words  and  elaborate  melody, 
which  never  come  home  to  Spanish  ears  or  hearts  ;  like  the  guitar  of 
Anacreon,  love,  sweet  love,  is  its  only  theme,  ip<ara  fiovov.    The  mul- 
titude suit  the  guitar  to  the  song ;  both  air  and  words  are  frequently  ex- 
temporaneous ;  the  language  comes  in  aid  to  the  fertile  mother- wit  of  the 
natives ;  rhymes  are  dispensed  with  at  pleasure,  or  mixed  up  according 
to  caprice  with  assofiants,  with  which  more  of  the  popular  re/ranes  are 
rounded  off  than  by  rhymes.      The  assonant  consists  of  the  mere 
recurrence  of  the  same  vowels,  without  reference  to  that  of  consonants. 
Thus  Santos,  UantoSy  are  rhymes  ;  amor  and  razon  are  assonants ;  even 
these,  which  poorly  fill  a  foreign  ear,  are  not  always  observed  ;  a  change 
in  intonation,  or  a  few  thumps  more  or  less  on  the  guitar-board,  does 
the  work,  and  supersedes  all  difficulties.     These  moras  pronunciationis, 
this  ictus  metricuSy  constitute  a  rude  prosody,  and  lead  to  music  just  as 
gestures  do  to  dancing, — to  ballads, — *'  que  se  cantan  haUando ;"  and 
which,  when  heard,  reciprocally  inspire  a  Saint  Vitus's  desire  to  snap 
fingers  and  kick  heels,  as  all  will  admit  in  whose  ears  the  ?uibas  verdes 
of  Leon,  or  the  cachucha  of  Cadiz,  yet  ring.    The  words  destined  to  set 
all  this  capering  in  motion — not  written  for  cold  critics — are  listened  to 
by  those  who  come  attuned  to  the  hearing  vein — ^who  anticipate  and 
re-echo  the  subject — who  are  operated  on  by  the  contagious  bias.    Thus 
a  sonnd-fascinated  audience  of  otherwise  sensible  Britons,  tolerates  the 
positive  presence  of  nonsense  at  an  opera.    To  feel  the  full  power  of  the 
guitar  and  Spanish  song,  the  performer  should  be  a  sprightly  Andaluza, 
taus;ht  or  untaught ;  and  when  she  wields  the  instrument  as  her  fan, 
as  if  part  of  herself,  and  alive,  no  wonder  one  of  the  old  fathers  of  the 
church  said,  that  he  would  sooner  &ce  a  singing  basilisk  :  she  is  good 
for  nothing  when  pinned  down  to  a  piano,  on  which  few  Spanish  women 
nlay  even  tolerably.    The  words  of  her  song  are  often  struck  off  at  the 

Spain.  XX.U,  SPANISH  MUSIC.      TONES.  107 

moment,  and  allude  to  incidents  and  persons  present.  Sometimes  those 
of  la  gente  ganza,  que  tiene  zandunga,  are  most  clever,  full  of  epigram 
and  double  entendre ;  they  often  sing  what  may  not  be  spoken,  and  steal 
hearts  through  ears,  for,  as  Cervantes  says,  Cuando  cantan  encanian : 
at  other  times  their  song  is  little  better  than  nonsense,  with  which  the 
audience  is  just  as  well  satisfied.  For,  as  Figaro  says — "  ce  qui  ne 
vaut  pas  la  peine  d'etre  dit,  on  le  chante."  A  good  voice,  which 
Italians  call  novanta-nove,  ninety-nine  parts  out  of  the  hundred,  is  very 
rare;  nothing  strikes  a  traveller  more  unfavourably  than  the  harsn 
voice  of  Spanish  women  in  general.  The  Spanish  guitar  requires  an 
abandon,  a  fire,  and  gracia  which  could  not  be  risked  by  ladies  of  more 
northern  climates  and  more  tightly-laced  zones.  The  songs,  the 
ballads,  "  this  free  press "  of  the  people  of  Spain,  and  immemorially 
their  delight,  have  tempered  the  despotism  of  their  church  and  state, 
have  sustained  a  nation's  resistance  against  foreign  aggression. 

Not  much  music  is  printed  in  Spain ;  the  songs  and  airs  are  frequently 
sold  in  MS.  Sometimes,  for  the  very  illiterate,  the  notes  are  expressed 
in  numeral  figures,  which  correspond  with  the  number  of  the  strings. 
Andalucia  is  the  chosen  spot  to  form  the  best  collection.  Don  N. 
Zamaracola  has  published  a  small  selection — *■  Cohccion  de  Seguidillas, 
Tiranas,  y  Folos,^  Mad.  1799,  under  the  name  of  Don  Precise.  The 
SeguidiUas,  Manchegas,  Boleros  are  a  sort  of  madrigal,  and  consist  of 
7  verses,  4  lines  of  song  and  3  of  chorus,  estreviUo ;  the  Bondends  and 
Malagenaa  are  couplets  of  4  verses,  and  take  their  names  from  the 
towns  where  they  are  most  in  vogue ;  the  term  of  others.  La  Arana, 
comes  from  the  Havana.  The  best  guitars  in  the  world  were  made  by 
the  Pajez  family,  father  and  son,  in  Cadiz. 

Meanwhile  the  genuine  airs  and  tunes  are  very  Oriental,  of  most 
remote  antiquity,  and  a  remnant  of  primitive  airs,  of  which  a  want  of 
the  invention  of  musical  notation  has  deprived  us.  Melody  among  the 
Egyptians,  like  sculpture,  was  never  permitted  to  be  changed,  lest  any 
new  fascination  might  interfere  with  the  severe  influence  of  their  mis- 
tress, religion.  That  both  were  invented  for  the  service  of  the  altar  is 
indicated  in  the  myth  of  their  divine  origin.  These  tunes  passed  into 
other  countries ;  the  plaintive  maneros  of  the  Nile,  brought  by  the 
Phoenicians  into  Spain,  became  the  Lintis  of  Greece  (Herod,  ii.  79 J.  The 
national  tunes  of  the  Fellah,  the  Moor,  and  the  Spaniard,  are  still  slow 
and  monotonous,  often  in  utt^r  opposition  with  the  sentiments  of  the 
words,  which  have  varied,  whilst  the  airs  remain  unchanged.  They  are 
diatonic  rather  than  chromatic,  abounding  in  suspended  pauses,  and  uni- 
sonous, not  Uke  our  glees,  yet  generally  provided  with  an  "  estreviUo,** 
a  chorus  in  which  the  audience  joins.  They  owe  little  to  hannony,  the 
end  being  rather  to  affect  than  to  please.  Certain  sounds  seem  to  have 
a  mysterious  aptitude  to  express  certain  moods  of  the  mind  in  connection 
with  some  unexplained  sympathy  between  the  sentient  and  intellectual 
organs :  the  simplest  are  by  far  the  most  ancient.  Ornate  melody  is  a 
modem  invention  from  Italy  ;  and  although,  in  lands  of  greater  inter- 
course and  fastidious  civilization,  the  conventional  has  ejected  the 
national,  fashion  has  not  shamed  or  silenced  the  old-ballad  airs  of  Spain 
— those  "  bowlings  of  Tarshish."  Indeed,  national  tunes,  like  Ihe  songs 
of  birds,  are  not  taught  in  orchestras,  but  by  mothers  to  their  infa-^ 

108  XXIII.  SPANISH  CIGARS.  Sect.  I. 

progeny  in  the  cradling  nest.  As  the  Spaniard,  in  the  mass,  is  warlike 
without  being  military,  saltatory  without  being  graceful,  so  he  is  musical 
without  being  harmonious ;  he  continues  much  the  raw  man  material 
made  by  nature,  and  treating  himself  mostly  as  he  does  the  raw  products 
of  his  soil,  takes  things  as  he  finds  them,  leaving  art  and  final  develop- 
ment to  the  foreigner.  He  is  better  seen  in  the  streets  than  in  the 
saloon — in  the  Serrania  and  far  from  cities.  The  venta  after  all  is  the 
true  opera-house  of  Spain :  all  the  rest  is  London  leather  or  Parisian 
prunella  ;  y  no  vale  ndda.  The  student  may  consult  Origen  de  Teatro 
Espanol,  M.  Garcia,  Madrid,  1802  ;  Tratado  del  Histrionismo,  Pellicer, 
Madrid,  1804 ;  Origines  del  Teatro  Espand,  Moratin»  Madrid,  1830 ; 
and  the  excellent  work  on  the  Spanish  Theatre  by  the  German  Schak  ; 
see  also  our  papers,  on  the  Spanish  Stage,  *  Quart.  Rev.'  No.  cxvii. ; 
and  on  Spanish  Ballads^  *  Edin.  Rev.'  No.  cxlvi. 

XXIII.  Spanish  Cigars. 

But  whether  at  the  bull-fight  or  theatre,  lay  or  clerical,  wet  or  dry, 
the  Spaniard  during  the  day,  sleeping  excepted,  solaces  himself,  when  he 
can,  with  a  cigar ;  this  is  his  nepenthe,  his  pleasure  opiate,  his  te  veniente 
die  et  te  decedente,  which  soothes  but  not  inebriates. 

The  manufactory  of  the  cijrar  is  not  the  least  active  of  all  carried  on 
in  the  Peninsula.  The  buildings  are  palaces ;  witness  Seville,  Malaga, 
and  Valencia.  As  a  cigar  is  a  sine  qua  non  in  a  Spaniard's  mxmth,  it 
must  have  its  page  in  a  Spanish  Handbook,  Ponz,  the  first  m  that 
field,  remarks  (ix.  201),  "  You  will  think  me  tiresome  with  my  tobac- 
^  conistical  details,  but  the  vast  bulk  of  my  readers  will  be  more  pleased 
*  with  it  than  with  an  account  of  all  the  pictures  in  the  world."  This 
calumet  of  peace  is  the  poor  man's  friend,  calms  the  mind,  soothes  the 
temper,  and  makes  men  patient  under  trouble,  and  hunger,  heat,  and 
despotism.  "  Quoique  puisse  dire,"  said  Molidre,  "  Aristotc  et  toute 
la  philosophic,  il  n'y  a  rien  d'^gal  au  tabac."  In  larderless  Spain  it  is 
meat  and  drink  both,  and  the  chief  smoke  connected  with  caterings 
for  the  mouth  issues  from  labial  chimneys. 

Tobacco,  this  anodyne  for  the  irritability  of  human  reason,  is,  like 
spirituous  liquors  which  make  it  drunk,  a  highly-taxed  article  in  civi- 
lized societies.  In  Spain,  the  Bourbon* dynasty  (as  elsewhere)  is  the 
hereditary  tobacconist-general ;  the  privilege  is  generally  farmed  out  to 
some  contractor :  accordingly,  a  really  good  home-made  cigar  is  with 
difficulty  to  be  had  in  the  Peninsula  for  love  or  money.  There  seems  to 
be  no  royal  road  to  the  science  of  cigar-making ;  the  article  is  badly 
made,  of  bad  materials,  and,  to  add  insult  to  injury,  charged  at  an 
exorbitant  price.  In  order  to  benefit  the  Havana,  tobacco  is  not  allowed 
to  be  grown  in  Spain,  which  it  would  do  perfectly  near  Malaga,  for 
when  the  experiment  was  made,  and  proved  successful,  the  cul- 
tivation was  immediately  prohibited  by  the  government  The  bad- 
ness and  deamess  of  the  royal  article  favours  the  well-meaning  smuggler ; 
and  this  corrector  of  blundering:  chancellors  of  exchequers  provides  a 
better  and  cheaper  thing  from  Gibraltar.  No  offence  is  more  dreadfully 
punished  in  Spain  than  that  of  tobacco-smuggling,  which  robs  the  royal 
pocket — all  other  robbery  is  as  nothing,  for  the  lieges  only  sufier. 

Spain.  xxiu.  Spanish  giqarito.  109 

The  encouragement  afforded  to  the  manufacture  and  smuggling  of 
cigars  at  Gibraltar  is  a  never-failing  source  of  ill  blood  and  ill  will 
between  the  Spanish  and  English  governments.  This  most  serious  evil 
is  contrary  to  treaties,  injurious  to  Spain  and  England  alike,  and  is 
beneficial  only  to  aliens  of  the  worst  character  who  form  the  real  plague 
and  sore  of  the  Rock. 

Many  tobacoose  epicures,  who  smoke  their  regular  dozen,  place  the 
supply  sufficient  for  the  day,  between  two  fresh  lettuce-leaves,  which 
improves  the  narcotic  effect.  Ferdinand  VII.  was  not  only  a  great 
manufacturer  but  consumer  of  certain  Purofnes,  a  large  thick  cigar 
made  expressly  for  his  gracious  ase  in  the  Havana,  and  of  the  vuelta 
de  ahajoj  the  very  best,  for  he  was  too  good  a  judge  to  smoke  his  own 
manufacture.  The  cigar  was  one  of  his  pledges  of  love  and  hatred : 
when  meditating  a  treacherous  cowp^  he  would  give  graciously  a  royal 
weed  to  a  minister,  and  when  the  happy  individual  got  home  to  smoke 
it,  he  was  saluted  by  an  alguacil  with  an  order  to  quit  Madrid  in  twenty- 
four  hours. 

The  bulk  of  Spaniards  cannot  afford  either  the  expense  of  tobacco, 
which  is  dear  to  them,  or  the  loss,  of  not  losing  time,  which  is  very 
<>heap,  by  smoking  a  whole  cigar :  a  single  cigar  furnishes  occupation 
and  recreation  for  half  an  hour.  Though  few  Spaniards  ruin  themselves 
in  libraries,  fewer  are  without  a  little  blank  book  of  papd  de  hilo,  a 
particular  paper  made  best  at  Alcoy,  in  Valencia.  At  any  pause  all  say 
•at  once — fv^es  senores !  echemos  wn  cigarito — well  then,  gentlemen,  let 
us  make  a  little  cigar :  when  forthwith  all  set  seriously  to  work ; 
every  Spaniard,  besides  this  book,  is  armed  with  a  small  case  of  flint, 
steel,  and  a  combustible  tinder,  ^^yesca,**  To  make  a  paper  cigar,  like 
putting  on  a  cloak,  flirting  a  fan,  or  clicking  castanets,  is  an  ope- 
ration of  much  more  difficulty  than  it  seems,  but  Spaniards,  who 
have  done  nothing  so  much  from  their  chHdhood  upwards,  per- 
form both  with  extreme  facility  and  neatness.  This  is  the  mode  : — 
the  petacca  (Arabic^  Butak),  a  cigar  case  worked  by  a  fair  hand  in 
coloured  pita  (the  thread  from  the  aloe),  is  taken  out— a  leaf  is  torn 
from  the  book,  which  is  held  between  the  lips,  or  downwards  from  the 
back  of  the  hand,  between  the  fore  and  middle  finger  of  the  left  hand — 
:a  portion  of  the  cigar,  about  a  third,  is  cut  off  and  rubbed  slowly  in  the 
palms  till  reduced  to  a  powder^ — ^it  is  then  jerked  into  the  paper-leaf, 
which  is  rolled  up  into  a  little  squib,  and  the  ends  doubled  down,  one 
of  which  is  bitten  off  and  the  other  end  is  lighted.  The  cigarillo  is 
smoked  slowly,  the  last  whiff  being  the  bonne  bouche,  the  breast,  la 
pedmga.  The  little  ends  are  thrown  away  (they  are  indeed  little,  for  a 
Spanish  fore-finger  and  thumb  is  quite  fire-browned  and  fire-proof). 
fk>me  polished  exquisites,  poUos,  use  silver  holders.  These  remnants  are 
picked  up  by  the  beggar-boys,  who  make  up  into  fresh  cigars  the 
leavings  of  a  thousand  mouths.  On  the  Prados  and  Alamedas  urchins 
always  are  running  about  with  a  rope  slowly  burning  for  the  benefit  of 
the  public.  At  many  of  the  sheds  where  water  and  lemonade  are  sold, 
one  of  these  ropes,  twirled  like  a  snake  round  a  post,  is  kept  always 
ignited,  as  the  match  of  a  besieged  artilleryman.  In  the  houses  of  the 
affluent  a  small  silver  chafing-dish,  prunce  haiillum,  filled  with  lighted 
^charcoal,  is  usually  placed  on  a  table.  This  necessity  of  a  light  levels  ai' 

110  XXIV.  SPANISH  COSTUME.  Sect.  I.. 

ranks ;  it  is  allowable  to  stop  any  person  in  the  streets,  for  fire,  "/wc^fo,'*' 
**  candela ;"  thus  a  cigar  forms  the  bond  of  union,  an  isthmus  of  com- 
munication between  most  heterogeneous  ranks  and  ages.  Some  of  the 
Spanish  fair  sex  are  said  to  indulge  in  a  quiet  cigariUa,  utwl  pajita ;  but 
it  is  not  thought  either  a  sign  of  a  real  lady,  or  of  one  of  rigid  virtue, 
to  have  recourse  to  stolen  and  forbidden  pleasures ;  for  whoever  make& 
one  basket  will  make  a  hundred — quien  hace  tm  cesto,  hara  un  ciento. 

Nothing  exposes  a  traveller  to  more  difficulty  than  carrying  tobacco 
in  his  luggage ;  whenever  he  has  more  than  a  certain  small  quantity,, 
let  him  never  conceal  it,  but  declare  it  at  every  gate,  and  be  provided 
with  <iguia,  or  permit.  Yet  all  will  remember  never  to  be  witbout  some 
cigars,  and  the  better  the  better ;  for  although  any  cigar  is  acceptable,, 
yet  a  real  good  one  is  more  tempting  than  the  apple  was  to  Eve.  The- 
greater  the  enjoyment  of  the  smoker,  the  greater  his  respect  for  the 
donor ;  a  cigar  may  be  given  to  everybody,  whether  high  or  low,  and  the 
petaca  may  be  presented,  just  as  a  Frenchman  of  La  vieille  cour  offered 
his  snuflf-box,  as  a  prelude  to  conversation.  It  is  an  act  of  civility,  and 
implies  no  superiority ;  there  is  no  humiliation  in  the  acceptance — it  i& 
twice  blessed — "  it  blesseth  him  that  gives  and  him  that  takes ;" — ^it  is 
the  spell  wherewith  to  charm  the  natives,  who  are  its  ready  and  obedient 
slaves,  and  a  cigar,  like  a  small  kind  word  spoken  in  time,  works  miracles* 
There  is  no  country  in  the  world  where  the  stranger  and  traveller  can 
purchase  for  half-a-crown,  half  the  love  and  good- will  which  its  invest-^ 
ment  in  tobacco  will  ensure :  a  man  who  grudges  or  neglects  it  is  neither 
a  philanthropist  nor  a  philosopher. 

Offer,  therefore,  your  cigar-case  freely  and  cheerfully,  dear  traveller^ 
when  on  the  road ;  but  if  you  value  your  precious  health  of  mind  or 
body,  your  mens  scma  in  corpore  sano,  l3ie  combined  and  greatest 
blessings  in  this  life,  use  this  bane  of  this  age  but  sparingly  your- 
self: abuse  it  not.  An  early  indulgence  in  this  vicious  and  expen- 
sive habit  saps  life.  The  deadening  influence  of  this  slow  but  sure 
poison  tampers  with  every  power  <;onferring  secretion  of  brain  and 
body ;  and  although  the  effects  may  not  be  felt  at  the  moment,  the 
cigaresque  spendthrift  is  drawing  bills  on  his  constitution  which  in  a 
few  years  assuredly  must  fall  due,  and  then,  when  too  late,  he  will  dis- 
cover what  far  higher  pleasures,  intellectual  and  physical,  have  been 
sacrificed  for  the  filthy  weed. 

XXIV. — Spanish  Costume — Cloak  and  Mantilla. 

The  Spaniards,  in  spite  of  the  invasions  of  French  milliners  and 
English  tailors,  have  retained  much  of  a  national  costume,  that  pic- 
turesque type,  which  civilization,  with  its  cheap  and  common-place 
calico,  is,  alas  1  busily  effacing.  As  progress  in  Spain  is  slow,  fortunately 
the  Capa  and  MantUla,  nowhere  else  to  be  met  with  in  Europe,  still 
remain  to  gladden  the  eye  of  the  stranger  and  artist,  and  however  they 
may  be  going  out  of  fashion  at  Madrid,  are  fortunately  preserved  in  the 

Dress,  from  its  paramount  importance,  demands  a  page.     We  strongly 

recommend  our  readers,  ladies  as  well  as  gentlemen,  whose  grand  object 

^ '  '*«  to  pass  in  the  crowd  incognito  and  unnoticed,  to  re-rig  themselves  out 

Spain.  XXIV.  Spanish  mantilla.  Ill 

at  the  first  great  town  at  which  they  arrive,  for  unless  they  are  dressed 
like  the  rest  of  the  world,  they  will  everywhere  be  stared  at,  and  be 
pestered  by  beggars,  who  particularly  attack  strangers. 

Black  from  time  immemorial  has  been  the  favourite,  the  national 
colour,  fUKavtifiov^s  Sjravres  to  irXciov  ev  cayois  (Strabo,  iii.  233).  This 
male  sa/jum  is  the  type  of  the  modern  saya  or  hasquina,  the  outer  petti- 
coat, feminine,  which  is  always  black,  and  is  put  over  the  indoor  dress 
on  going  out.  The  Greeks  translated  the  Tyrian  phrase  "  Bewitching 
of  naughtiness"  by  the  term  fiaa-Kavia.  Black,  the  colour  of  etiquette 
and  ceremony,  is  the  only  one  in  which  women  are  allowed  to  enter 
churches.  Being  that  of  the  learned  professions,  it  makes  Spaniards  seem 
wiser,  according  to  Charles  V.,  than  they  really  are ;  while,  from  being 
the  garb  of  the  bereaved,  it  disarms  the  evil  eye  which  dogs  prosperity, 
and  inspires,  instead  of  associations  of  envy,  those  of  pity  and  respect. 
It  gives  an  air  of  decorum  and  modesty,  and  softens  an  indifferent  skin. 
Every  one  in  England  has  been  struck  with  the  air  of  respectability 
which  mourning  confers,  even  on  ladies'  maids.  The  prevalence  of 
black  veils  and  dark  cloaks  on  the  Alameda  and  in  the  church,  convevs 
to  the  stranger  newly  arrived  in  Spain  the  idea  of  a  population  of  nuns 
and  clergymen.  As  far  as  woman  is  concerned,  the  dress  is  so  becoming, 
that  the  diflBculty  is  to  look  ugly  in  it ;  hence,  in  spite  of  the  monotony, 
we  are  jjleased  with  a  uniformity  which  becomes  all  alike ;  those  who 
cannot  see  its  merits  should  lose  no  time  in  consulting  their  oculist. 

The  beauty  of  the  Spanish  women  is  much  exaggerated,  and  more 
loveliness  is  to  be  seen  in  one  fine  day  in  Kegent-street  than  in  a  year 
in  Spain.  Their  charm  consists  in  symmetry  of  form,  grace  of  manner 
and  expression,  and  still  more,  as  in  the  case  of  a  carpor-ffaic  au  beurre 
noir,  in  the  dressing ;  yet,  such  is  the  tyranny  of  fashion,  that  many  of 
its  votaries  are  willing  to  risk  the  substance  for  the  shadow,  and  to  strive, 
instead  of  remaining  inimitable  originals,  to  become  second-rate  copies. 
Faithless  to  true  Espanolismo,  they  sacrifice  on  the  altar  of  La  mode  de 
Paris  even  attraction  itself.  The  CocoSf  or  cottons  of  Manchester,  are 
superseding  the  Alepines,  or  bombazeens  of  Valencia,  as  the  blinkers  and 
bonnets  of  the  Boulevards  are  eclipsing  the  Mantillas, 

The  Mantilla  is  the  aboriginal  female  head-gear.  Iberia,  in  the  early 
coins,  those  picture-books  of  antiquity,  is  represented  as  a  veiled  woman  ; 
the  KdkvTrTfM  fUkaivri  was  supported  by  a  sort  of  cock's-comb,  Kopa^,  and 
the  partial  concealment  of  the  features  was  thought  even  in  those  day& 
to  be  an  ornament  (Strabo,  iii.  164).  Thus  Poppasa,  according  to 
Tacitus,  managed  her  veil  quia  sic  decebat.  The  cara  tupida  or  tapada, 
or  face  so  enveloped,  was  always  respected  in  Spain,  and  even  Messalina 
shrouded  under  the  mantle  of  modesty  her  imperial  adulteries.  The 
Gothic  rrumtum  so  called,  says  S".  Isidore  {Or,  xix.  24),  quia  manus 
tegat  tantum,  was  made  of  a  thickish  cloth,  as  it  was  among  the  Cartha- 
ginians (see  the  Mantilia  of  Dido,  JEn,  iv.  705),  whence  the  Moorish 
name  Mantil,  The  Mantilla,  an  elegant  diminutive  of  the  Manto^  i& 
now  made  of  silk  or  lace ;  formerly  it  was  substituted  by  the  coarse 
petticoat  among  the  lower  classes,  who,  like  Sancho  Panza*s  wife,  turned 
them  over  their  heads  from  pure  motives  of  economy.  In  fact,  as  in  the 
East,  the  head  and  face  of  the  female  were  seats  of  honour,  and  never  to 
be  exposed ;  accordingly,  by  a  decree  of  Philip  IV.,  a  woman's  mantiUcf 


could  not  be  seized  for  debt,  not  even  in  case  of  the  crown.  From  being 
the  essential  article  of  female  gear,  the  manto  has  become  a  generic 
term,  and  has  given  its  name  to  our  milliners,  who  are  called  mantuu- 

There  are  three  kinds  of  mantillas,  and  no  lady  can  properly  do  without 
a  complete  set :  first  the  white,  used  on  grand  occasions,  birth-days, 
bull-fights,  and  Easter  Mondays,  and  is  composed  of  fine  blonde  or  lace 
embroidery ;  yet  it  is  not  becoming  to  Spanish  women,  whose  sallow  olive 
complexion  cannot  stand  the  contrast,  so  that  Adrian  compared  one  thus 
dressed  to  a  sausage  wrapt  up  in  white  paper.  The  second  is  black, 
made  of  raso  or  alepm,  satin  or  bombazeen,  often  edged  with  velvet,  and 
finished  off  with  deep  lace  fringe.  The  third,  used  on  ordinary  occa- 
sions, and  by  the  Fancy,  and  called  Mantilla  de  tira,  has  no  lace,  but 
is  made  of  black  silk  with  a  broad  band  of  velvet.  This,  the  veil  of  the 
Maja,  the  Oitana,  peculiarly  becomes  their  eye  of  diamond  and  their 
locks  of  jet.  The  Mantilla  used  to  be  suspended  on  a  high  comb, 
peineta,  and  then  crossed  over  the  bosom,  which  is,  moreover,  concealed 
by  a  panuelo,  or  handkerchief.  These  are  the  "  hoods  and  ushers  "  of 
Hudibras,  and  without  them,  unless  the  house  was  on  fire,  no  woman 
formerly  would  go  out  into  the  streets,  and  indeed  when  thus  enveloped 
nothing  can  be  more  decent  than  the  whole  upper  woman ;  matroncs 
prceter  faciem  nil  cemere  posses.  The  smallest  display  of  the  neck,  &c., 
ot  patriotismo,  is  thought  over-liberal  and  improper,  and  one  of  the  great 
secrets  of  a  Spanish  woman's  attraction  is,  that  most  of  her  charms  are 

The  Mantilla  is  kept  in  its  proper  place  by  the  fan,  aMnico,  which  is 
part  and  parcel  of  every  Spanish  woman,  whose  nice  conduct  of  it  leaves 
nothing  to  be  desired.  No  one  understands  the  art  and  exercise  of  it,  the 
manejo,  like  her :  it  is  the  index  of  her  soul,  the  telegraph  of  her  chame- 
lion  feelings,  her  signal  to  the  initiated,  which  they  understand  for  good 
or  evil  as  the  wagging  of  a  dog's  tail.  She  can  express  with  her  dumb 
fan  more  than  Paganini  could  with  his  fiddlestick.  A  handbook  might 
be  written  to  explain  the  code  of  signals.  Kemember  not  to  purchase 
any  of  the  old  Rococo  fans  which  will  be  offered  for  sale  at  Cadiz  and 
Seville  as  Spanish,  being  however  all  made  in  France ;  the  prices  asked 
are  exorbitant,  for  which  foolish  English  collectors  may  thank  them- 
selves. There  are  more  and  better  of  these  fans  to  be  had  in  Wardour- 
street  than  in  all  Andalucia,  and  for  a  quarter  of  the  money. 

The  Ma/ntilla,  properly  speaking,  ought  not  to  be  worn  with  curls, 
rizos,  recently  introduced  by  some  French  perruquiers;  these  are 
utterly  unsuited  to  the  melancholy  pensive  character  of  the  Spanish 
female  face  when  in  repose,  and  particularly  to  her  Moorish  eyes,  which 
never  passed  the  Pyrenees ;  indeed,  first-rate  amateurs  pronounce  the 
real  ojos  ardbes,  like  the  palm-tree,  to  be  confined  to  certain  localities. 
The  finest  are  "  raised  "  in  Andalucia ;  they  are  very  lull,  and  repose 
on  a  liquid  somewhat  yellow  bed,  of  an  almond  shape. 

The  Spanish  hair  is  the  glory  of  the  sex ;  herein,  like  Samson's,  is 

the  secret  of  her  strength,  for,  if  Pope  be  infallible,  "  Her  beauty  draws 

us  by  a  single  hair  " — Sancho  Panza  says  more  than  a  hundred  oxen. 

It  is  very  black,  thick,  and  often  coarser  than  a  courser's  tail,  especially 

'th  the  lower  classes  ;  nourished  by  copious  larding^  and  undwarfed 

Spmn.  XXIV.  SPANISH  CAPA.  113 

by  caps,  it  grows  like  the  "  bush,"  and  occasionally  becomes  the  well- 
stocked  preserve  of  ca^a  menor,  which  afford  constant  sport  and  occupa- 
tion to  most  picturesque  groups  a  la  MurUlo, 

The  hair  of  the  better  classes  is  attended  to  with  the  greatest  care, 
and  is  simply  braided  a  la  Madonna  over  a  high  forehead.  The  Iberian 
ladies,  reports  Strabo  (iii.  248),  were  very  proud  of  the  size  of  this 
palace  of  thought,  and  carefully  picked  out  the  irpoKo/xta,  the  superfluous 
items,  to  increase  its  dimensions.  The  Andaluza  places  a  real  flower, 
generally  a  rose  or  a  red  pink,  among  her  raven  locks ;  the  children 
continue  to  let  long  Carthaginian  plaited  Trensa  hang  down  their  backs. 
There  are  two  particular  curls  which  deserve  serious  attention :  they  are 
circular  and  flat,  and  are  fastened  with  white  of  egg  to  the  side  of  each 
cheek :  they  are  called  PatiUas  or  Picardias,  Rogueries — Caracoles  de 
Amor — the  French  accroches  coeur,  "  springes  to  catch  woodcocks." 
These  are  Oriental.  Some  female  mummies  have  been  discovered  with 
their  patillas  perfectly  preserved  and  gummed  on  after  3000  years :  the 
ruling  passion  strong  in  death  (Wilk.  ii.  370).  The  Spanish  she-Goths 
were  equally  particular.  S".  Isidoro  (Or.  xix.  31)  describes  some  curls, 
ancice,  with  a  tact  which  becomes  rather  the  Barhiere  de  Sevilla  than 
its  archbishop.  When  an  Andaluza  turns  out  with  her  hair  dressed  in 
its  best,  she  is  capable,  like  Eoxalana,  of  upsetting  empires,  trastomar 
el  mundo. 

Thus  much  for  our  fair  readers ;  one  word  now  on  the  chief  item  of 
male  costume  in  Spain.  The  cloak,  capa,  is  to  man  what  the  saya  and 
'inantitta  are  to  woman.  The  Spaniards  represent  the  gens  togata  of 
antiquity,  and  their  capa  is  the  unchanged  Paenula,  Teficwa,  This 
emblem  of  civilization  and  symbol  of  Roman  influence  was  introduced 
into  Spain  by  Sertorius,  who,  by  persuading  the  natives  to  adopt  the 
dress,  soon  led  them  to  become  the  admirers,  then  subjects,  of  Rome — 
Cedent  arma  togce.  The  Andalucians  (Strabo,  iii.  264)  were  among  the 
first  to  follow  this  foreign  fashion.  They  gloried  in  their  finery  like  the 
Germans,  not  seeing  in  this  livery,  as  Tacitus  did,  a  real  badge  of  the 
loss  of  national  independence — "  Inde  habitus  nostri  honor,  et  frequens 
toga,  idque  apud  imperitos,  humanitas  vocabatur,  cum  pars  cervitutis 
esset."  Much  the  same  case  is  now  going  on  with  French  bonnets  and 
English  coats ;  the  masses  of  Spaniards  have  never  left  oflf  their  cloaks 
and  jackets.  This  jacket,  the  ancient  x'to>v»  tunica,  synthesis,  was 
worn  by  the  Carthaginians  (Plant.  Poen,  v.  2),  just  as  it  is  now  by  the 
Moors.  The  Spaniards  live  in  jackets,  they  are  the  "  tunicatus  pr(h 
peUics  "  of  Europe.  Augustus  Caesar,  who,  according  to  Suetonius,  was 
chilly,  wore  as  many  as  Hamlet's  gravedigger  does  waistcoats.  Fer- 
dinand VII.,  the  week  before  his  death,  who  gave  a  farewell  audience  to 
a  foreign  minister  in  a  jacket,  died  in  harness :  like  him  and  Caesar, 
Spaniards,  when  in  the  bosom  of  their  families,  seldom  wear  any  other 
dress.  0  ttmicata  guies  1  exclaims  Martial  (x.  51) ;  nor  can  anything 
ever  exceed  the  comfort  of  a  well-made  Zamarra,  a  word  derived  from 
Simiir — mustela  Scythica,  The  merit  and  obvious  origin  of  this  sheep- 
skin costume  account  for  its  antiquity  and  unchanged  usage.  S". 
Isidoro  (Or.  xix.  24)  calls  it paUium,  apeUe, 

The  capa  is  cut  in  a  peculiar  manner  and  rounded  at  the  bottom  ;  the 
circumference  of  the  real  and  correct  thing  is  seven  yards  all  but  three 

114  XXIV.  SPANISH  CLOAK.  Sect.  I* 

inches  and  a  half:  "&^s  ter  ulnarum  toga.  As  cloaks,  like  coats,  are 
cut  according  to  a  man's  cloth,  a'  scanty  capa^  like  the  "  toga  arcta  '*  of 
Horace,  does  not  indicate  affluence  or  even  respectability.  S".  Isidoro 
did  well  to  teach  his  Goths  that  their  toga  was  a  tegendo,  because  it 
concealed  the  whole  man,  as  it  does  now,  and  well,  provided  it  be  a 
good  one ;  una  huena  capa,  todo  tapa.  It  covers  a  multitude  of  sins,, 
and  especially  pride  and  poverty — the  twin  sisters  of  Iberia.  The 
ample  folds  and  graceful  drapery  give  breadth  and  throw  an  air  of 
stately  decency — nay,  dignity— over  the  wearer ;  it  not  only  conceals 
tatters  and  nakedness,  but  appears  to  us  to  invest  the  pauper  with  the 
abstract  classicality  of  an  ancient  peripatetic  philosopher,  since  we  never 
see  this  costume  of  Solons  and  Cassars  except  in  the  British  Museum. 
A  genuine  Spaniard  would  sooner  part  with  his  skin  than  his  capa ; 
thus  when  Charles  III.  wanted  to  prohibit  their  use,  the  people  rose  in 
arms,  and  the  Squillacci,  or  anti-cloak  ministry,  was  turned  out.  The 
capa  fits  a  Spaniard  admirably  ;  it  favours  habits  of  inactivity,  prevents 
the  over-zealous  arms  or  elbows  from  doing  anything,  conceals  a  knife 
and  rags,  and,  when  muffled  around,  offers  a  disguise  for  intrigues  and 
robbery;  capa  yespada  accordingly  became  the  generic  tenn  for  the 
profligate  comedy  which  portrayed  the  age  of  Philip  IV. 

The  Spanish  clergy  never  appear  in  public  without  this  capa,  and 
the  readers  of  the  Odyssey  need  not  be  reminded  of  the  shifts  to  which 
Ulysses  was  put  when  "  he  left  his  cloak  behind."  St.  Paul  was 
equally  anxious  about  his,  when  he  wrote  his  Second  Epistle  to 
Timothy ;  and  Kaphael  has  justly  painted  him  in  the  cartoon,  when 
preaching  at  Athens,  wearing  his  cloak  exactly  as  the  Spanish  people 
do  at  this  moment.  Nothing  can  appear  more  ludicrous  to  a  Spanish 
eye  than  the  scanty,  narrow,  capeless,  scapegrace  cloaks  of  English  cut : 
the  wearer  of  one  will  often  see  the  lower  classes  grinning,  without 
knowing  why.  They  are  staring  at  his  cloak,  its  shape,  and  way  of 
putting  it  on.  When  a  stranger  thinks  that  he  is  perfectly  incognito^ 
he  is  pointed  out  to  the  very  children,  and  is  the  observed  of  all 
observers.  All  this  is  easily  prevented  by  attention  to  a  few  simple 
mles.  No  one  can  conceive  the  fret  and  petty  continual  worry  to 
which  a  stranger  is  exposed  both  from  beggars  and  the  impertinente 
curioso  tribe  by  being  always  found  out ;  it  embitters  every  step  he 
takes,  mars  all  I)rivacy,  and  keeps  up  a  continual  petty  fever  and  ill- 

A  wise  man  will  therefore  get  his  cloak  made  in  Spain,  and  by  a 
Spanish  tailor,  and  the  more  like  that  most  generally  worn  the  better. 
He  may  choose  it  of  blue  colour,  and  let  the  broad  hem  or  stripe  be 
lined  with  black  velvet ;  red  or  fancy  colours  and  silks  are  muy  charro, 
gaudy  and  in  bad  taste  :  he  mrist  never  omit  a  cape — dengue  esdavina, 
whence  our  old  term  sclaveyn.  A  capa  without  a  cape  is  like  a  cat 
without  a  tail.  As  the  clerical  capa  is  always  black,  and  distinguished 
from  the  lay  one  by  its  not  having  a  cape.  Whenever  an  Englishman 
comes  out  with  a  blue  cloak  and  no  cape,  it  appears  quite  as  ludicrous 
to  Spanish  eyes  as  to  see  a  gentleman  in  a  sack  or  in  a  red  cassock.  It 
is  applying  a  form  of  cut  peculiar  only  to  clergymen  to  colours  which 
are  only  worn  by  laymen.  Having  got  a  correct  capa,  the  next  and 
not  less  important  step  is  to  know  how  to  wear  it ;  the  antique  is  the 

Spain.  XXIV.  how  to  put  it  on.  11^ 

true  model ;  either  the  capa  is  allowed  to  hang  simply  down  from  the 
shoulders,  or  it  is  folded  in  the  emhozo,  or  a  lo  majo :  the  emhozar  con- 
sists in  taking  up  the  right  front  fold  and  throwing  it  over  the  left 
shoulder,  thus  muffling  up  the  mouth,  while  the  end  of  the  fold  hangs- 
half  way  down  the  hack  behind;  it  is  difficult  to  do  this  neatly, 
although  all  Spaniards  can  ;  for  they  have  been  practising  nothing  else 
from  the  age  of  breeches,  as  they  assume  the  toga  almost  when  they 
leave  off  petticoats.  No  force  is  required ;  it  is  done  by  a  knack,  a 
sleight  of  hand :  the  cloak  is  jerked  over  the  shoulder,  which  is  gently 
raised  to  meet  and  catch  it ;  this  is  the  precise  form  of  the  ancients^ 
the  apafiaXKco'dai  of  Athenaeus  (i.  18),  The  Goths  wore  it  in  the  same 
manner  {S^-  Isidore,  Or.  xix.  24).  When  the  emhozo  is  arranged,  two- 
fingers  of  the  right  hand  are  sometimes  brought  up  to  the  mouth  and 
protrude  beyond  the  fold  :  they  serve  either  to  hold  a  cigar  or  to  tele- 
graph a  passing  friend.  It  must  be  remembered  by  foreigners  that,  as- 
among  the  ancient  Eomans  (Suet,  in  Claudy  vi.),  it  is  not  considered 
respectful  to  remain  embozado  on  ceremonious  occasions.  Uncloaking  is- 
equivalent  to  taking  ofif  the  hat ;  Spaniards  always  uncloak  when  Su 
Majestad,  the  host  or  the  king,  passes  by,  the  lower  orders  uncloak 
when  speaking  to  a  superior  :  whenever  the  traveller  sees  one  not  do  that 
with  hirrij  let  him  he  on  his  gv>ard,  Spaniards,  when  attending  a  funeral 
service  in  a  church,  do  not  rend,  but  leave  their  cloaks  at  home  behind 
them  :  the  etiquette  of  mourning  is  to  go  without  their  capa.  As  this- 
renders  them  more  miserable  than  fish  out  of  water,  the  manes  of  the 
deceased  must  necessarily  be  gi-atified  by  the  sincerity  of  the  sorrow  of 
his  surviving  and  shivering  friend. 

The  majo  fashion  of  the  wearing  the  cloak,  is  that  which  is  adopted 
by  the  chvlos  when  they  walk  in  procession  around  the  arena,  before 
the  bull-fight  commences.  It  is  managed  thus  :  take  the  right  front 
fold,  and  whip  it  rapidly  under  the  left  elbow,  pressing  down  at  tho 
same  time  the  left  elbow  to  catch  it ;  a  sort  of  deep  bosom,  the  ancient 
umbo,  sinus,  is  thus  fonned,  and  the  arms  are  left  at  liberty.  The- 
celebrated  Aristides  at  Naples  is  cloaked  somewhat  in  this  fashion.  We 
strongly  advise  the  newly  arrived  traveller  to  get  his  tailor  or  some 
Spaniard  just  to  give  him  a  few  lessons  how  to  perform  these  various 
evolutions ;  without  this  he  will  never  pass  in  a  crowd.  If  he  puts 
his  cloak  on  awkwardly  he  will  be  thought  a  quiz,  which  is  no  element 
of  success  in  society.  Everybody  knows  that  Cicero  adopted  the  cause 
of  Pompey  in  preference  to  that  of  Caesar — because  he  concluded,  from 
the  unintellectual  manner  in  which  the  future  dictator  wore  his  cloak, 
that  he  never  could  turn  out  to  be  a  great  man.  Caesar  improved  as- 
he  grew  older,  when  nothing  fidgeted  him  more  than  any  person's  dis- 
turbing the  peace  of  his  sinus  (Suet.  82,  and  see  the  note  ot  Pitiscus) ;. 
and,  lifee  the  Egyptian  ladies'  curls,  the  ruling  passion  was  strong  in 
his  death,  for  he  arranged  his  cloak  as  his  last  will  and  deed.  Cata 
and  Virgil  were  laughed  at  for  their  awkward  togas ;  no  Englishman 
can  pass  for  a  great  man  in  Spain,  unless  his  Spanish  valet  thinks  so* 
when  he  is  cloaked. 

The  better  classes  of  Spaniards  wear  the  better  classes  of  cloth.  The 
lower  continue  to  cover  their  aboriginal  sheepskin  with  the  aboriginal 
cloth.     The  fine  wools  of  Spain — ^an  ancient  Merino  sold  in  Strabo's- 

116  XXIV.   SPANISH  CLOTH.  Sect.  I. 

time  for  a  talent  (iii.  213) — ^produced  a  corresponding  article,  insomuch 
that  these  Hispance  coccince  were  the  presents  which  the  extravagant 
Chloe  gave  her  lover  (Mart.  iv.  27).  The  poor  were  contented  then, 
as  now,  with  a  thick  double  cloth,  the  **  duplex  pannus^*  of  poverty 
and  patience  (Hor.  1  Ep.  xvii.  25),  and  it  was  always  made  from  the 
brown  undyed  wool ;  and  there  are  always  several  black  sheep  in  every 
Spanish  flock,  as  in  all  their  cortes  and  juntas.  Their  undyed  wools 
formed  the  exact  LacemcB  Boeticoe  (Martial,  xiv.  133),  and  the  best  are 
still  made  at  Grazalema.  The  cloth,  from  the  brown  colour,  is  called 
"  pano  pardo"  This  is  the  mixed  red  rusty  tint  for  which  Spain  was 
renowned — ^^ferrugine  clarus  Iberd;^^  among  the  Goths  the  colour  was 
simply  called  "  Spanish,"  just  as  our  word  drab,  incorrectly  used  as  a 
colour,  was  originally  taken  from  the  French  drap,  cloth,  which  hap- 
pened to  be  undyed.  Drab  is  not  more  the  livery  of  our  footmen  and 
Quakers,  than  "  brown  "  is  of  Spain,  whether  man  or  mountain — gente 
or  Sierra  Morena.  The  Manchegans  especially  wear  nothing  but 
jackets  and  breeches  of  this  stuff  and  colour,  and  well  may  their  king 
call  his  royal  seat  **  elpardo,^*  Their  metaphors  are  tinctured  with  it. 
They  call  themselves  the  "  browns,"  just  as  we  call  the  Africans  the 
blacks,  or  modem  Minervas  the  blues  :  thus  they  will  say  of  a  shrewd 
peasant — ^Yorkshire — "  Mas  sabe  con  su  grammatica  parda  que  no  el 
escribano ;"  he  knows  more  with  his  brown  grammar  than  the  attorney. 
The  pane  pardo  is  very  thick,  not  only  to  last  longer,  but  because  the 
cloak  is  the  shield  and  buckler  of  quarrelsome  people,  who  wrap  it 
round  the  left  arm.  The  assassins  of  Cassar  did  the  same,  when  they 
rushed  with  their  bloody  daggers  through  frightened  Rome  (App.  B,  G. 
ii.  503).  Caesar  himself,  when  in  danger  at  the  battle  of  Lerida,  did 
the  same  thing  {Bell.  Civ.  i.  67).  The  Spaniards  in  the  streets,  the 
moment  the  sharp  click  of  the  opened  knife  is  heard,  or  their  adversary 
stoops  to  pick  up  a  stone,  whisk  their  cloaks  round  their  left  arms  with 
marvellous  and  most  classical  rapidity.  Petronius  Arbiter  (c.  30)  de- 
scribes them  to  the  life — "  Intorto  circum  brachium  pallio  composui  ad 
prseliandum  gradum."  There  is  no  end  to  Spanish  proverbs  on  the 
cloak.  They  wear  it  in  summer  because  it  keeps  out  heat ;  in  winter 
because  it  keeps  out  cold.  Por  sol  que  haga,  ne  dejes  tu  capa  en  casa-^ 
the  common  trick  upon  a  traveller  is  to  steal  his  cloak.  Del  Andaluz 
guarda  tu  capuz.  A  cloak  is  equivalent  to  independence,  debajo  mi 
manto,  veo  y  cantOy  1  laugh  in  my  sleeve ;  and,  even  if  torn  and  tat- 
tered, it  preserves  its  virtue  like  that  of  San  Martin ;  debajo  de  una  capa 
rota,  hay  buen  bebidor — there  is  many  a  good  drinker  under  a  bundle 
of  rags. 

The  Spaniards  as  a  people  are  remarkably  well  dressed ;  the  lower 
orders  retain  their  peculiar  and  picturesque  costume ;  the  better  classes 
imitate  the  dress  of  an  English  gentleman,  and  come  nearer  to  our  ideas 
of  that  character  than  do  most  other  foreigners.  Their  sedate  lofty  port 
gives  that  repose  and  quiet  which  is  wanting  to  our  mercurial  neigh- 
bours. The  Spaniard  is  proud  of  himself,  not  vain  of  his  coat ;  he  is 
cleanly  in  his  person  and  consistent  in  his  apparel ;  there  is  less  of  the 
*'  diamond  pins  in  dirty  shirts,"  as  Walter  Scott  said  of  some  conti- 
nental exquisites.  Not  that  the  genus  dandy,  the  PoUo,  does  not  exist 
in  Spain,  but  he  is  an  exotic  when  clad  in  a  coat.    The  real  dandy  is 

Spain.  XXIV.   SPANISH  LOVE  OF  DRESS.  117 

tbe  "  majOf*^  in  his  half-Moorish  jacket.  The  elegant,  in  a  long-tailed 
**A«;«>"  is  a  bad  copy  of  a  bad  imitation — a  London  cockney,  filtered 
through  a  Boulevard  badaud.  These  harmless  animals,  these  exquisite 
vegetables,  are  called  Uchuginos,  which  signifies  both  a  sucking  pig  and 
a  small  lettuce.  The  Andalucian  dandies  were  in  the  war  called 
paqtieteSf  because  they  used  to  import  the  last  and  correct  thing  from 
England  by  the  packet-boat.  Such  are  the  changes,  the  ups  and 
downs,  of  coats  and  countries.  Now  the  Spaniards  look  to  us  for 
models,  while  our  ancestors  thought  nothing  came  up 

*'  To  the  refined  traveller  from  Spain, 
A  man  in  all  the  world's  new  fashions  planted ! " 

The  variety  of  costumes  which  appear  on  the  Spanish  public  ala^ 
medas  renders  the  scene  far  gayer  than  that  of  our  dull  uniform  walks ; 
the  loss  of  the  parti-coloured  monks  will  be  long  felt  to  the  artist. 
The  gentlemen  in  their  capas  mingle  with  the  ladies  in  their  Tnantillas. 
The  white-kilted  Valencian  contrasts  with  the  velveteen  glittering  An- 
dalucian ;  the  sable-clad  priest  with  the  soldier  ;  the  peasant  with  the 
muleteer  :  all  meet  on  perfect  equality,  as  in  church,  and  all  conduct 
themselves  with  equal  decorum,  good  breeding,  and  propriety.  Few 
Spaniards  ever  walk  arm-in-arm,  and  still  less  do  a  Spanish  lady  and 
gentleman — scarcely  even  those  whom  the  holy  church  has  made  one. 
There  is  no  denial  to  which  all  classes  and  sexes  of  Spaniards  will  not 
cheerfully  submit  in  order  to  preserve  a  respectable  external  appear- 
ance. This  formed  one  of  the  most  marked  characteristics  of  the  Ibe- 
rians, who,  in  order  to  display  magnificence  on  their  backs,  pinched 
their  bellies.  The  ancient  Deipnosophists  (Athen.  ii.  6 ;  Strabo,  iii. 
232),  who  preferred  lining  their  ribs  with  good  capons,  rather  than 
their  cloaks  with  ermine,  wondered  at  the  shifts  and  starvation  endured 
by  poor  gentlemen  in  order  to  strut  about  in  rich  clothes,  and  forms  one 
of  the  leading  subjects  of  wit  in  all  their  picaresque  novels  :  "  silks 
and  satins  put  out  the  kitchen  fire,"  says  poor  Richard.  Spaniards, 
even  the  wealthy,  only  really  dress  when  they  go  out,  and  when  they 
come  home  return  to  a  dishabille  which  amounts  to  dowdiness.  Those 
who  are  less  affluent  carefully  put  by  their  out-of-door  costume,  which 
consequently,  as  in  the  East,  lasts  for  many  years,  and  forms  one 
reason,  among  many  others,  why  mere  fashions  change  so  little :  an- 
other reason  why  all  Spaniards  in  public  are  so  well  dressed  is,  that, 
unless  they  can  appear  as  they  think  they  ought,  they  do  not  go  out  at 
all.  In  the  far-spread  poverty  many  families  remain  at  home  during 
the  whole  day,  thus  retiring  and  presenting  the  smallest  mark  for  evil 
fortune  to  peck  at.  They  scarcely  stir  out  for  weeks  and  months ; 
adversity  produces  a  keener  impatience  of  dishonour  than  was  felt  in 
better  days,  a  more  morbid  susceptibility,  an  increased  anxiety  to 
withdraw  from  those  places  and  that  society  where  a  former  equality 
can  no  longer  be  maintained.  The  recluses  steal  out  at  early  dawn  to 
the  missa  de  madrugada,  the  daybreak  mass,  which  is  expressly  cele- 
brated for  the  consolation  of  all  who  must  labour  for  their  bread,  all 
who  get  up  early  and  lie  down  late,  and  that  palest  and  leanest  form  of 
poverty,  which  is  ready  to  work  but  findeth  none  to  employ.  When 
the  sad  congregation  have  offered  up  their  petition  for  relief,  they 

118  XXV.   HINTS  ON  CONDUCT.  Scct.  I. 

return  to  cheerless  homes,  to  brood  in  concealment  over  their  fallen 
fortunes.  At  dusky  nightfall  they  again  creep,  bat-likej  out  to  breathe 
the  air  of  heaven,  and  meditate  on  new  schemes  for  hiding  the  morrow's 

XXV. — Hints  on  Conduct — ^Dbess — Creed — ^Visitino — ^Modes  of 

Address,  &c. 

In  conclusion  and  recapitulation,  a  few  hints  may  be  useful  to  the 
stranger  in  Spain  as  to  conduct.  The  observance  of  a  few  rules  in  a 
<x)untry  where  "  manners  maketh  man  "  will  render  the  traveller's 
path  one  of  peace  and  pleasantness.  First  and  foremost,  never  forget 
that  the  Spaniard  is  of  a  very  high  caste,  and  a  gentleman  by  innate 
aristocracy ;  proud  as  Lucifer  and  combustible  as  his  matches,  he  is 
punctilious  and  touchy  on  the  point  of  honour ;  make  therefore  the 
lirst  advances,  or  at  least  meet  him  a  little  more  than  half  way ;  treat 
him,  be  his  class  what  it  may,  as  a  CabaUero,  a  gentleman,  and  an  old 
and  well-bom  Christian  one,  Cristiano  viefo  y  rancio,  and  therefore  as 
your  equal.  When  his  self-esteem  and  personal  sensitiveness  are  thus 
once  conciliated,  he  is  quick  to  return  the  compliment,  and  to  pay 
every  deference  to  the  judicious  stranger  by  whom  he  is  put  in  his 
proper  place  ;  all  attempt  to  bully  and  browbeat  is  loss  of  time,  as  this 
stiff-necked,  obstinate  people  may  be  turned  by  the  straw  of  courtesy, 
but  are  not  to  be  driven  by  a  rod  of  iron,  still  less  if  wielded  by  a 
foreigner,  to  despise  whom  is  the  essense  of  nationality  or  Espanolismo. 
It  need  scarcely  be  said,  in  a  land  so  imbued  with  Orientalisms,  that 
the  greatest  respect  is  to  be  paid  to  the  fair  sex  for  its  own  sake,  what- 
ever be  woman's  age,  condition,  or  appearance — ^nor  will  love's  labour  be 
lost.  On  landing  "at  Calais,  the  sooner  May  fair  is  wiped  out  of  the  tablets 
of  memory  the  better,  nor  can  any  one,  once  in  Spaiu,  too  constantly 
remember  to  forget  England.  How  few  there,  or  indeed  any  where  on 
the  Continent,  sympathise  with  our  wants  and  habits,  or  understand  our 
love  of  truth  and  cold  water ;  our  simple  manly  tastes  ;  our  contempt 
for  outward  show  compared  to  real  comfort;  our  love  of  exercise, 
adventure,  and  alternate  quiet,  and  of  all  that  can  only  be  learnt  at  our 
public  schools.     Your  foreigner  has  no  Winchester  or  Eton. 

Civil  words  and  keeping  out  of  mischiefs  way  arev  everywhere  the 
best  defence.  Never  grudge  wearing  out  a  hat  or  two  by  touching  it  or 
taking  it  off;  this  is  hoisting  the  signal  of  truce,  peace,  and  good  will ; 
the  sensitive  Spaniard  stiffens  when  hats  are  not  off,  and  bristles  up  like 
a  porcupine  against  the  suspicion  of  a  desaire.  Be  especially  polite  to 
officials,  from  the  odious  custom-house  upwards ;  it  is  no  use  kicking 
against  the  powers  that  be ;  if  you  ruffle  them  they  can  worry  you, 
by  a  relentless  doing  their  duty :  these  nuisances  are  better  palliated 
by  honey  than  vinesjar  ;  and  many  of  the  detentions  and  difficulties  of 
our  unwise  travellers  are  provoked  by  uncourteous  demeanor,  and 
growlings  in  a  tongue  as  unknown  to  the  natives  as  the  Englishman 
was  to  Portia — "  He  understands  not  me,  nor  I  him."  Dismiss  the 
nonsense  of  robbers  from  your  head,  avoiding,  however,  all  indiscreet 
exhibition  of  tjempting  baits,  or  chattering  about  your  plans  and 
Tiovements.  By  common  preparation  mere  footpads  are  baffled :  to 
tempt  resistance  against  an  organised  band  is  sheer  folly :  do  not 

Spain.  XXV.  HINTS  ON  COSTUME.  119 

mix  yourself  with  Spanish  politics  or  civil  wars  —  leave  them  to 
exterminate  each  other  to  their  liking,  like  Kilkenny  cats.  Avoid 
logomachies,  or  trying  to  convince  the  natives  against  their  will ;  it  is 
arguing  against  a  north-east  wind,  and  a  sheer  loss  of  time,  too ;  for, 
in  a  fine,  indolent  climate,  where  there  is  little  to  do — no  liberty  of 
press  or  circulating  libraries — the  otiose  twaddlers  spin  Castilian  non- 
sense by  the  yard.  Mind  your  own  business,  and  avoid  things  that  do 
not  concern  you,  taking  especial  care  not  to  intermeddle. 

In  the  large  towns  the  costume  of  an  English  gentleman  is  the  best ; 
avoid  all  semi-bandit,  fancy-ball  extravagances  in  dress  ;  hoist,  indeed, 
British  colours  there  as  everywhere.  Thin  cashmere  or  cuhica  is  far 
preferable  to  cloth,  which  is  intolerable  in  the  hot  weather.  Pay  daily 
visits  to  Figaro,  and  carefully  eschew  the  Brutus  beards,  and  generally, 
everything  which  might  lead  the  bulk  of  Spaniards  to  do  you  the 
grievous  injury  of  mistaking  your  native  country.  A  capa  or  cloak 
used  to  be  absolutely  essential,  and  is  so  out  of  Madrid,  paletots  not- 
^vithstanding :  and  how  much  in  appearance  and  in  health  have  those 
Spaniards  lost,  who,  like  the  Turks,  ape  the  externals  of  foreign 
civilization;  how  skimpy  and  pigmy  and  common-place  they  look 
stripped  of  their  ample  folds :  let  your  cloak  be  of  plain  blue  colour, 
faced  with  black  velvet.  Remember  to  get  it  made  in  Spain,  or  it  will 
not  be  cut  full  enough  to  be  able  to  be  worn  as  the  natives  do  :  take 
particular  care  that  it  has  a  cape,  dengue^  esdavina,  imless  you  wish  t^ 
be  an  object  of  universal  attention  and  ridicule ;  and  mind  to  let  your 
tailor  give  you  a  few  lessons  how  to  put  it  on  like  a  Spaniard,  and  to 
show  you  the  different  modes  of  muffling  up  the  face,  a  precaution 
necessary  in  the  Castiles,  where  the  cold  airs,  if  inhaled,  bring  on 
sudden  and  dangerous  ptUmonia,  This  artificial  respirator  keeps  out 
both  the  assassin  breath  of  cold,  and  the  salitrose  dust.  No  English- 
made  capa  can  be  properly  embozada,  that  is,  have  its  right  fold  thrown 
over  the  mouth  and  left  shoulder,  descending  neatly  half-way  down 
the  back.  Our  cloaks  are  much  too  scanty,  no  tien&n  hastante  vuelo. 
In  the  conduct  of  cloaks,  remember,  when  you  meet  any  one,  being 
yourself  emhozado  or  muffled  up,  to  remove  the  folds  before  you  address 
him,  as  not  to  do  so  is  a  great  incivility  :  again,  when  strangers  con- 
tinue to  speak  to  you  thus  cloaked,  and  as  it  were  disguised,  be  on  your 

Take  great  care,  when  actually  travelling,  to  get  the  passport 
refrendado  y  corriente  in  time,  and  to  secure  long  beforehand  places  in 
the  public  conveyance.  Carry  the  least  possible  luggage  you  can, 
never  forgetting  that  none  is  so  heavy  and  useless  in  Spain  as  precon- 
ceived prejudices  and  conventional  foregone  conclusions,  although  of 
genuine  London  or  Paris  manufacture.  When  you  arrive  at  the  place 
of  your  destination,  if  you  wish  to  do  or  see  anything  out  of  the 
common  way,  call  on  the  jefe  politico,  or  comandante  de  armas,  or  chief 
authority,  to  state  frankly  your  object,  and  request  his  permission. 
For  travelling,  especially  on  riding  tours  and  in  all  out-of-the-way 
districts,  adopt  the  national  costume  of  the  road ;  to  wit,  the  peaked 
hat,  Sombrero  gacTw,  calanes,  the  jacket  of  fur,  the  Zamarray  or  the 
one  of  cloth,  the  Marselles ;  the  grand  object  is  to  pass  incog,  in  the 
crowd,  or  if  noticed,  to  be  taken  for  a  native.    You  will  thus  avoid 

120  XXV.   HINTS  ON  CHURCH  MATTERS.  Sect.  I. 

being  the  observed  of  all  observers,  and  a  thousand  other  petty  annoy- 
ances which  destroy  privacy  and  ruffle  temper.  You  may  possibly 
thus  escape  the  beggars,  which  are  the  plague  of  Spain,  and  have  a 
knack  of  finding  out  a  stranger,  and  of  worrying  and  bleeding  him 
as  effectually  as  the  mosquitos.  The  regular  form  of  uncharitable 
rejection  is  as  follows : — Perdone  V,  ( Usted)  por  Dios,  JSermano  ? — 
My  brother,  will  you  excuse  me,  for  God's  sake  ?  If  this  request  be 
gravely  said,  the  mendicant  gives  up  hope  of  coppers.  Any  other 
answer  except  this  specific  one,  only  encourages  importunity,  as  the 
beggars  either  do  not  believe  in  the  reality  of  the  refusal,  or  see  at 
once  that  you  are  not  a  Spaniard,  and  therefore  never  leave  off,  until  in 
despair  you  give  them  hush-money  to  silence  their  whine,  thus  bribing 
them  to  relieve  you  from  the  pleasure  of  their  company. 

Ladies  will  do  well  to  adopt  the  national  and  most  becoming  man- 
tiHa,  although  in  large  towns  the  hideous  bonnet  is  creeping  in.  They 
must  also  remember  that  females  are  nojt  admitted  into  churches  except 
in  veils ;  black  also  used  to  be  the  correct  colour  for  dress.  Spanish 
women  generally  seat  themselves  on  the  pavement  when  at  prayers ; 
it  is  against  all  ecclesiastical  propriety  for  a  lady  and  gentleman,  even 
man  and  wife,  to  walk  about  arm  in  arm  in  a  church.  Spaniards,  on 
passing  the  high  altar,  always  bow ;  beware  of  talking  during  mass, 
when  the  ringing  of  a  little  bell  indicates  the  elevation  of  the  Host,  and 
the  actual  presence  of  the  incarnate  Deity.  It  is  usual  to  take  off  hats 
and  kneel  when  the  consecrated  wafer  is  carried  by  in  the  streets ;  and 
those  Protestants  who  object,  should  get  out  of  the  way,  and  not  offend  the 
weaker  brethren  by  a  rude  contempt  of  their  most  impressive  ceremonial. 

Protestants  should  observe  some  reserve  in  questions  of  creed, 
and  never  play  tricks  with  the  faith  or  the  eye ;  con  el  qfo  y  la  /e, 
nunca  me  hurlare.  There  is  no  sort  of  religious  toleration  in  Spain, 
where  their  belief  is  called  la  Fe,  and  is  thought  to  be  the  faith,  and 
the  only  true  one.  You  may  smile,  as  Spaniards  do,  at  a  corpulent 
canon,  and  criticise  what  he  practises,  but  take  care  to  respect  what  he 
preaches.  You  will  often  be  asked  if  you  are  a  Christian,  meaning  a 
Eoman  Catholic ;  the  best  answer  is,  Cristiano,  si,  JRomano  Catolico, 
no.  Distributors  of  Protestant  tracts  will  labour  in  vain,  and  find  that 
to  try  to  convert  a  Spaniard  is  but  waste  of  time.  The  influence  of 
the  Voltaire  school  with  the  propagandism  of  revolution  and  atheism, 
has  sapped  much,  both  of  the  loyalty  and  religion,  of  the  old 
Castilian ;  but  however  the  cause  of  the  Vatican  may  be  injured,  that 
of  Protestantism  is  little  advanced :  for  there  is  no  via  media,  no  Bible 
in  Spain  ;  Deism  and  infidelity  are  the  only  alternatives,  and  they  are 
on  the  increase.  The  English  are  thought  to  have  no  faith  at  all, — to 
believe  neither  in  the  Pope  or  Mahomet,  but  in  gold  and  cotton  alone  ; 
nor  is  this  to  be  wondered  at  in  Spain,  where  they  have  no  ostensible 
religion ;  no  churches  or  churchyards ;  no  Sundays  or  service,  except 
as  a  rare  chance  at  a  seaport  in  some  consul's  parlour.  Being  rich, 
however,  and  strong,  they  escape  the  contumely  poured  out  in  Spain  on 
poor  and  weak  heretics,  and  their  cash  is  respected  as  eminently  catholic. 

Conform,  as  nearly  as  you  can,  to  the  hours  and  habits  of  the  natives, 
get  up  early,  which  is  usual  throughout  Spain ;  dine  or  rest  in  the  middle 
of  the  day,  for  when  everybody  is  either  at  table  or  the  siesta,  it  is  no  use 

Spain.  XX  7.  hints  ox  conduct.  121 

to  be  ranning  about  sight-seeing  when  you  are  the  only  person  awake. 
On  all  occasions  pay  with  both  hands ;  most  locks  in  Spain  are  to  be 
picked  with  a  silver  key,  and  almost  every  difiBculty  is  smoothed  by  a 
properly  administered  bribe,  and  how  small  an  additional  per  centage  on 
the  general  expenditure  of  a  tour  through  Spain  is  added  by  such  trifling 
outlays  !  Never  therefore,  cross  the  Pyrenees  to  wage  a  guerrilla  warfare 
about  shillings  and  half-crowns.  N.B.  Have  always  plenty  of  small  sil- 
ver coins,  for  which  great  is  the  amount  of  peace,  good  will,  and  having 
your  own  way,  to  be  purchased  in  Spain,where  backshish,  as  in  the  East,  is 
the  universal  infallible  "  open  sesame^''  and  most  unanswerable  argument. 
A  Spanish  proverb  judiciously  introduced  always  gives  pleasure,  nor 
need  you  ever  fear  ofifering  your  cigar  case,  petacay  to  any  Spaniard, 
still  less  if  your  tobacco  be  of  the  legitimate  Havana ;  for  next  to 
pesetas,  rank  cigars,  as  popular  instruments  of  waxing  in  the  favour  of 
Iberian  man,  and  making  him  your  obedient  servant. 

When  on  a  riding  journey,  attend  to  the  provend ;  take  a  mosquitero 
or  musquito  net,  and  some  solution  of  ammonia,  the  best  antidote  to 
their  stings ;  avoid  all  resistance  to  robbers  when  overmatched ;  keep 
your  plans  and  movements  secret ;  never  rub  your  eyes  except  with 
your  elbows,  los  qfos  con  los  codos,  but  use  hot  water  to  them  frequently, 
or  a  lotion  of  calomel  and  rose-water ;  never  exercise  them  in  prying 
about  barracks,  arsenals,  and  citadels,  and  still  less  in  sketching  any- 
thing connected  with  military  and  national  defences,  which  are  after  all 
generally  but  beggarly  shows  of  empty  boxes. 

Letters  of  Introduction  are  desirable^  In  cities,  where  a  lengthened 
stay  is  contemplated,  their  utility  is  obvious.  They  may  be  procured 
and  taken  on  tours  and  excursions,  but  need  not  always  be  presented. 
Of  service  in  cases  of  difficulties,  they  involve  otherwise  much  loss  of 
precious  time  in  visits  and  in  formal  intercourse  with  strangers,  whom 
one  never  saw  before  and  may  never  meet  again ;  and  for  your  life  avoid 
being  carried  off  from  the  posada  to  a  hospitable  native's  house,  if 
freedom  and  taking  "  ease  in  mine  own  inn  "  have  any  charms. 

In  choice  of  lodgings,  especially  in  winter,  secure  upper  floors  which 
have  a  southern  aspect.  The  sun  is  the  fire-place  of  Spain,  and  where 
his  vivifying  rays  enter,  the  doctor  goes  out ;  and,  dear  reader,  if  you 
value  your  life,  avoid  the  sangrados  of  Spain,  who  wield  the  shears  of 
the  fatal  sisters.  Fly  also,  from  the  hrasero,  the  pan  of  heated  charcoal, 
the  parent  of  headache  and  asphixia ;  trust  rather  to  additional  clothing 
than  to  charcoal,  especially  to  flannel ;  keep  your  feet  warm  and  the  head 
cool,  by  avoiding  exposure  to  midday  sun  and  midnight  bottle :  above  all 
things,  carry  not  the  gastronomies  of  the  cold  north  into  the  hot  south. 
Live  as  the  natives  do,  consuming  little  meat  and  less  wine ;  sleep  the 
midday  siesta  as  they  do,  and  avoid  rash  exposure  to  the  delicious  cool 
night  breezes.  Sleep  high,  avoiding  the  ground  floor,  as  the  poisonous 
Malarias  of  fine  climates  creep  on  earth,  and  more  so  by  night  when  they 
are  condensed,  than  by  day ;  throw  physic  to  the  dogs,  avoiding  con- 
stipation and  trusting  to  diet  and  quiet ;  a  blue  or  a  rhubarb  dinner  pill 
generally  will  suffice.  Cod  liver  oil  may  as  well  be  taken  out  by 
consumptive  travellers,  as  it  is  dear,  indifferent,  and  rare  in  Spain. 

Next  to  the  Spanish  bandit  and  doctors,  with  whom  your  purse  or 
life  are  in  danger,  avoid  investments  in  Spanish  insecurities.    Nothing 

Spain, — I.  <* 

122  XXV.  VISITING  FORMS.  Sect.  I. 

a  **  shop-keeper  nation  "  justly  dislikes  more  than  a  fraudulent  bank- 
rupt or  a  stock  exchange  repudiator  :  it  is  safer  to  buy  our  Three  per 
Cent  Beduced  at  100,  than  Spanish  Five  per  Cents,  at  35. 

When  you  have  letters  of  introduction  to  any  Spaniards,  both  ladies 
and  gentlemen  should  be  very  particular  in  being  well  dressed  on  the 
first  visit  of  etiquette :  black  is  the  correct  colour  of  ceremony.     Call 
yourself  with  your  credentials.    Ladies  should  come  in  a  carriage,  as 
venido  en  coche  is  a  mark  of  respect.    If  the  parties  called  upon  be  out, 
leave  your  credentials  and  card,  writing  on  the  comer  of  the  latter  E,  P., 
which  means  en  persona.    When  you  ring  at  the  door,  probably  an 
unseen  person  will  exclaim,  "  Quien  esf*     "Who's  there?"     The 
correct  countersign  is,  "  Gente  de  paz,"  "  Persons  of  peace."    As  the 
first  visit  is  always  formal,  observe  how  you  are  treated,  and  practise 
the  same  behaviour  exactly  when  the  call  is  returned.    You  will  be 
conducted  to  the  best  room,  the  sola  de  estradoy  and  then  led  up  to  the 
sofa,  and  placed  on  the  right  hand.    Very  great  care  will  be  paid,  or  in 
our  time  used  to  be  paid,  to  your  hat — type  of  grandeeship — which  a 
well-bred  Spaniard  seizes  and  seats  on  a  chair  as  if  it  were  a  person :  be 
careful  to  pay  this  compliment  always  to  your  visiting  friend's  beaver. 
When  you  get  up  to  take  leave,  if  of  a  lady,  you  should  say,  "  A  los  pies 
de  V.  (ti8ted)f  Senora,^*  "My  lady,  I  place  myself  at  your  feet;"  to 
which  she  will  reply,  "  Beso  a  V,  la  mano,  CahaUero,^^  "  I  kiss  your 
hand.  Sir  Knight :"  "  Vdya  F.  con  Dios,  que  F.  lo  pose  hien,^^  "  May 
you  depart  with  God,  and  continue  well ;"  to  which  you  must  reply, 
"  Quede  F.  con  Dies  y  la  Virgen,^^  "  May  you  remain  with  God  and  the 
Virgin."    Ladies  seldom  rise  in  Spain  to  receive  male  visitors ;  they 
welcome  female  ones  with  kisses  both  at  coming  and  going.  A  gentleman 
must  beware  how  he  offers  to  shake  a  Spanish  lady's  hand,  as  it  is  never 
done,  except  when  the  hand  is  offered  for  better  or  worse ;  it  disarranges 
her  mantilla ;  nor  should  he  give  her  his  arm  when  out  walking.    On 
leaving  a  Spaniard's  house,  observe  if  he  thus  addresses  you,  "  Mta  casa 
estd  muy  a  la  disposicion  de  F.  cuando  gtiste  favorecerla,^^  "  This  house  is 
entirely  at  your  disposal,  whenever  you  please  to  favour  it."    Once  thus 
invited,  you  become  a  friend  of  the  family,  una  de  nosotros,  de  lafamilia. 
If  the  compliment  be  omitted,  it  is  clear  that  the  owner  never  wishes  to 
see  you  again,  and  is  equivalent  to  an  affront.    When  a  lady  makes  a 
visit,  a  well-bred  host  hands  her  down  stairs  to  the  door  of  her  carriage, 
taking  her  by  the  hand ;  but  properly  no  pressure  is  admissible,  although 
such  things  have  occurred.     Remember  always  to  pay  a  visit  of  cere- 
mony to  your  male  and  female  friends  on  their  birthdays,  or  el  dia  de 
su  santo,  and  to  attend  to  your  costume  and  put  on  your  best  black :  on 
New  Year's  day  bring  some  small  gift  with  you,  as  an  estrena.    If, 
when  you  call,  are  admitted,  and  a  Spanish  lady  happens  to  be  alone, 
you  should  not  shut  the  door,  as  according  to  the  laws  of  all  social  pro- 
priety it  must  be  left  open,  or  at  least  ajar.    In  walking  with  a  Spaniard, 
if  you  wish  to  show  him  respect,  take  care  to  let  him  be  inside  of  the 
two,  tu  comes  exterior :  the  same  nicety  of  relative  position  should  be 
observed  in  seating  him  on  a  sofa  or  in  a  carriage.     A  well-bred  man 
always  when  he  meets  a  lady  makes  way  for  her,  passing  outside ; 
although  the  strict  rule  in  street-walking,  which,  from  their  narrowness 
and  the  nice  point  of  honour  of  touchy  passengers,  has  been  well  defined. 

Spain.  XX7.  forms  of  ooubtesy.  123 

is  tbat  whoever  has  the  wall  on  his  or  her  right  hand  is  entitled  to 
keep  it. 

On  passing  soldiers  on  duty,  remember  that  the  challenge  of  a  Spanish 
sentry  is  "  Quien  vive  V*  The  answer  is  **  Espaiia."  Then  follows 
"  Que  gente  f "  The  answer  is  "  Paisano,"  The  sooner  and  clearer 
strangera  answer  the  better,  as  silence  rouses  suspicion ;  and  in  Spain  a 
shot  often  precedes  any  explanation. 

When  you  meet  your  Spanish  friends,  stop,  uncloak,  uncover,  and 
attend  carefully  to  the  whole  process  of  greetings  in  the  market-placo. 
These  things  are  not  done  there  in  our  curt  and  ofif-hand  How  are 
you  ?  way.  You  must  inquire  after  the  gentleman's  own  health,  that  of 
his  wife  (como  estd  mi  Senora  la  esposa  de  F.),  his  children,  et  cetera, 
and  then  you  will  be  thought  to  be  a  hombre  tan  formal  y  cumplido 
como  nosotros,  that  is,  as  well-bred  as  a  Spaniard.  If  wben  walking 
with  a  Spaniard  you  pass  your  own  house,  do  not  fail  to  ask  him  whether 
he  will  not  step  in  and  untire  himself  a  little,  "  No  quiere  V,  entrar  en 
€sta  8U  casa,  y  descansarse  tm  ratito  ?"  You  beg  him  to  come  into  ^«, 
not  your  house,  for  thus  you  offer  it  to  him. 

This  offering  obtains  throughout.  If  a  Spaniard  admire  anything 
belonging  to  another,  his  friend  instantly  places  it  at  his  disposal,  estd 
Tnuy  a  la  disposicion  de  V.  The  proper  reply  is  a  bow,  and  some  sort 
of  speech  like  this :  Oractas,  esta  muy  bien  empHeado,  or  Oracia>8,  no 
puede  mejorarse  de  dueno.  Thanks,  it  is  already  in  excellent  hands ; 
it  cannot  better  its  master  by  any  change.  In  like  manner,  and  espe- 
cially  when  outside  cities,  if  any  Spaniards  pass  by  when  you  are  lunch- 
ing, picnicking,  or  eating,  never  fail  to  invite  them  to  share  your  meal, 
by  saying,  Qusten  ustedes  comber f  will  your  graces  be  pleased  to  dine? 
To  omit  this  invitation  is  a  flagrant  breach  of  the  laws  of  hospitality ; 
nor  is  it  always  a  mere  compliment  on  their  part,  for  every  class  of 
Spaniard  is  flattered  if  you  will  partake  of  their  fare.  However,  it  is  safer 
to  decline  with  the  set  speech,  Muchas  gracias^  buenprovecho  le  haga  d 
nstedes,  Never  at  all  events,  in  this  or  on  other  occasions,  omit  these 
titular  compliments.  Phrases  and  forms  of  address  are  exjAnents  of 
national  character,  and  how  superb  is  the  pomp  and  circumstance  of 
these  swelling  semi-Orientals ;  here  every  beggar  addresses  a  brother 
mendicant  as  SenoTy  Don,  and  CdbaUerOy  as  a  lord  or  knight.  As  all 
are  peers,  all  are  "  Vuestra  Merced,*^  "  Your  Grace,"  which,  when  not 
expressed  in  words,  is  understood  and  implied  by  the  very  grammar,  as 
the  mode  of  addressing  in  the  third  person,  instead  of  in  our  curt  second 
"  you,"  has  reference  to  an  implied  title.  In  towns  there  is  scarcely 
any  dinner  society,  and  luckily ;  nor  is  such  an  invitation  the  usual 
compliment  paid  to  a  stranger,  as  with  us.  Spaniards,  however,  although 
they  seldom  bid  a  foreigner,  will  accept  his  bidding.  It  is  necessary, 
however,  to  "  press  them  greatly ;"  for  the  correct  national  custom  is  to 
decline.  Kemember  also  to  apply  a  gentle  violence  to  your  guest,  to 
induce  him  to  eat,  and  if  you  are  dimng  with  him,  let  your  stomach 
stretch  a  point ;  for  unless  you  over-eat  yourself,  he  will  fancy  that 
you  do  not  like  his  fare.  He  will  assuredly  heap  up  your  mess  most 
profusely,  for,  as  in  the  East,  where  dinners  are  scarce,  quantity  is  the 
delicate  mark  of  attention.  It  was  in  our  time  by  no  means  imusual 
for  strangers,  after  eating  ices  or  taking  coffee  at  a  public  caf^,  to  find, 
when  they  went  to  pay,  that  the  bill  had  already  been  discharged  by 


1 24  XXV.    MODES  OF  ADDRESS.  Sect  I. 

some  unkuown  Spaniard.  Accordingly,  if  you  see  friends  of  yours  thus 
refreshing  themselves,  pretty  ladies  for  instance  with  whom  you  wish 
to.  stand  well,  you  may  privately  t«ll  the  waiter  that  you  will  be 
answerable  for  their  account.  It  is  very  easy  afterwards,  when  you 
meet  with  your  fair  friends,  to  let  them  infer  who  was  their  unknown 
benefactor.  It  was  sometimes  rather  dangerous  to  accompany  an  ex- 
travagant Andaluza  out  shopping,  a  las  tiendaSy  as  a  well-bred  man  of 
the  old  Spanish  school  was  bound  never  to  allow  her  to  pay  for  anything. 
This  custom,  however,  has  got  somewhat  obsolete  since  the  French 
invasion,  good  money  and  manners  having  become  considerably  scarcer 
in  consequence  of  that  visitation. 

All  Spaniards,  however,  are  still  prodigal  to  each  other  in  cheap 
names  and  titles  of  honour  ;  thus  even  beggars  address  each  other  as 
Seiior  y  CdbaUero^  Lord  and  Knight.  The  most  coveted  style  is  ExceU 
Uncia,  your  Excellency,  or,  as  it  is  pronounced,  Vuesenda,  and  it  only 
belongs  to  grandees  and  men  in  highest  office.  The  next  is  Vuestra 
Senoria,  your  Lordship,  of  which  the  abbreviated  form  is  Usia ;  this 
belongs  to  titulos  de  CastiUay  to  men  who  are  titled,  but  not  grandees. 
It  is,  however,  very  seldom  used,  except  by  the  lower  classes,  who, 
when  they  want  to  toady  an  Englishman,  will  often  say,  For  vida  del 
demonic  mas  sahe  Usia  que  nosotros — ^by  the  devil's  life,  your  Lordship 
knows  more  than  we  do  ;  which,  if  a  traveller  has  this  Handbook,  is 
very  likely  to  be  the  fact,  as  the  natives  generally  know  nothing.  The 
common  form  of  YOu  is  Usted ;  vuestra  merced,  your  grace.  It  is 
generally  written  simply  V.,  or  in  older  books  V™d.  If  you  do  not 
know  a  Spaniard's  Christian  name,  it  is  well-bred  to  insert  the  de,  the 
German  Von.  Thus  Senor  de  Munoi  is  the  appellation  of  a  gentleman ; 
8e7wr  Mimoz  that  of  a  nobody.  When  the  Christian  name  is  used 
with  the  title  Don  (Dominus,  Lord),  this  Don  becomes  exactly  equi- 
valent to  our  knightly  Sir,  and  never  must  be  prefixed  to  the  patro- 
nymic by  itself.  Thus  you  must  say  Don  Hernando  Munoz,  and  not 
Don  Muiioz,  which  sounds  as  ridiculous  and  ignorant  to  Spanish  ears 
as  Sir  Peel  does  to  ours. 

Spaniards,  when  intimate,  generally  call  each  other  by  their  Christian 
names,  and  a  stranger  may  live  among  them  and  be  known  to  all  the 
town  as  "  Don  Bicardo,"  without  half  a  dozen  persons  in  it  being  aware 
of  what  his  patronymic  is.  The  custom  of  tutear — the  endearing 
tutoyer,  unusual  in  England  except  among  quakers,  is  very  prevalent 
among  familiar  friends,  and  is  habitual  among  grandees,  who  consider 
each  other  as  relatives,  primosty  cousins. 

The  forms  of  letter-writing  differ  also  from  ours.  The  correct  place 
of  dating  from  should  be  de  esta  su  casa,  from  this  your  house,  wherever 
it  is ;  you  must  not  say  from  this  my  house,  as  you  mean  to  place  it  at 
the  disposition  of  your  correspondent ;  the  formal  Sir  is  Muy  Senor 
mio ;  My  dear  Sir,  is  Muy  Senor  mio  y  de  todo  mi  aprecio ;  My  dear 
Friend,  is  Mi  apreciaUe  amigo :  a  step  more  in  intunacy  is  querido 
amigo  and  quertdo  Don  Juan,  All  letters  conclude  after  something  in 
this  fsishion-^uedando  en  el  interin  S.  S,  S*  [su  seguro  servidor] 
Q,  S.  M,  B.  [que  su  mano  hesa\  This  represents  our  "  your  most 
obedient  and  humble  servant ;"  a  more  friendly  form  is  **  Mande  Vmd. 
con  toda  franqueza  a  ese  S,  8,  S,  y  amigo  a/^no.  Q^  s,  M,  j5."    AVhen 

lady  is  in  the  case,  P  [pies}  is  substituted  for  M,  as  the  gentleman 


Spain.  XXV.  modes  of  address,  etc.  125 

kisses  her  feet.  Ladies  sign  sw  servidora  y  amiga ;  clergymen,  8u  S,  S, 
y  capeilan ;  nulitary  men  seldom  omit  their  rank.  Letters  are  gene- 
rally directed  thus : — 

Al  Sefior, 

Don  Fulano  Apodo 

B.  L.  M. 


R.  F. 
Most  Spaniards  append  to  their  signature  a  Ruhrica,  which  is  a  sort 
of  intricate  flourish,  like  a  Runic  knot  or  an  Oriental  sign-manual. 
The  sovereign  often  only  rubricates,  as  Don  Quixote  did  in  the  matter 
of  the  jackasses :  then  his  majesty  makes  his  mark,  and  does  not  sign 
his  name. 

The  traveller  is  advised  at  least  to  visit  and  observe  the  objects 
pointed  out  in  the  following  pages,  and  never  to  be  deterred  by  any 
Spaniard's  opinion  that  they  are  "  not  worth  seeing."  He  should  not, 
however,  neglect  looking  at  what  the  natives  consider  to  be  worth  a 
foreigner's  attention.  As  a  sight-seeing  rule  in  towns,  make  out  a  list 
of  the  lions  you  wish  to  see,  and  let  your  lacquey  de  place  arrange  the 
order  of  the  course-,  according  to  localities,  proper  hours,  and  getting  pro- 
per permissions.  As  a  general  habit  ascend  towers  in  towns  to  under- 
stand topography;  visit  the  Plazas  and  chief  markets  to  notice  local  fishes, 
fowls,  fruits,  and  costumes — these  are  busy  sites  and  scenes  in  this 
idle,  unbusiness-like  land ;  for  as  Spaniards  live  from  hand  to  mouth, 
everybody  goes  there  every  day  to  buy  their  daily  bread,  &c.,  and 
when  nightfall  comes  the  royal  larder  is  as  empty  as  that  of  the  poorest 
venta — and  then,  as  elsewhere,  be  more  careful  of  keeping  your  good 
temper  than  sixpences :  never  measure  Spanish  things  by  an  English 
standard,  nor  seek  for  motes  in  bright  eyes,  nor  say  that  all  is  a 
wilderness  from  Burgos  to  Bailen,  Scout  all  imaginary  dismals,  dangers, 
and  difficulties,  which  become  as  nothing  when  manfully  met,  and 
especially  when  on  the  road  and  in  vewto.  View  Spain  and  the  Spaniard 
e^i  couUeur  de  rose,  and  it  will  go  hard  if  some  of  that  agreeable  tint  be 
not  reflected  on  such  a  judicious  observer,  for,  like  a  mirror,  he  returns 
your  smile  or  fi-own,  your  courtesy  or  contuniely  ;  nor  is  it  of  any  use 
going  to  Rome  if  you  quarrel  with  the  Pope.  Strain  a  point  or  two 
therefore,  to  "  make  things  pleasant."  Little,  indeed,  short'of  fulsome 
flattery,  will  fully  satisfy  the  cormorant  cravings  of  Spanish  self-love 
and  praise  appetite ;  nay,  facts  and  truths,  when  told,  and  still  more, 
,  when  printed,  by  a  foreigner,  are  set  down  as  sheer  lies,  libels,  or  ab- 
*  surdities — mentiras  y  dispirates ;  and  are  attributed  to  the  ignorance  and 
jealousy  of  the  rest  of  mankind,  all  conspired  to  denigrate  "  Spain,  the 
first  and  foremost  of  nations."  Remember,  also,  that  "  to  boast  of 
their  strength  is  the  national  weakness ;"  and  the  Spaniards,  in  their 
decrepitude,  talk  and  swagger  as  if  Charles  V.  still  wielded  their  sceptre, 
and  as  if  their  country — ^blotted  from  the  map  of  Europe — were  the 
terror,  the  envy, and  admiration  of  the  whole  world :  whatever,  therefore, 
we  may  think  and  know  to  the  contrary,  it  is  generally  the  most  pru- 
dent and  polite  to  smile  and  pass  silently  on,  like  Milton,  con  volto 
schiolto  e  pensieri  stretti.     Con  qui,  huen  viaje  I 

— -—  '*  Si  quid  novisti  rectins  istis 
Candidus  imperti,  si  non  —his  utere  mecxim.' 

(     126    ) 

Sect.  ir. 




Eiugdom  of  Andalucia ;  its  Histoiy  and  Geography ;  Character  of  the  People  ; 

Language  and  Country ;  Skeleton  Tours. 


BOXTTE  1. — ENGLAND  TO  CADIZ  .      130 

Cape  St.  Yincent;  Cadiz;  Bay  of  Cttdiz; 
Isla  de  Leon. 


BarroBa;  Trafalgar;  The  Straits;  Tarifa; 
Algedras;  Carteia. 

STEAM 163 

San  Lucar ;  the  Gnadalqaivir. 


JjAitd 155 

Xerez ;  wines ;  Utrera;  AlcaU  de  Gnadaira. 

B0T7TE   5. — ^XEBEZ  TO  SEVILLB  .      161 

Hogner;  Lepe;  Normans  in  Spain. 

Niebia;  shooting ;  Goto  del  Rey. 


Excursion  to  Italica 212 

BOUTE  8.— A  MINING  TOUB   .      .      216 
Rio  Tinto ;  Araoena;  Llerena ;  Almaden. 

BOITTE  9. — SEVILLE  TO  MADBID   .     221 

Carmona;  Ec^a;  Cordova;  And^Jar;  Bai- 
len ;  Navas  de  Tolosa ;  La  Mancha ;  Val- 
depeiias;  Ocaila;  Arai^ez. 

BEAL 246 





The  kingdom  or  province  of  Andalucia,  in  fadlity  of  access  and  objects  of 
interest,  must  take  precedence  oyer  all  others  in  Spain.  It  is  the  Tarshish  of 
the  Bible,  the  "  uttermost  parts  of  the  earth,"  to  which  Jonah  wished  to  flee. 
This  "  ultima  terrse "  was  called  Tartessus  in  the  uncertain  geography  of  the 
ancients,  who  were  purposely  kept  mystified  by  the  jealous  Phoenician  merchant 
princes,  who  had  no  notions  of  n-ee  trade.  This  vague  general  name,  Tarshish, 
uke  our  Indies,  was  appHed  sometimes  to  a  town,  to  a  nyer,  to  a  locality  ;  but 
when  the  Ilomans,  after  the  fiedl  of  Carthage,  obtained  an  undisputed  possession 
of  the  Peninsula,  the  S.  of  Spain  was  caUed  Bsetica,  from  the  riyer  Beetis,  the 
Guadalquivir,  which  intersects  its  fairest  portions.  At  the  Gothic  invasion  this 
proyince,  and  part  of  Barbary,  was  oyerrun  by  the  Vandals,  whence  some  assert 
that  both  sides  of  the  straits  were  called  by  the  Moors  Vandalucia,  or  JBeMd- 
al-Andaloshf  the  territory  of  the  Vandal ;  but  in  the  word  Andalosh,  the  land 
of  the  West  (Hesperia),  a  sounder  etymology  may  be  found.    Here,  at  all 


a — 




..  Sect 

Andalnda.  pbotincial  chabacteb.  127 

events,  at  the  fidl  of  the  Gfothic  role,  as  in  a  congenial  soil,  the  Oriental  took 
onoe  more  the  deepest  root,  and  left  the  noblest  traces  of  power,  taste,  and 
intelligence,  which  centuries  of  apathy  and  neglect  haye  not  entirely  effaced — 
here  he  made  his  last  desperate  struggle.  ' 

The  Moorish  divisions  into  Los  Cuatro  ReinoSy  the  "Four  Kingdoms," 
viz.  Seville,  Cordova,  Jaen,  and  Ch'anada,  still  designate  territorial  divisions, 
which  occupy  the  S.  extremity  of  Spain  ;  they  are  defended  from  the  cold  N. 
table-lands  by  the  barrier  mountains  of  the  Sierra  Morena — a  corruption  of 
the  Montes  Marianos  of  the  Romans,  and  not  referring  to  the  tawny-hrotion 
colour  of  its  siunmer  hortus  siccus  garb.  The  four  kingdoms  contain  about 
8283  square  L,  composed  of  mountain  and  valley ;  the  grand  productive  locality 
is  the  biEtsin  of  the  Chiadalquivir,  which  flows  under  the  Sierra  Morena.  To  the 
S.E.  rise  the  moimtains  of  Bonda  and  Chranada,  which  sweep  down  to  the  sea. 
As  their  summits  are  covered  with  eternal  snow,  while  the  sugar-cane  ripens  at 
their  bases,  the  botanical  range  is  inexhaustible :  these  sierras  fuso  are  absolutely 
marble  and  metal-pregnant.  The  cities  are  of  the  highest  order  in  Spain,  in  re- 
spect to  the  fine  arts  imd  objects  of  general  interest,  while  Gibraltar  is  a  portion 
of  England  herself.  Andalucia  is  admirably  suited  to  our  invaUds ;  here  winter, 
in  our  catph-cold  acceptation  of  the  term,  is  unknown.  The  genial  climate 
forms,  indeed,  one  of  the  multitudinous  boasts  of  the  natives,  who  pride  them- 
selves on  this  **  happy  accident"  thus  lavished  on  them  by  r  iture,  as  if  the 
bright  skies  were  a  making  and  merit  of  their  own.  Justly  lough  did  the 
ancients  place  their  Elysian  fields  amid  these  go][den  orange  grov  < ;  these  were 
alike  the  seats  of  "  the  blessed,  the  happy,  and  long-Hved  "  of  A  icreon,  as  the 
homes  of  the  rich  and  powerful  of  Holy  Writ.  These  fovou  hI  regions,  the 
sweetest  morsel  of  the  Feninstda,  have  always  been  the  prize  i  prev  of  the 
strong  man,  no  less  than  the  theme  of  poets  ;  and  the.  ^  ians,  m>m  the 

remotest  periods  of  history,  have  been  more  celebrated  7    '  'd  intellectual 

qualities  than  for  the  practical  and  industrial.    They  bx  iered  by  their 

countrymen  to  be  the  Qasoons,  the  boasters  and  braggarts  c  'ain ;  and  cer- 
tainly, from  the  time  of  Livy  (xxxiv.  17)  to  the  present,  tl  are  the  most 
*'  imbeUeSy^  imwarlike,  and  immilitary.  It  is  in  peace  and  its  j*ts  that  these 
gay,  good-humoured,  light-hearted  children  of  a  genial  atmosphere  excel ;  thus 
their  authors  revived  literature,  when  the  Augustan  age  ditd  at  Bome,  as 
during  the  darkest  periods  of  European  barbarism,  Cordova  v^as  the  Athens 
of  the  west,  the  seat  of  arts  and  science.  Again,  when  the  sui  of  Raphael  set 
in  Italy,  painting  here  arose  in  a  new  form  in  the  Velazque  Murillo,  and 
Cano  school  of  Seville,  the  finest  of  the  Peninsula. 

The  Oriental  imagination  of  the  Andaludans  colours  everytning  up  to  their 
bright  sun.  Their  exaggeration,  pondercunan,  or  giving  weight  to  nothings, 
converts  their  molehills  into  mountains ;  all  their  geese  are  swans ;  invincible  at 
the  game  of  brag,  their  credulity  is  commensurate,  and  they  end  in  even  believ- 
ing their  own  li^.  Everything  with  them  is  either  in  the  superlative  or  diminu- 
tive. Nowhere  will  the  stranger  hear  more  frequently  those  talismanic  words 
which  mark  the  national  ignoramus  character — No  se  aahcy  no  se  puede^  con- 
formcy  the  "  I  don't  know ;"  "  I  can't  do  it ; "  "  That  depends ; "  the  Maiiana, 
pasado  mananoy  the  "To-morrow  and  day  after  to-morrow ;"  i  e  Boukray  hal- 
houJcray  of  the  procrastinating  Oriental.  Their  8dbe  DioSy  the , "  Q-od  knows," 
is  the  "  Salem  AUah  "  of  the  Moors.  Here  remain  the  Bakalum  or  VeremoSy 
"We  will  see  about  it ;"  the  Pek-^yi  or  muy  bieny  "  Very  well ;  "  and  the  In- 
shallah,  si  Dios  quierey  the  "  If  the  Lord  will  j "  the  Ojalay  or  wishing  that 
God  would  do  their  woric  for  them,  the  Moslem's  Inxo-Allahy  the  old  appeal 
to  Hercules.  In  a  word,  here  are  to  be  found  the  besetting  sins  of  the 
Oriental  $  his  indifferenoe,  procrastination,  tempered  by  a  religious  reeignati^ 

128  THE  MAJO.  Sect.  II. 

to  Providence.    The  natiyes  are  superstitious  and  great  worshippers  of  the 
Virgin.     Their  proyince  is  her  chosen  land,  La  tierra  de  la  Santisimay  and  prac' 
tieally  the  female  worship  of  Astarte  still  exists  in  the  universal  absolute  Mari- 
olatry  of  the  masses,  however  differently  the  Koman  Catholic  religion  may  be 
understood  theoretically  by  the  esoteric  and  enlightened.      SevUle  was  the 
head-quarters  of  the  dispute  on  the  Immaculate  Conception,  by  which  Spain  was 
convulsed.    The  Andalucians  are  also  remarkable  for  a  reliance  on  supernatural 
aid,  and  in  all  circumstances  of  difficulty  call  upon  their  tutelar  patrons,  with 
which  every  town,  church,  and  parish  is  provided.    Yet,  if  proverbs  are  to  be 
trusted,  little  moral  benefit  has  been  the  result  of  their  religious  tendencies.   Al 
Andaluz  cata  la  Cruz  {caia/r  is  the  old  Spanish  for  mirar) — "  Observe  how  the 
semi-Moor  Andalucian  makes  his  cross."     JDel  Andaluz  guarda  tu  capa  y 
cap«2;;.keep  a  look-out  after  your  cloak  and  other  chattels.    In  no  province 
have  smugglers  and  robbers  (convertible  terms)  been  longer  the  weed  of  the  soil. 
In  compensation,  however,  nowhere  in  Spain  is  el  trato,  or  friendly  and  social 
intercourse,  more    agreeable    than    in    this  pleasure-loving,  work-abhorring 
province.     The  native  is  the  gracioso  of  the  Peninsula^  a  term  given  in  the 
playbills  to  the  cleverest  comic  actor.    Both  the  graciay  wit,  and  elegance,  and 
the  sal  Andaluza  are  proverbial.    This  salt^  it  is  true,  cannot  be  precisely  called 
Attic,  having  a  tendency  to  gitanesque  and  tauromachian  slang,  but  it  is  almost 
the  national  language  of  the  smuggler^  bandit,  hull-fighter,  da/ncer,  and  Majo^ 
and  who  haa  not  heard  of  these  worthies  of  Baetica  P^the  fame  of  Contra' 
handista,  Ladron,  Torero,  Bailarin,  and  Mojo,  has  long  scaled  the  Pyrenees, 
while  in  the  Peninsula  itself,  such  persons  and  pursuits  are  the  rage  and  dear 
delight  of  the  young  and  daring,  of  all  indeed  who  aspire  to  be  sporting  cha- 
racters.   Andalucia  the  head-quarters  of  the  *'  &ncy,"  or  (ificion,  is  the  cradle 
of  the  most  eminent  professors,  who  in  the  other  provinces  become  stars, 
patterns,  models,  and  the  envy  and  admiration  of  their  applauding  countrymen. 
The  provincial  dress,  extremely  picturesque,  is  that  of  Figaro  in  our  theatres ; 
and  whatever  the  merits  of  tailors  and  miUiners,  Nature  has  lent  her  hand  in 
the  good  work  :  the  male  is  cast  in  her  happiest  mould,  tall,  well-grown,  strong, 
and  sinewy  ;  the  female,  worthy  of  her  mate,  often  presents  a  form  of  matchless 
symmetry,  to  which  is  added  a  peculiar  and  most  &scinating  air  and  action. 
The  Mc0o  is  the  dandy  of  Spain.    The  etymology  of  this  word  is  the  Arabic 
Major,  brilliancy,  splendour,  jauntiness  in  walk,  qualities  which  are  exactly 
expressed  in  the  costume  and  bearing  of  the  character.    He  glitters  in  velvets, 
filigree  buttons,  tags,  and  tassels ;  his  dress  is  as  gay  as  his  sun ;  external  ap- 
pearance is  indeed  all  and  everything  with  him.    This  love  of  show,  hoato,  is 
by  some  derived  from  the  Arabic  "  shouUng  ;  "  as  his  fiivourite  epithet,  bizarro, 
"distinguished,"  is  from  the  Arabic  bessard,  "elegance  of  form,"    The  word 
mqjo  again,   means  an  out-and-out  swell,    somewhat  of  the  "tiger,"   muy 
Janfaron ;     fanfaronade  in  word  and  thing  is  also  Moorish,  as  fa/nfar  and 
hinchar  both  signify  to  " distend"  and  are  applied  in  the  Arabic  and  in  the 
Spanish  to  la^  narices,  the  inflation  of  the  barb's  nostrils,  and,  in  a  secondary 
meaning,  to  pretencion,  puffed  out  pretention.    The  Majo,  especially  if  crudo^ 
or  boisterous  and  raw,  is  fond  of  practical  jokes ;  his  outbreaks  and  "  larks  " 
are  still  termed  in  Spanish  by  their  Arabic  Tisanes,  jarana,jaleOf  i,  e.  khalara^ 
**  waggishness." 

The  lively  and  sparkling  aemi-Moro  Andalucian  is  the  antithesis  of  the  grave 
and  decorous  old  Gotho-Castilian,  who  looks  down  upon  him  as  an  amusing 
but  undignified  personage.  He  smiles  at  his  harlequin  costume  and  tricks  as  he 
does  at  his  peculiar  dialect,  and  with  reason,  as  nowhere  is  the  Spanish  language 
more  corrupted  in  words  and  pronunciation ;  in  fact,  it  is  scarcely  intelligible 
^*'^  a  true  Toledan.    The  ceceo,  or  pronouncing  the  c  before  certain  vowels  as  an 

ArvMwsia.  A  theee  months'  toub.  129 

«,  and  the  not  marking  the  th  dearlj — for  example,  plater  (placer)  for  plather 
— is  no  less  offensiye  to  a  fine  grammatical  ear  than  the  habit  of  dippmg  the 
Queen's  Spanish.  The  Oastilian  enmidates  every  letter  and  syllable,  while  the 
Andalucian  seldom  soimds  the  d  between  two  vowels ;  lo  comej  he  eats  it,  and 
says,  comiOy  qtterio,  ffanao,  for  camido,  querido,  gomado ;  no  vale  nd,  no  hay  ndy 
for  no  vale  nada,  no  "hay  nadd,  and  often  confomids  the  double  I  with  the  y, 
saying  galUmgoe  for  ga/j/a/ngos. 

The  fittest  towns  for  summer  residence  are  Granada  and  Bonda ;  Serille 
and  Malaga  suit  inyahds  during  the  winter,  or  Gibraltar,  where  the  creature 
comforts  and  good  medical  advice  of  Old  England  abound.  The  spring  and 
autumn  are  the  best  periods  for  a  mere  tour  in  Andalucia ;  the  summers,  except 
in  the  mountain  districts,  are  intensely  hot,  while  the  rains  in  winter  render 
locomotion  in  the  interior  almost  impracticable.  The  towns  on  the  coast  are 
easily  visited,  as  constant  intercommunication  between  Cadiz  and  Malaca  is 
kept  up  by  steamers,  which  touch  at  Gibraltar  and  Algedras.  The  roads  in 
general  are  infiunous — ^mere  mule  tracks,  owing  nothing  to  art  except  the  turn- 
pike toll ;  while  canals  are  wanting,  alike  for  trade  or  irrigation,  and  the  rivers 
are  ceasing  to  be  navigable  from  neglect.  There  is  much  tsdk  of  the  rail,  as  soon 
as  the  struggle  who  is  to  have  the  greatest  share  of  plunder  in  the  concessions 
and  schemes^  is  settled  by  the  "powers  that  be." 

The  river  Guadalquivur  is  provided  with  steamers  to  Seville  j  but  with  the 
exception  of  the  road  from  Cadiz  to  Madrid,  and  that  from  Malaga  to  Granada, 
there  are  no  decent  public  carriages.  The  primitive  Bedouin  conveyance,  the 
horse,  prevails,  and  is  much  to  be  preferred  to  the  galeras,  or  carriers  waggons, 
which  drag  through  miry  ruts,  or  over  stony  tracks  made  by  vnld  goats ;  into 
them  no  man  who  values  time  or  his  bones  will  venture.  In  spite  of  a  fertile  soil 
and  beneficent  climate,  almost  half  Andalucia  is  abandoned  to  a  state  of  nature. 
The  soil  is  covered  with  lentisks,  Liquorice  and  PaJmitoSy  the  indigenous  weeds, 
and  other  aromatic  underwood,  and  is  strewed  with  remains  of  Moorish  ruins. 
The  land,  once  a  paradise,  seems  cursed  by  man's  ravage  and  neglect.  Here 
those  two  things  of  Spain,  the  dehesas  y  despohlados,  will  be  frdly  understood 
by  the  traveller  as  he  rides  through  lands  once  cultivated,  now  returned  to 
waste,  and  over  districts  once  teeming  with  life,  but  now  depopulated,  and  who  will 
thai  and  there  leam  completely  to  decline  the  verb  "rough  it "  in  all  its  tenses. 

A  Thbee  Months'  Totte. 

This  may  be  effected  by  a  combination  of  Steam,  Biding,  and  Coaching. 

April.  Gibraltar,  S.  April.  Cordova,  C.  May.    LaiJaron,  R.       June.  Loja,  C. 

Tarifa,B.  Andujar,  C.  Beija,  R.  Antequera,R. 

Cadiz,  R.  Jaen,  R,  or  June.  Motril,  R.  Ronda,  R. 

Xerez^C.  May.    Bailen,  C.  Velez  Malaga,  R.  Gibraltar,  R. 

San  Lncar,  C.  Jaen,  C.  Alhama,  R. 

Seville,  8.  Granada,  C.  Malaga,  R. 

Those  going  to  Madrid  may  ride  from  Bonda  to  Cordova  by  Osuna.  Those 
going  to  Estremadura  may  ride  from  Bonda  to  Seville,  by  Moron. 


Seville  Cordova^  R.  Cabo  de  Gata Marbles. 

Villa  Nueva del  Rio,  R... Coal.  Batten,  C.  Adra,  R. Lead. 

Rio  Tinto,  R. Copper.    linares,  R Lead.  Beija,  R. Lead. 

Almadende  la  Plata,  R...Silv.   Baeza.R Lead.  Granada,  R. Marbles. 

Onadakanal,  R. Silver.   Segora*  R. Forests.  Malaga,  C. 

Almaden,  R. .Quicksilver.  Baza,  R.  Marbella,  R. Iron. 

Excursion  to  Logrosan,  R.  Pnrchena,R. Marbles.  Gibraltar,  R. 

Phosphate  of  Lime.   Macael,  R Marbles. 

^  o 



RoxTTB  1. — Southampton  to  Cadiz. 

The  better  plan  is  to  proceed  direct 
to  Cadiz,  wh/^  the  change  of  climate, 
Boenery,  men,  and  manners  effected  by 
a  six  dftys'  voyage  is  indeed  remarkable. 
Quitting  the  British  Channel,  we  soon 
enter  the  *' sleepless  Bay  of  Biscay," 
where  the  stormy  petrel  is  at  home,  and 
where  the  gigantic  swell  of 'the  Atlantic 
is  first  checked  by  Spain's  iron-bound 
coast,  the  monntain  breakwater  of  Eu- 
rope. Here  The  Ocean  will  be  seen  in 
all  its  yast  majesty  and  solitude  :  grand 
in  the  tempest-lashed  storm,  grand  in 
the  calm,  when  spread  out  as  a  mirror ; 
and  nerer  more  impressive  than  at 
night,  when  the  stars  of  heayen,  free 
from  earth-bom  mists,  sparkle  like  dia- 
monds oyer  those  "who  go  down  to 
the  sea  in  ships  and  behold  the  works 
of  the  Lord,  and  his  wonders  in  the 
deep."  The  land  has  disappeared,  and 
man  feels  alike  his  weakness  and  his 
strength ;  a  thin  plank  separates  him 
from  another  world ;  yet  he  has  laid 
his  hand  upon  the  billow,  and  mastered 
the  ocean ;  he  has  made  it  the  highway 
of  commerce,  and  the  binding  link  of 

The  average  passage  of  the  steamers 
from  Southampton  to  Cadiz,  stoppages 
in  GkOHcia  and  Portugal  included,  is 
about  seven  days,  and  the  first  land 
made  is  the  N.W.  coast  of  Spain,  whose 
range  of  mountains,  a  continuation  of 
the  Pyrenean  vertebr®,  forms,  as  we 
have  said,  the  breakwater  of  Europe 
against  the  gigantic  swell  of  the  At- 
lantic. For  La  Coruna  and  Vigo  see 
Index.  Omitting  Portugal,  as  foreign 
to  this  Handbook,  the  voyage  from 
Lisbon  to  Cadiz  averages  between  30 
and  35  hours.  When  wind  and  weather 
permit,  the  cape  of  St.  Yincent  is 
approached  sufficiently  near  to  see  the 
convent  perched  on  the  beetling  cliff, 
and  to  hear  its  matin  or  vesper  bell, 
and  see  a  fine  rotary  light,  ecUpsed 
every  two  minutes.  The  Montchiqite 
-ange  of  mountains  rises  nobly  behmd 

the  background. 

ISl  Cabo  de  8an  Vicente,  the  Cape 

of  St.  Vincent,  is  so  called  from  one  of 
the  earliest  Spanish  saints,  Vinoentius, 
a  native  of  Zaragoza,  who  was  put  to 
death  by  Dacian,  fit  Yalencia,  in  304. 
The  body,  long  watched  over  by  crows, 
was  removed  to  this  site  at  the  Moorish 
invasion,  miraculously  guarded  by  these 
birds ;  and  hence  the  convent  buHt  over 
the  remains  was  called  by  the  infidels 
Kemsata-l-gordb^  the  church  of  the 
crow.  According  to  their  geographers, 
a  crow  was  always  placed  on  the  roof, 
announcing  the  arrival  of  strangers, 
cawing  once  for  each ;  and  the  point 
to  this  day  is  termed  by  the  nativea 
El  Monte  de  los  Cuervos.  About  1147 
Alonso  I.  removed  the  holy  body  to 
Portugal,  two  of  the  crows  acting  as 
pilots,  just  as  Alexander  the  Great  was 
guided  over  the  desert  to  the  temple 
of  Jupiter  Ammon.  The  Spanish  crows 
are  blazoned  on  the  arms  of  the  city  of 
liBbon.  These  birds  continued  to  breed 
in  the  cathedral,  and  had  regular  rents 
assigned  for  their  support.  Dr.  Ckddes 
(Tracts,  iii.  106)  saw  many  birds  there 
"  descended  from  the  original  breed, 
living  witnesses  of  the  miracle,  but  no 
longer  pilots."  For  the  legend  consult 
Prudentius,  Perist.,  v.  5;  Morales,  Coro- 
mcGt  X.  341 ;  JEep,  Saffr,  viii.  179,  231. 

This  promontory,  always  in  fact  a 
"Holy  Head,"  a  sort  of  Samothrace, 
was  the  Kowcov,  Ouneus,  of  the  an- 
cients; here  existed  a  circular  druid- 
ical  temple,  in  which  the  Iberians  be- 
heved  that  the  gods  assembled  at  night 
(Strabo,  iii.  202) .  Hence  the  Bomans, 
availing  themselves  of  the  hereditary 
Behgio  Loci,  called  the  mountain  Mons 
Sacer,  a  name  still  preserved  in  the 
neighbouring  hamlet  Sagree,  founded 
in  1416  by  Prince  Henry  of  Portugal, 
who  here  pursued  those  studies  which 
led  to  the  discovery  of  the  circumnavi- 
gation of  Africa.  Sagres  was  once 
considered  the  most  western  point  of 
Europe,  and  to  which,  as  the  first  meri- 
dian, all  longitudes  were  referred. 

The  waters  which  bathe  these  shores 
have  witnessed  three  British  victories. 
Here,  Jan.  16, 1780,  Bodney  attacked 
the  Spanish  fleet  under  Langara,  cap- 
tured 6  and  destroyed  2  men-of-war ; 

^ndcducia.         eoute  L— cadiz — inns — auiTARs,  etc. 


had  the  action  taken  place  in  the 
day,  or  had  the  weather  been  even 
moderate,  *'  none^"  as  he  said  in 
bis  dispatch,  *'  wouldT  have  escaped." 
Here,  Feb.  14, 1797,  Jervis,  or  rather 
^ebon  (although  not  mentioned  in 
Jervis'  dispatch),  with  15  small  ships, 
defeated  27  huge  Spaniards,  **  rattlmg 
through  the  battle  as  if  it  had  been  a 
sj)ort,"  taking  4  prizes,  and  saving 
Lisbon  from  Godoy,  the  tool  of  France. 
Here,  again,  July  3, 1836,  Napier,  with 
6  small  ships,  b^t  10  Portuguese  men- 
of-war,  and  placed  Don  Pedro  on  the 
throne  of  Portugal. 

Bounding  the  cape  and  steering  S.E., 
we  enter  the  bay  of  Cadiz ;  the  moun- 
tain range  of  Bonda,  landmarks  to 
ships,  are  seen  soaring  on  high,  while 
the  low  maritime  strip  of  Andaluda  Ues 
unperceived.  For  aU  this  coast,  con- 
sult the  Derroteros,  by  "Vicente  Tofino, 
2  vols.  4ta,  Mad.  1787-9.  Soon  £adr 
Cadiz  rises  from  the  dark  blue  sea  Hke 
a  line  of  ivory  palaces ;  the  steamers 
generally  remain  here  about  3  h.,  be- 
fore proceeding  to  Gibraltar.  What 
a  change  from  Southampton!  What 
local  colour,  what  dazzlmg  blues  and 
whites,  as  we  near  this  capital  of 
southern  seas,  so  young,  so  gay,  bright 
and  clear  as  Aplu*odite  when  she  rose 
from  the  waves  here !  And  how  strange 
the  people  of  this  new  clime,  with  black 
eyes  and  ivory  teeth,  bronzed  cheeks, 
shaggy  breasts,  and  sashes  red!  The 
landing,  when  the  sea  is  rough,  is  often 
inconvenient,  and  the  sanitary  precau- 
tions tedious.  It  is  carrying  a  joke 
some  lengths,  when  the  yellow  cada- 
verous Spanish  AecUth  officers  inspect 
and  suspect  the  ruddy-fekied  Britons, 
who  hang  over  the  packet  gangway, 
bursting  from  a  plethora  of  beef  and 
good  condition ;  but  fear  of  the  plague 
is  the  bugbear  of  the  South,  and 
Spaniards  are  no  more  to  be  hurried 
than  our  Court  of  Chancery.  Extor- 
tionate boatmen,  who  sit  like  cormo- 
rants on  the  coast,  crowd  round  the 
vessel  to  land  passengers ;  the  proper 
charge  is  a  peseta  a  person,  and  the 
word  taHffa  is  their  bugbear.  There  is 
the  uBUtu  trouble  with  the  .<i<^»enw, 

ResguardoSy  and  other  custom-house 
officers,  who  are  to  be  conciliated  by 
patience,  courtesy,  a  cigar. 

Cadiz.  Inns. — Hotel  JSlancOy  No. 
60,  on  the  Alameda,  with  a  fine  sea 
view ;  very  good.  Blanco  himself  is 
trustworthy  and  intelligent;  English 
Hotel — Ximenes,  No.  164,  Alameda ; 
Hotel  de  Ewropa ;  Oriente,  in  French 
and  Spanish  style  ;  Ouatro  Na- 
clones.  Plaza  de  Mina.  An  excellent 
casa  de  pupilos  in  the  CaUe  de  San 
Alefandro,  kept  by  Mrs.  Stanley,  is 
well  fitted  for  private  families  and 
huiies.  Gk>od  lodgings  and  fare  may 
be  had  at  Juan  Munoz,  117,  C.  del 
Baluarte.  The  fans,  mantillas  of  Cadiz 
(Spanish  mantillas  imported  into  Eng- 
land pay  a  duty  of  16  per  cent.),  rank 
next  to  those  of  Valencia  and  Barce- 
lona ;  the  gloves  are  excellent,  especially 
the  white  kid,  six  reals  the  pair.  Ladies* 
shoes  are  very ^  cheap  and  good,  as  the 
feet  at  Cadiz  are  not  among  the  ugUest 
on  earth.  The  town  is  famous  for  sweet- 
meats, or  dulcesy  of  which  Spaniards,  and 
especially  the  women,  as  in  the  East,  eat 
vast  quantities,  to  the  detriment  of  their 
stomachs  and  complexions.  The  Calle 
Ancha  is  the  Begent  Street  of  Cadiz. 

There  is  a  good  Casino  or  club  on 
the^  Plaza  San  Antonio,  into  which 
strangers  are  easily  introduced  by  their 

The  Cadiz  guitars,  made  by  Juan 
Pajra  and  his  son  Josef,  rank  with  the 
violins  and  tenors  of  Straduarius  and 
Amati :  the  best  have  a  backboard  of 
dark  wood,  called  Palo  Santo.  The 
floor-mattings  are  excellent :  the  finest 
are  woven  of  a  flat  reed  or  junco  (the 
effusus  of  LinnsBus),  which  grows  near 
Lepe  and  Elche ;  these  and  the  coarser 
Esteras  used  for  winter  are  designed  in 
fanciful  Oriental  patterns,  and  can  be 
made  to  any  design  for  6  to  8  reals 
the  va/ra :  they  last  long,  and  are  very 
cool,  dean,  and  pleasant.  Visit  one  of 
the  manufactories  to  see  the  operatives 
squatted  down^  and  working  exactly  as 
the  Egyptians  did  3000  years  ago. 

Books  to  consvM. — For  the  antiqui- 
ties, &randezas,  by  Jn.  Ba.  Suarez  df 
Salazar,  4to.,  Cadiz,  1610;   Empoi 



Sect.  II. 

de  el  Orhe,  Q^ronimo  de  la  Conception, 
folio,  Amsterdam,  1690 ;  Cadiz  Fheni- 
cia,  Ms.  de  Mondejar,  3  yoIs.  4to.,  Mad. 
1805 ;  Higtoria  de  Cadiz,  1598,  Orosco, 
4to.,  1845 ;  Mawuel  de  la  Provincia; 
Luis  de  Igartvbwru,  4to.,  Cadiz,  1847. 

A  couple  of  days  will  suffice  for  see- 
ing this  city,  whose  glories  belong  rather 
to  the  past  than  the  present. 

Cadizy  long  called  Cales  by  the  Eng- 
lish, although  the  oldest  town  in  Eu- 
rope, looks  one  of  the    newest  and 
cleanest.    The  rust  of  antiquity  is  com- 
pletely whitewashed  over,  thanks  to  an 
Irishman,  the  Gk)vemor  O'Eeilly,  who, 
about  1785,  introduced  an  English  sys- 
tem.    It  is  well  built,  payed,  lighted, 
and  so  tidy,  thanks  to  the  sewer  of  the 
circumambient   sea,  that  the  natives 
compare  Cadiz  to  a  taza  de  plata,  a 
silver  dish  (Airabic^  tad).    It  rises  on 
a  rocky  peninsula  of  concreted  shells 
(shaped  like  a  ham),  some  10  to  50  feet 
above  the  sea,  which  girdles  it  around, 
a  narrow  isthmus  alone  connecting  the 
main  land  ;    and  in  fact   Gaddir,  in 
Punic,  meant  an  enclosed  place  (Fest. 
Av.  Or.  Mar.  273).     It  was  foimded 
by  the  Phoenicians  347  years  before 
Borne,  and  1100  before  Christ  (Arist. 
'  De  Mir.*  134 ;  Vel.  Pat.  L  2. 6).     The 
Punic    name  was    corrupted  by  the 
Ghreeks,   who   caught    at    sound,  not 
sense,  into  Tahi^a,  quasi  yvs   iu^a,  a 
neck  of  land,  whence  the  Koman  Gudes. 
Gaddir  was  the  end  of  the  ancient 
world,  the  "  ladder  of  the  outer  sea," 
the  mart  of  the  tin  of  England,  and 
the  amber  of  the  Baltic.     The  Phoe- 
nicians,  jealous  of  their  monopoly,  per- 
mitted no  stranger  to  pass  beyond  it, 
and  self  has  ever  since  been  the  policy 
of  Cadiz.     Gaddir  proved  false  to  the 
Phoenicians    when    Carthage    became 
powerful ;    and,    again,   when   Rome 
rose  in  the  ascendant,  deserted  Car- 
thage in  her  turn,  some  Gtulitanian 
refugees  volunteering  the  treachery ; 
(Livy,  xxviii.  23).     ^sar,  whose  first 
office  was  a  qusestorship  in  Spain,  saw, 
like  the  Duke  (Disp.  Feb.  27, 1810),  the 
■^•-nportance  of  this  key  of  Andalucia 
^1,  C,  ii.  17).    He  strengthened  it 
works,  and  when  Dictator  gave 

imperial  names  to  the  city,  "  Julia  Au- 
gusta Gkulitana ; "  and  a  fondness  for  fine 
epithets  is  still  a  characteristic  of  its 
townsfolk.  Qiules  became  enormously 
rich  by  engrossing  the  salt-fish  mo- 
nopoly of  Some:  its  merchants  were 
princes.  Balbus  rebuilt  it  with  marble, 
setting  an  example  even  to  Augustus. 

This  town  was  the  great  lie  and  lion 
of  antiquity ;  nothing  was  too  absurd 
for  the  classical  handbooks.     It  was 
their  Venice,  or  Paris;  the  centre  of 
sin  and  sensaal  civilization ;  the  pur- 
veyor of  gastronomy,  ballets,  and  other 
matters  for  which  the  Spaniard  of  old, 
"Dedecorum  pretiosus  emptor,"  paid 
par  excellence  (Hor.  Od.  iii.  6,  32). 
Italy  imported  from  it  those  improhce 
GaditafUB,  whose  lascivious  dances  were 
of  Oriental  origin,  and  still  exist  in  the 
Romalis  of  the  Andalucian  gipsies.   The 
prosperity  of  Ghkdes  fell  with  that  of 
Rome,  to  both  of  which  the  foundation 
of  Constantinople  dealt  the  fijrst  blow. 
Then  came  the  Goths,  who  destroyed 
the  city ;  and  when  Alonso  el  Sabio — 
the  learned  not  wise — captured  Eadia 
from  the  Moors,  Sept.  14,  1262,  its  ex- 
istence was  almost  doubted  by  the  in- 
faUible  Urban  IV.  ^  The  discovery  of 
the  New  World  revived  the  prosperity 
of  a  place  which  alone  can  exist  by 
commerce,  and  since  the  loss  of  the 
Transatlantic  colonies    ruin  has  been 
the  order  of  the  day.    Hence  the  con- 
stant struggle  during  the  vrar  to  send 
out  troops,  and  expend  on  their  re- 
covery the  means  furnished  by  Eng- 
land for  the  defence  of  the  Peninsula. 
The  population  of  Cadiz  in  the  war 
time,  which  exceeded  100,000,  has  now 
dwindled  down  to  some  53,000,    Made 
a  free  warehousing  port  in  1829,  a 
fillip  was  given,  but  the  privilege  was 
abolished  in  1832,  since  which  it  is 
rapidly  decaying,  as  it  cannot  compete 
with  Gibraltar  and  Malaga,  while  even 
the  sherry   trade   is  passing    to  the 
Puerto  and  San  Lucar.    It  has  a  joint- 
stock  bank  and  issues  its  own  notes. 

Cadiz  was  sacked  June  21,  1596,  by 
Lord  Essex,  when  Elizabeth  repaid, 
with  interest,  the  visit  of  the  Spanish 
invincible  armada.    The  e^>edition  was 




80  secretly  planned,  that  none  on  board, 
saye  the  chiefs,  knew  its  destination. 
An  officer  named  Wm.  Morgan,  who, 
having  lived  in  Spain,  knew  the  dila- 
pidated state  of  her  defences,  advised 
instant  attack  ;  and  so  the  garrison  was 
found  wanting  in  every  thing  at  the 
critical  moment,  and  was  instantly 
taken.  Antonio  de  Zuniga,  the  oorre- 
gidor,  having  been  the  first  to  run  and 
&11  to  his  prayers,  when  every  one  else 
followed  their  leader's  example.  GDhe 
booty  of  the  conquerors  was  enormous ; 
13  ships  of  war,  and  40  huge  South 
American  galleons  were  destroyed, 
whereby  an  almost  universal  bank- 
ruptcy ensued,  and  the  first  blow  was 
dealt  to  falling  Spain,  and  from  which 
she  never  recovered.  The  best  account 
is  by  Dr.  Marbeck, physician  toLordEs- 
sex,  and  an  eye-wihiess,  Hakliiyt,  L  607. 

Cadiz  was  again  attacked  by  the 
English  in  1625;  the  command  was 
given  to  Lord  Wimbleton,  a  grandson 
of  the  great  Burleigh.  This  was  a 
Walcheren  expedition,  ill-planned  by 
the  incompetent  Buckingham,  and  mis- 
managed by  the  general,  who,  like  the 
late  Lord  Chatham,  proved  that  genius 
is  not  hereditaij ;  (see  Journal  and 
Belation,  &c.,  London,  4to.,  1626). 
Another  English  expedition  fsdled  in 
August,  1702.  This,  says  Burnet, 
«  was  ill-projected  and  worse  executed." 
The  attack  was  foolishly  delayed,  and 
the  Spaniards  had  time  to  recover  their 
alarm,  and  organize  resistance ;  for 
when  the  English  fleet  arrived  in  the 
bay,  Cadiz  was  garrisoned  by  only  300 
men,  and  must  nave  been  taken,  as  the 
Duke  of  Ormond  told  Burnet. 

Cadiz  in  the  recent  war  narrowly 
escaped,  and  from  similar  reasons. 
When  the  rout  of  Ocana  gave  Anda- 
lucia  to  Soult,  he  turned  aside  to  Se- 
ville to  play  the  "conquering  hero." 
So  Alburquerque,  by  taking  a  short  cut, 
had  time  to  r^ich  the  Isla^  and  make  a 
show  of  defence,  which  scared  Victor. 
Had  he  pushed  on,  the  city  must  have 
-fallen ;  for  everything  was  then,  as  now, 
-most  orientally  out  of  order,  the  forti- 
:fications  b^ng  almost  dismantled.  The 
2K>ld  front  presented  by  Alburquerque 

saved  the  town.  He  soon  after  died  in 
England,  broken-heartedat  the  injustice 
and  ingratitude  of  the  Cadiz  Junta. 
Thus  Spain  generally  rewards  those  who 
serve  her  best.  Previously  to  his  timely 
arrival,  the  junta,  "  reposing  on  its  own 
greatness,"  had  taken  no  precautions, 
nay,  had  resisted  the  English  engineers 
in  their  proposed  defences,  and  had 
insulted  us  by  unworthy  suspicions, 
refusing  to  acbnit  a  British  garrison, 
thus  marring  the  Duke's  admirable  plan 
of  defending  Andalucia.  They  despised 
him  when  they  were  safe :  "  Sed  ubi 
periculum  advenit  invidia  atque  su- 
perbia  postfuere"  (Sallust,  B.C.  24). 
Then  they  put  away  their  envy  and 
pride,  and  clamoured  for  aid  in  their 
miserable  incapacity  for  self-defence 
with  bated  breath  and  whispering  hum- 
bleness ;  and  Qeneral  Spencer  was  sent 
from  Gibraltar  with  2000  men,  the 
Duke  simply  remarking  on  withdraw- 
ing our  troops  after  they  l^ad  done  the 
work,  "  it  may  be  depended  upon,  that 
if  Cadiz  should  ever  again  be  in  danger, 
owr  aid  will  be  called  for"  (Disp.  Nov. 
11, 1813).  And  never  let  this  true  key 
of  Spanish  policy  be  forgotten.  That 
semi-Moorish  government,  so  long  as 
the  horizon  at  home  and  abroad  is  fisur, 
will  bully  and  bluster,  will  slight  and 
ill-use  England,  its  best  friend;  but 
whenever  "  the  little  cloud "  arises, 
whether  from  beyond  the  Pyrenees  or 
the  Atlantic,  it  will  hurry  to  kiss  the 
hand  it  stunig,  and  will  petition  for 
help  in  craven  consciousness  of  impo- 
tence.  The  real  strength  of  Spain  con- 
sists in  its  weakness,  and  in  the  for- 
bearance and  endurance  of  other  and 
real  Powers. 

The  first  step  the  Cortes  took  was  to 
meditate  a  law  to  prevent  anv  foreign 
soldiers  (meaning  English)  from  ever 
being  admitted  into  a  Spanish  fortress ; 
and  this  aft;er  Cadiz,  Cartagena,  Tarifii, 
Alicante,  Ceuta,  &c.,  had  been  soleljf 
defiended  and  saved  by  their  assistance. 
Now-a-days,  according  to  Spanish  his- 
tories, Cadiz  is  the  "  bastion  where  the 
finest  troops  in  the  world  were  baffled 
by  Spaniah  valour  alone ;"  for  the  Md- 
lados  and  Co.  do  not  even  mention  t 



Sect.  II. 

English.  So  it  has  always  been  and 
will  be :  Spain,  at  the  critical  moment, 
loves  to  fold  her  arms  and  allow  others 
to  drag  her  wheels  out  of  the  mire ;  she 
accepts  their  aid  uncourteously,  and  as 
if  she  was  thereby  doing  her  allies  an 
honour;  she  borrows  their  gold  and  uses 
their  iron ;  and  when  she  is  deUyered, 
"repudiates;"  her  notion  of  re-payment 
is  by  ingratitude;  she  draws  not  even  on 
the  "  exchequer  of  the  poor"  for  thanks ; 
nay,  she  filches  from  her  benefactors 
their  good  name,  decking  herself  in  their 
plumes.  The  memory  of  French »»;«ri&« 
is  less  hateful  than  that  of  EngUsh  bene- 
fits,  which  wounds  her  pride,  as  evincing 
her  comparative  iuferiority. 

Cadiz,  being  the  "  end  of  the  world," 

.  has  always  been  made  the  last  asylum 
of  gasconading  goyermnents,  einoethej 
can  run  no  further,  because  stopped  by 
the  sea:  hither,  after  prating  about 
Numantia,  the  Junta  fled  in  1810,  set- 
ting the  example  to  their  imitators  ia 
1823.  Then  the  Cortes-  of  Madrid 
continued  to  chatter,  and  write  imper- 
tinent notes  to  the  allied  sovereigns, 
until  Angoul^me  crossed  the  Bidasoa ; 
when  they  all  forthwith  took  to  their 
heels,  fled  to  Cadiz,  and  next  surren- 
dered. Thus  this  city,  which  so  long 
resisted  the  mighty  Emperor,  because 
defended  by  England,  when  left  to  its 
single-handed  valour,  succumbed  with 
such  precipitation  that  the  conquest 
became  inglorious  even  to  the  puny 
Bourbon.  Yet  the  city  still  glories  hi 
the  epithet  *^Heroica"  one  in  truth 
so  common  to  Spanish  cities,  that  the 
French,  in  1823,  when  the  mayors  came 
out  with  their  pompous  titles  and  keys 
to  surrender  them  itutcmier,  scarcely 
could  refrain  from  laughter. 

Cadiz,  purely  a  commercial  town,  has 
Uttle  fine  art  or  learning ;  les  lettrea  de 
change  y  sont  lea  belles  lettrea.  It  is 
scarry  even  th&jocosa  Gadea  of  the 
past ;  for  the  society  being  mercantile,  is 
considered  by  Spaniards  as  second-rate. 
The  women,  however,  fascinate  alike  by 
their  forms  and  manners.    Cadiz,  it  is 

-juiid,  is  rather  the  city  of  Venus,  the 

^-■er  of  love,  than  of  the  chaste 

;  and  the  frequiency  of  consump- 

tion in  so  fine  a  climate  may  be  traced 
to  the  early,  general,  and  excessive  in- 
dulgence. The  wretched  foundlings  in 
the  hospital  La  Cuna  die  como  chinches;: 
this  mortality,  it  is  said  —  a  modem 
massacre  of  the  innocents — averages  75 
per  cent.  The  lower  orders  have  bor- 
rowed from  foreigners  many  vices  not 
common  in' the  inland  towns  of  tem- 
perate and  decent  Spain.  Cadiz,  as  a 
residence,  is  but  a  sea-prison ;  the 
water  is  bad,  and  the  clunate  during 
the  Solcmo  wind  (its  sirocco),  detest- 
able; then  the  mercury  in  the  baro- 
meter rises  six  or  seven  degrees,  and  the 
natives  are  driven  almost  mad,  espe- 
cially the  women ;  the  searching  blast 
finds  out  everything  that  is  wrong  in 
the  nervous  constitution.  The  use  of 
the  knife  is  so  common  during  this 
wind,  that  courts  of  justice  make  al- 
lowances for  the  irritant  efiects,  as 
arising  from  electrical  causes,  the  pass- 
ing over  heated  deserts.  Cadiiz  used  to- 
be  much  visited  by  yellow  fever — el  vo- 
mito  negro — which  was  imported  from 
the  Havana.  The  invalid  will  find  the 
soft  and  moist  air  somewhat  relaxing ;. 
but  the  city  is  well  ventilated  by  fresh 
breezes,  and  the  sea  is  an  excellent 

There  are  very  few  good  pictures  at 
Cadiz.  The  new  Museo  contains  8om& 
50  or  60  second-rate  paintings,  hun- 
dreds of  books  and  pictures  having 
been  left  to  rot  on  the  floors  by  the 
authorities ;  among  the  best,  or  rather 
the  least  bad,  are,  by  Zurbaran,  the- 
San  Bruno  —  Eight  Monks,  figurea 
smaller  than  life,  from  the  Cartuja  of 
Xerez;  twoAngelsdittOjandsixsmaller; 
the  Four  EvangeUsts,  San  Lorenzo  and 
the  Baptist.  There  is  a  Virgen  de  la 
Faja,  a  copy  after  Murillo,  by  Tobar ; 
a  San  Agustin,  by  L.  Giordano ;  a 
San  Miguel  and  Evil  Spirits,  and  the 
Ghiardian  Angel.  The  pride  of  the- 
Ghiditanians  is  the  Last  Judgment^ 
which,  to  use  the  criticism  of  SaLvator 
Bosa  on  Michael  Angelo,  shows  their 
lack  of  that  article,  as  it  is  a  poor  pro- 
duction, by  some  feeble  imitator  of 
Nicholas  Foussui.  An  echo  also  greatly 
amuses  grown  up  children. 

Anddlucia.        route  1. — the  cathedrai^  of  cadiz. 


Cadiz. is  a  garrison  town,  the  see  of 
a  bishop  suffragan  to  Seville.  It  has  a 
fine  new  Plaza  de  Toros,  built  outside 
the  town  by  Montes,  who  half  ruined 
himself  thereby.  It  has  two  theatres ; 
in  the  larger,  iH  Frincipal,  operas  are 
performed  during  the  winter,  and  in 
the  smaller,  el  del  Balon,  Sainetes, 
&roes,  and  the  national  JSailes  or 
dances,  which  never  fail  to  rouse  the 
most  siestose  audience.  Ascend  the 
Torre  de  la  Viffia,  below  lies  the 
smokeless  whitened  city,  with  its  mira- 
dores  and  azoteaSy  its  look-out  towers 
and  flat  roo&,  from  whence  the  mer- 
chants formerly  signalised  the  arrival 
of  their  galleons.  While  Madrid  has 
not  one,  Cadiz  possesses  two  cathedrals 
near  each  other.  The  old  one.  La 
Viefa,  was  buHt  in  1597,  to  replace 
that  injured  during  the  siege.  Its 
want  of  dignity  induced  the  city,  in 
1720,  to  commence  a  new  one,  La 
Nuevas  but  the  plans  given  by  Yicente 
Acero  were  so  bad  that  no  one,  in  spite 
of  many  attempts,  was  found  able  to 
correct  them,  so  the  work  was  left  unfi- 
nished in  1769,  and  the  funds,  derived 
from  a  duty  on  American  produce, 
were  regularly  appropriated  by  the 
commissioners  to  themselves.  The 
hull,  used  as  a  rope-walk,  remained, 
like  a  stranded  wreck  on  a  quicksand, 
in  which  the  merchants*  property  was 
engulphed,  until  the  interior  was  com- 
pleted by  Bp.  Domingo  de  Silos  Moreno, 
chiefly  at  his  own  expense,  during  a 
time  of  civil  war  and  church  sequestra- 
tions. The  florid  Corinthian  is  over- 
charged with  cornices  and  capitals,  and 
bran-new  pictures — daubs.  Observe, 
however,  in  a  chapel  behind  the  high 
altar,  a  fine  Concepcion  by  Mmillo. 
There  is  a  history  of  this  cathedral  by 
Jamer  de  Urrutia,  1843. 

The  sea-ramparts  which  encircle  the 
city,  extending  more  than  4  m.  round, 
are  on  this  side  the  most  remarkable ; 
here  the  rocks  rise  the  highest,  and  the 
battering  of  the  Atlantic  is  the  greatest 
as  the  waters  gain  on  the  land ;  their 
maintenance  and  rebuilding  is  a  con- 
stant source  of  expense  and  anxiety. 
Here  idlers,  seated  on  the  highwi 


dispute  with  flocks  of  sea-birds  for  the 
salmonetef  the  deUcious  red  mullet. 
•Their  long  angling-canes  and  patience 
are  proverbial — la  paciencia  de  un  pes- 
cador  de  cana. 

Los  CapuchinoSf  the  suppressed  con- 
vent of  San  Francisco,  were  the  head- 
quarters of  Lord  Essex  in  1596.  Here 
is  the  Academia  de  Nobles  Artes,  with 
a  museum,  consisting  chiefly  of  rubbish, 
and  shabbily  managed  because  of  the 
old  story  "  no  funds."  The  building  is 
now  used  as  a  lunatic  asylum.  The 
Plaza  de  Mina  has  been  created  out  of 
the  convent  garden :  then  and  there 
the  2>ra^on-tree,  bleeding  from  the 
tomb  of  Gteryon,  the  last  of  its  race, 
was  barbarously  cut  down,  and  even 
the  matchless  palm-grove  shorn  of  its 
glories.  The  chapel  contains  the  Mar- 
riage of  St.  Catherine,  the  last  work  of 
Miuillo,  who  in  1682  fell  here  from  the 
scaffolding,  and  died  in  consequence 
at  Seville :  the  smaller  subjects  were 
finished  from  his  drawings  by  his  pupil 
Fro.  Meneses  Osorio,  who  did  not  ven- 
ture to  touch  what  his  master  had  done 
ui  the  first  lay  of  colours,  or  de  primer  a 
mono.  A  San  Francisco  receiving  the 
Stigmata  is  in  Murillo's  best  manner. 
Notice  also  in  a  chapel  opposite  a 
Concepcion.  These  pictures  were  the 
gift  of  Juan  Yioleto,  a  Genoese,  and  a 
devotee  to  St.  Catherine ;  but  the  chief 
benefiEtctor  of  the  convent  was  a  foreign 
Jew,  one  Pierre  Isaac,  who,  to  con- 
ciUate  the  Inquisition,  and  save  his 
ducats,  took  the  Virgin  into  partner- 
ship, and  gave  half  his  profits  to  her, 
or  rather  to  the  convent.  Some  single 
figures  by  Zmrbaran  came  from  the 
Cartuja  of  Xerez. 

Following  the  sea-wall  and  turning 
to  the  rt.  at  the  Puerta  de  la  Caleta, 
in  the  distance  the  fort  and  lighthouse 
of  San  Sebastian  rises  about  172  ft. 
above  the  rocky  ledge,  which  proved 
the  barrier  that  saved  Cadiz  from 
the  sea  at  the  Lisbon  earthquake  in 
1755.  Next  observe  the  huge  yellow 
Doric  pile,  the  Casa  de  Misericordia^ 
built  by  Torquato  Cayon.  This,  one 
of  the  best  conducted  refuges  of  t>t« 
poor  in  Spain,  sometimes  contains  1 



inmates,  of  which  300  to  400  are  chil- 
dren. Its  great  patron  was  O'Reilly, 
who,  in  1785,  for  a  time  suppressed 
mendicity  in  Cadiz.  The  court-yards, 
the  patios  of  the  interior,  are  noble. 
Here,  Jan.  4,  1813,  a  ball  was  given 
by  the  grandees  to  "  the  Duke,"  firesh 
from  his  victory  of  Salamanca,  by 
which  the  siege  of  Cadiz  had  been 
raised,  and  Andalucia  saved,  in  spite 
of  the  marplot  Cortes. 

Passing  the  artillery  barracks  and 
■arsenal,  we  turn  by  the  haluarie  de 
Candelaria  to  the  Alameda.  This 
charming  walk  is  provided  with  trees, 
benches,  fountain,  and  a  miserable 
statue  of  Hercules,  the  founder  of 
Cadiz,  and  whose  effigy,  grapplmg  with 
two  lions,  the  city  bears  for  arms,  with 
the  motto  **Ghtdi8  fundator  domina- 
torque."  Every  Spanish  town  has  its 
public  walk,  the  cheap  pleasure  of  all 
classes.  The  term  Alameda  is  derived 
from  the  AlamOf  or  elm-tree.  Some- 
times the  esplanade  is  called  SI  Salon, 
the  saloon,  and  it  is  an  al-fresco,  out 
of  doors  RidoUo.  Tomar  el  fresco,  to 
take  the  cool,  is  the  joy  of  these  south- 
em  latitudes.  Those  who  have  braved 
the  dog-days  of  the  Castiles  can  best  esti- 
mate the  delight  of  the  sea-breeze  which 
springs  up  after  the  scorching  sun  has 
sunk  beneath  the  western  wave.  This 
sun  and  the  tides  were  the  marvels  of 
Cadiz  in  olden  times,  and  descanted 
on  in  the  classical  handbooks.  Philo- 
sophers came  here  on  purpose  to  study 
the  phenomena.  Apollonius  suspected 
that  the  waters  were  sucked  in  by  sub- 
marine winds ;  SoUnus  thought  this 
operation  was  performed  by  huge  sub- 
marine animals.  Artemidorus  reported 
that  the  sun's  disc  increased  a  hundred 
fold,  and  that  it  set,  like  Falstaff  in 
the  Thames,  with  "  an  alacrity  of  sink- 
ing, hot  in  the  surge,  like  a  horse-shoe," 
or  stridentem  gwrgite,  according  to  Ju- 
venal. The  Spanish  G-oths  imagined 
that  the  sim  returned  to  the  E.  by 
unknown  subterraneous  passages  (San 
Isid.  Or,  iii.  15). 

The  prosaic  march  of  intellect  has 

"^'^'ed  the  poetical  and  marvellous  of 

t    credulity    and    admiration; 

still,  however,  this  is  the  spot  for  the 
modem  philosopher  to  study  the  de- 
scendants of  those  "  QadAta/MBi^  who 
turned  more  ancient  heads  tluui  even 
the  sun.  The  "  ladies  of  Cadiz,"  the 
theme  of  our  old  ballads,  have  retained 
all  their  former  celebrity,  and  have 
cared  neither  for  time  nor  tide.  Ob- 
serve, particularly  in  this  Alameda^ 
their  walk,  about  which  every  one  has 
heard  so  much,  and  which  has  been 
distinguished  by  a  competent  female 
judge  from  the  "affected  wriggle  of 
the  French  women,  and  the  grenadier 
stride  of  the  English,  as  a  graceful 
swinmiing  gait."  The  charm  is  that 
it  is  natural  J  and,  in  being  the  true 
unsophisticated  daughters  of  Eve  and 
nature,  the  Spanish  women  have  few 
rivals.  They  carry  their  heads  with 
the  free  high-bred  action  of  an  Arab, 
from  walking  alone  and  not  slouching 
and  leaning  on  gentlemen's  arms,  and 
daintily  from  not  having  to  keep  step 
with  the  longer-legged  sex.  They  walk 
with  the  confidence,  the  power  of 
balance,  and  the  instantaneous  find- 
ing the  centre  of  gravity,  of  the  cha- 
mois. The  thing  is  done  without  effort, 
and  is  the  result  of  a  perfect  organ- 
ization :  one  would  swear  that  they 
could  dance  by  instinct,  and  without 
being  taught.  The  Andaluza,  in  her 
glance  and  step,  learns,  although  she 
does  not  know  it,  from  the  gazelle. 
Her  pace,  el  Tiafar,  and  her  pride 
may  be  compared  to  the  ^aso  Cartel- 
lano  of  an  ambling  Cordovese  barb. 
According  to  Yelazquez,  the  kings  of 
Spain  ought  nev^  to  be  painted,  ex- 
cept witching  the  world  with  noble 
horsemanship,  and,  certes,  their  female 
subjects  should  never  be  seen  except  on 
foot,  St  vera  incessu  patuit  dea.  As  few 
people,  except  at  Madrid,  can  afford 
to  keep  a  carriage,  all  classes  walk,  and 
the  air  and  soil  are  alike  clean  and  dry. 
Practice  makes  perfect ;  hence  the  elite 
of  the  noblesse  adorn  the  Alameda, 
while  in  London  the  aristocratic  foot 
seldom  honours  the  dirty  earth. 

The  Gtiditana  has  no  idea  of  not 
being  admired.  She  goes  out  to  see, 
and  still  more  to  be  seen.    Her  cos- 




tume  is  scrupulously  clean  and  neat ; 
she  reserves  all  her  untidyness  for  her 
husband  and  sweet  domestic  privacy. 
Her  "pace"  her  aire  is  her  boast :  not 
but  vrhat  first-rate  £eistidious  judges 
consider  her  ^raoia  to  be  menos  fina 
than  that  of  the  more  high-bred  Sevil- 
lana.  Her  meiteo,  however,  is  consi- 
dered by  grave  antiquarians  to  be  the 
unchanged  crissatura  of  Martial. 

The  Spanish  foot,  female,  which  most 
travellers  describe  at  length,  is  short, 
and  with  a  high  instep ;  it  is  plump, 
not  to  say  pinched  or  contracted.  An 
incarceration  in  over-small  and  pointed 
shoes,  it  faut  souffrvr  powr  itre  helle^ 
occasionally  renders  the  ankles  pufff  ; 
but,  as  among  the  Chinese,  the  correct 
foot-measure  is  conventional ;  and  he 
who  investigates  affairs  with  line  and 
rule  will  probably  discover  that  these 
Oaditanas  will  sooner  find  out  the 
exact  length  of  his  foot,  than  he  of 
theirs.  The  Spaniards  abhor  the 
French  foot,  which  the  rest  of  man- 
kind admire — they  term  it  "«»  pie 
eeco"  dry  measure.  They,  like  Ariosto, 
prefer  "il  breve  asciutto  e  ritondello 
pede."  Be  that  as  it  may,  there  can  be 
no  difierence  in  opinion  as  to  the 
stockings  of  open  lace  embroidery, 
medias  caladas.  They  leave  nothing 
to  be  desired.  The  Spanish  satin  shoe 
and  white  kid  glove  deserve  the  most 
serious  attention  of  all  our  lady  readers ; 
although  the  former  are  somewhat  too 
pointed,  and  cut  too  low  in  the  quarter, 
whereby  the  pressure  is  thrown  for- 
ward, and  the  tarsus  and  meta-tarsus 
uncovered,  which  occasions  bunions  j 
but  vanity  can  endure  even  a  com. 

Formerly  the  Spanish  foot  female 
was  sedulously  concealed ;  the  dresses 
were  made  very  long,  after  the  Oriental 
9'«Sf7^*f>,  Talaris  fashion;  the  least  ex- 
posure was  a  disgrace;  compare  Isa. 
iii.  17;  Jer.  xiii.  22;  Ezek.  xvi.  25. 
As  among  the  Germans  (Tacitus,  Grer. 
19),  so  among  the  Spanish  Goths,  the 
shortening  a  lady's  hasguina  was  the 
deadliest  affiront;  the  catastrophe  of 
the  Infftntes  of  Lara  turns  upon  this 
curtailment  of  Dofia  Lambra's  say  a. 
The  feet  of  the  Madonna  are  never 

allowed  to  be  painted  or  engraved; 
and  it  was  contrary  to  court  etiquette 
to  allude  even  to  the  possibility  of  the 
Queens  of  Spain  having  legs :  they 
were  a  sort  of  royal  «ir«3«,  of  the  bird 
of  Paradise  species. 

Those  good  old  days  are  passed ;  and 
now  the  under-garments  of  the  maja 
and  haUarina,  dancer,  are  very  short, 
they  substitute  a  make-believe  trans- 
parent ^co  or  fringe,  after  the  Oriental 
fashion  (Numb.  xv.  38),  or  the  old 
Egyptian  (Wilk.  ii.  81).  The  Cartha- 
ginian Limbus  was  either  made  of  gold 
(Ovid,  Met,  iii.  61)  or  painted  (JS!». 
iv.  237).  Those  of  the  maja  are  en- 
riched with  cafwtilloy  bugles  or  gold 
filigree.  They  are  the  precise  xaXa^trte 
of  the  Greek  ladies,  the  instita  of  the 
Roman.  This  short  garment  is  made 
to  look  ample,  it  is  said,  by  sundry 
zaffalefos  or  intimoSy  under-petticoats, 
and  ingenious  contrivances  and  jupea 
houffawtes,  bustles,  and  so  forth ;  no 
todo  es  oro,  lo  que  reluce. 

The  foot,  although  it  ought  not  to 
be  shown,  figures  much  in  Spanish 
compliment.  A  loa  pies  de  Vmd.  is  a 
caballero's  salute  to  a  Senora.  JBeso  a 
Vmd.  lospies  is  extremely  polite.  If  a 
gentleman  vidshes  to  be  remembered  to 
his  friend's  vdfe,  he  says,  Lay  me  at 
her  feet. 

Bemember,  in  walking  on  this  or 
any  other  alameda,  never  to  ofier  a 
Spanish  lady  your  arm,  and  beware, 
also,  of  the  honest  EngUshman's  shake 
of  a  Spanish  lady's  hand,  noli  me  tan- 
gere.  She  only  gives  her  hand  with  her 
heart;  contact  conveys  an  electrical 
spark,  and  is  considered  shocking.  No 
wonder,  vdth  these  combined  attrac- 
tions of  person  and  costume,  that  the 
"  Ladies  of  Cadiz"  long  continued  to  be 
popidar  and  to  exercise  that  womano- 
crac^,  that  Twatxox^affM  which  Strabo 
(iii.  251)  was  ungallant  enough  to  con- 
demn in  their  Iberian  mothers.  But 
Strabo  was  a  bore,  and  these  were  the 
old  complaintsagainstthe  *'mantles  and 
whimples,"  i.  e.  la^  soyas  y  mawHllas 
of  the  Tyrian  women,  who,  as  the 
scholar  knows  (II.  vi.  290),  embroi- 
dered the  mantilla  of  Minerva's  image 



Sect.  IT, 

But  Cadiz  was  the  eldest  daughter  of 
Tyre,  and  her  daughters  naturally  in- 
herited the  Sidonian  '*  stretchiDg  forth 
of  necks,  wanton  eyes,  walking  and 
mincing  as  they  go  "  (Isa.iu.6).  Alas! 
for  the  sad  changes  making  by  the 
commonplace  chapeau ! 

Barring  these  liying  objects  of  un- 
deniable antiquarian  and  present  in- 
terest, there  is  Uttle  else  to  be  seen  on 
this  Alameda  of  Cadiz.  The  principal 
building,  JEl  Carmen,  is  of  the  worst 
churri^tterismo :  inside  was  buried 
Adm.  Grayina,  who  commanded  the 
Spanish  fleet,  and  received  his  death- 
wound  at  Trafalgar.  Continuing  to 
the  E.  is  the  large  Aduana  or  Custom- 
house, disproportioned  indeed  to  fail- 
ing commerce  and  scanty  reyenu^, 
and  where  ererything  that  is  yicious 
and  anti-commercial  in  tariffs  is  wor- 
thily carried  out  by  officials  hatefiil 
everywhere  to  travellers.  Here  Ferd. 
VII.  was  confined  in  1823  by  the  con- 
stitutionalists. Thence  the  artist  should 
pass  to  the  Puerta  del  Mary  for  cos- 
tume, colour,  and  grouping.  Here  will 
be  seen  every  variety  of  fish,  and 
female  from  the  mantilhad  Senora  to 
the  brisk  Mttchttcha  in  her  gay  panttelo. 
The  ichthyophile  should  examine  the 
curious  varieties,  which  also  struck 
the  naturalists  and  gourmands  of  an- 
tiquity (Strabo,  iii.  214).  Here,  as  at 
GKbrsJtar,  the  monsters  of  the  deep 
in  form  and  colour,  blubbers,  scuttle- 
fishes,  and  marine  reptiles,  pass  de- 
scription ;  (Bs  triplex  indeed  must  have 
been  about  the  stomach  of.  the  man 
who  first  greatly  dared  to  dine  on 
them.  The  dog-fish,  the  JPintarojo, 
for  instance,  is  a  dehcacy  of  the  omni- 
vorous lower  classes,  who  eat  every- 
thing except  toads.  The  fish  of  the 
storm-vexed  Atlantic  is  superior  to 
that  of  the  languid  Mediterranean. 
The  best  here  are  the  San  Pedro,  or 
John  Dory,  our  corruption  from  the 
Italian  Jamtore,  so  called  because  it  is 
the  fish  which  the  Porter  of  Heaven 
caught  with  the  tribute-money  in  his 
mouth ;  the  Salmonetea,  the  red  mul- 
lets (the  Sultan  al  hut,  the  king  of 
"  hes  of  the  Moors)  are  right  royal : 

have  them  fried  simply  in  oil,  and  give 
directions  that  the  trail,  las  trvpas,  be 
left  in  them,  which  Spanish  cooks,  the 
worst  in  the  world,  otherwise  take  out ; 
here  may  be  seen  other  fishes  not  to 
be  found  in  Greenwich  kitchens  or  in 
English  dictionaries:  e,  g,  the  Juvel^ 
the  Savalo,  and  the  Mero,  which  latter 
ranks  among  fish  as  the  sheep  does 
among  animals,  en  la  tierra  el  camerOy 
en  la  mar  el  mero.  But  Ml  doradoy 
the  limated  gilt  head,  so  called  from  its 
golden  eyes  and  tmts,  if  eaten  with 
Tomata  sauce,  and  lubricated  with 
golden  sherry,  is  a  dish  fit  for  a  cardinal. 

The  new  prison  and  unfinished  Ms-  - 
cuela  de  Comercio  are  cited  by  natives 
among  their  hons.  The  handsome 
street,  la  CaUe  Ancha,  and  in  truth 
the  jonly  hroad  street,  is  the  lounge  of 
the  city ;  here  are  all  the  best  shops ; 
the  ca^a^  consistoriales  may  be  looked 
at.  The  chief  square,  and  reaUy  a 
square,  planted,  and  provided  with 
seats,  is  placed  under  the  protection  of 
San  Antonio,  because  hiis  statue  in 
1648  came  down  from  its  pedestal  to 
heal  some  sick.     (Feyron,  i.  243.) 

The  Cortes  of  Cadiz  sat  during  the 
war  of  independence  in  San  Felipe 
JSferi.  Their  debates  ended  Sept.  14, 
1813:  many  are  printed  in  16  vols., 
4to.  Diario  de  las  Cortes,  Cadiz, 
1811-12.  This  Spanish  Hansard  is 
rare,  Ferd.  VII.  having  ordered  all  the 
copies  to  be  burnt  by  the  hangman  as 
a  bonfire  on  the  first  birth-day  after 
his  restoration.  Whoever  will  open 
only  one  volume  must  admit  that  the 
pages  are  the  greatest  satire — ^the  Mo- 
niteur  excepted — which  any  set  of  mis- 
rulers  ever  published  on  themselves. 
The  best  speech  ever  made  there  was 
by  the  Duke  (Deo.  30, 1812),  after  his 
usual  energetic,  straightforward,  Eng- 
Ush  fashion. 

The  members  were  perfectly  insen- 
sible to  the  ludicrous  (fisproportion  of 
their  inflated  phraseology  with  facts ; 
vast. in  promise,  beggarly  in  perform- 
ance, well  might  the  performers  be 
called  Vocales,  for  theirs  was  vox  et 
prseterea  nihil :  an  idiot's  tale,  full  of 
sound  and  fury,  signifying  nothing,  be- 

AruMuda.        route  1. — ^el  Puerto  de  santa  maria. 


ing  mere  Palahras,  palaver,  or  "  words, 
words,  words;"  "a  volley  of  words" 
instead  of  soldiers  ;  "  a  fbe  exchequer 
of  words  "  instead  of  cash.  The  curse 
of  poor  Spain  are  ih&se  juntas  or  cortesy 
caricatures  of  parliaments,  where  things 
are  talked  about  not  done,  or  if  done, 
done  badly;  it  is  adding  insult  to  injury 
when  the  forms  of  free  men  are  made 
instruments  of  tyranny. 

Now  as  few  things  alter  in  Spain, 
and  none  so  httle  as  any  goyeming 
body  of  any  kind,  hear  the  oracular 
Duke,  who  appears  at  once  to  have 
understood  the  Cortes  by  the  instinct 
of  strong  sense  :  "  The  leading  people 
among  them  have  invcMriahly  deceived 
the  lower  orders^  and  instead  of  mak- 
ing them  acquainted  with  their  real 
situation,  and  calling  upon  them  to 
make  the  exertions  and  the  sacrifices 
which  were  necessary  even  for  their  de- 
fence, they  have  amused  them  with  idle 
stories  of  imaginary  successes,  with 
yisionary  plans  of  offensive  operations, 
which  those  who  offer  them  for  consi- 
deration know  they  have  no  means  of 
executing,  and  with  the  hopes  of  driving 
the  French  out  of  the  Peninsula  by 
some  unlooked-for  good**  (Disp.,  May 
11,  1810).  Again,  "  It  is  extraordi- 
nary that  the  revolution  in  Spain 
should  not  have  produced  one  man 
with  any  knowledge  of  the  real  situ- 
ation of  his  countiT ;  it  really  appears 
as  if  they  were  all  drunk,  thinking  and 
talking  of  any  objects  but  Spain  :  how 
it  is  to  end  (Jod  knows !"  (Disp.,  Nov. 
1, 1812).  This,  however,  still  is  and 
has  long  been  the  hard  lot  of  this  ill- 
fated  country.  Spain,  says  Justin 
(xliv.  2),  never,  in  a  long  series  of  ages, 
produced  one  great  general  except  Y iri- 
atas,  and  he  was  but  a  guerrillero, 
like  the  Cid,  Muia,  or  Zumalacarregui. 
The  people,  indeed,  have  honest  hearts 
and  vigorous  arms,  but,  as  in  the  East- 
em  £fible,  a  head  is  wanting  to  the  body. 
The  many  have  been  sacSnficed  to  the 
few,  and  exposed  to  destitution  in  peace 
and  to  misfortune  in  war  by  unworthy 
rulers,  ever  and  only  intent  on  their 
own  selfish  interests,  to  the  injuiy 
of  their  fatherland  and  countrymen. 

Every  day  confirms  the  truth  of  the 
Duke's  remark  (Sept.  12,  1812) :  "  I 
really  beHeve  that  there  is  not  a  man 
in  the  coimtry  who  is  capable  of  com- 
prehending, much  less  of  conductiag^ 
any  great  concern." 


A  rail  is  in  contemplation  for  thi» 
circuit ;  but  in  Spain,  a  land  where,  a» 
in  the  East,  time  is  of  no  value,  and 
want  of  funds  the  chronic  complaint,, 
the  natives  seldom  do  to-day  what  can 
be  put  off  for  to-morrow,  their  beloved 
Manana ;  and  well  did  our  wise  Bacon 
wish  that  his  tardy  death  might  come 
&om  Spain:  me  venga  la  muerte  de 
Espana.  Even  rail  matters  here  move 
like  our  Court  of  Chancery;  in  fact> 
all  love  to  leave  something  for  poste- 
rity to  do,  and  do  not  go  to  work,  as- 
they  say,  con  esaJUria  que  por  dhi  se 
acostumbra,  como  si  el  mundo  sefuera 
adabar;  so  mean  time  take  a  boat. 

The  outer  bay  is  rather  exposed!; 
the  S.W.,  but  the  anchorage  in  the 
inner  portion  is  excellent.  Some  dan- 
gerous  rocks  are  scattered  opposite  the 
town,  in  the  direction  of  BiOta,  and 
are  eddied  Jjas  Puercas,  the  Sows — 
Xufetiii  ;  for  these  porcine  appellations 
are  as  common  in  Spanish  nomencla- 
ture as  among  the  ancients,  and  the 
hog-back  is  not  a  bad  simile  for  many 
of  such  rocky  formations.  Mota  lie& 
on  the  opposite  (west)  side  of  the  bay, 
and  is  distant  about  five  miles  across.. 
Here  the  tent  wine  used  for  our  sacra- 
ments is  ma^e ;  the  name  being  nothing^ 
but  the  Spanish  tintUla,  from  tinto^. 
red.  The  next  point  is  La  Puntilla^ 
and  then  that  defended  by  the  battery 
Sa,  Catalina, 

El  Pubbto  db  S*^-  Mabia,  Port 
St.  Mary,  and  usually  called  el  FuertOy. 
the  port  (o-Porto),  was  the  Portus  Me- 
nesthei  (Le  Min  Asta,  Portus  Asts),  a 
Pimic  word,  which  the  Greeks,  who,  aa 
usual,  caught  at  sound,  not  sense,  con- 
nected with  the  Athenian  Menestheus. 
It  lies  distant  from  Cadiz  8  1.  by  land,. 
2  1.  by  sea. 

Inns. — Near  the  landing-place  ifl  the 
Vista  alegre,  which  to  a  cheerful  look- 



Sect.  n. 

out  unites  cleannesB  and  sundry  English 
conveniences  rare  on  the  continent. 
Here  the  Ghiadalete  enters  the  hay ; 
the  har  is  dangerous,  and  much  ne- 
glected. In  the  days  of  sailing-hoats, 
prayers  to  the  blessed  souls  in  purga- 
tory and  making  crosses  were  chiefly 
resorted  to ;  now  small  steamers  go 
backwards  and  forwards  three  times 
a  day ;  the  passage  takes  from  half 
to  three-quarters  of  an  hour.  The 
Puerto  is  pleasant  and  well  built ; 
pop.  18,000.  The  river  is  crossed  by 
a  suspension  bridge  :  in  the  Plaza  de 
Toros  was  given  a  grand  bullfight  to 
the  Duke,  described  by  Byron,  better  as 
apoet,  than  as  a  correct  torero.  The  soil 
of  the  environs  is  rich,  and  the  water 
so  excellent  that  Cadiz  is  supplied 
with  it  to  the  cost  of  10,000^.  a-year, 
while  ancient  Glides  was  suppUed 
by  an  aqueduct,  wliich  O'Beilly  would 
have  restored  hsid  he  remained  in  office. 

The  Puerto f  one  of  the  three  great 
towns  of  wine  export,  vies  with  Xerez 
and  San  Lucar.  The  principal  houses 
are  French  and  English.  The  vicinity 
to  Cadiz,  the  centre  of  exchange,  is 
favourable  to  business,  while  the  road 
to  Xerez  is  convenient  for  conveying 
down  the  wines,  which  i»*e  apt  to  be 
staved  in  the  water-carriage  of  the 
Guadalete.  Among  the  best  houses 
may  be  named  Osborne  and  Duff  Gor- 
don, whose  AmowtUlado  is  matchless, 
Mousley,  Oldham,  Burdon  and  Gray, 
Pico,  Mora,  Heald,  Gorman  and  Co. 
The  hodegas  or  wine-stores  deserve  a 
visit,  although  those  of  Xerez  are  on  a 
grander  scale.  The  town  is  vinous 
and  uninteresting :  the  houses  resemble 
those  of  Cadiz  :  the  best  street  is  the 
Calle  Larga ;  the  prettiest  alameda  is 
la  Victoria.  Here  Ferd.  VII.  landed, 
Oct.  1, 1823,  when  dehvered  &om  the 
Constitutionalists  by  the  French,  and 
forthwith  proceeded  to  violate  every 
solemn  pledge  to  friend  and  foe.  Here, 
July  30, 1843,  Baldomero  Espartero, 
the  Regent  Duke,  driven  out  by  the 
intrigues  of  Louis  Philippe  and  Chris- 
tina, concluded  his  first  career  on  board 
a  British  line-of-battle  ship. 

The  bay  now  shelves  towards  Cdbe- 

zuela,  and  narrows  as  it  draws  to  the 
inner  division ;  the  mouth  is  defended 
by  the  cross-fires  of  the  forts  Mata- 
gorda and  Puntales.  At  the  latter 
Lord  Essex  landed  in  1596  and  did  take 
Cadiz ;  which  Victor  bombarded  from 
the  former  and  did  not  take.  Now  row 
up  the  Trocadero,  which  divides  an 
islet  from  the  main  land.  Fort  San 
Luis,  once  a  flourishing  place,  was 
ruined  by  Victor,  an  enemy,  in  1812, 
and  annihilated  by  Angoul^me,  an  ally, 
in  1823.  Of  his  taking  the  Troca- 
deroy  the  glory  of  the  Bestoration, 
even  Messieurs  Bory  de  St.  Vincent 
and  Laborde  are  ashamed.  The  French, 
led  by  the  ardent  and  aquatic  Gen. 
Goujon,  passed  through  four  and  a 
half  feet  of  water.  "  Les  constitu- 
tionnels  prirent  alors  la  fuite,"  so  the 
assailants,  *'sans  avoir  perdu  un  seul 
homme,"  carried  the  strong  fort,  "  sans 
effusion  de  sang."  Those  who  fight  and 
run  away,  may  Hve  to  fight  another  day. 
Yet  Mr.  Campbell,  when  Bacchi  plenus 
it  is  to  be  presumed,  apostrophised 
these  truly  quick  heroes  as  dead  ones : 

*•  Brave  men,  who  at  the  Trocadero  fell 
Beside  your  cannon,  conquered  not,  though 

Matagorda  was  dismantled  by  Victor ; 
a  few  fragments  may  be  seen  at  very 
low  water. 

At  the  head  of  the  Trocadero,  and 
on  an  inner  bay,  is  Puerto  JReal^ 
founded  in  1488  by  Isabella.  This, 
despite  of  its  royalty^  is  a  tiresome 
poor  and  fishy  place  of  parallel  and 
rectangular  streets.  It  was  the  head- 
quarters of  Marshal  Victor,  who,  by 
way  of  leaving  a  parting  souvenir,  de- 
stroyed 900  houses.  Here  a  new  basin 
for  steamers  blessed  by  the  Bishop  in 
1846,  and  waltzed  in  by  the  ladies, 
still  excites  the  wonder  of  Cadiz. 
Opposite  is  the  river  or  canal  SawH  or 
Sancti  Petri  (the  Sancto  Petro  of  olden 
chronicles),  which  divides  the  Isla  from 
the  main  land.  On  the  land-bank  is 
one  of  the  chief  naval  arsenals  of  Spain, 
La  Carraca,  the  station  of  the  Cor- 
racaSf  the  carrackSf  galleons,  or  heavy 
ships  of  burden :  a  word  derived  from 
the  low  Latin  carricare,  to  load,  quoH 




sea-carts.    The  Normans  myaded  these 
coasts  of  Spain  in  huge  vessels  called 
kardkir,    Tiina  town,  with  the  opposite 
one  of  San  Carlos,  was  founded  by 
Charles  III.  to  form  the  Portsmouth 
and  Woolwich  of  his  kingdom.    Pre- 
viously to  the  Bourbon  accession  Spain 
obtained  her  navies,  ready  equipped, 
from  Flanders,  but  uised  on  by  France, 
and  made  the  tool  of  the  family  com- 
pact, she  soon  warred  with  England ; 
and  now  La  CcMrraca^  like  £1  Ferrol 
and  Cartagena,  tells  the  result  of  quar- 
relling with  her  natural  Mend.    These 
are  emblems  of  Spain  fallen  from  her 
pride  of  place  through  Bourbon  friend- 
ship.     Every  thing  speaks  of  a  past 
magnificence.  A  present  silence  and  de- 
solation contrast  with  the  former  bustle 
of  this  once-crowded  dockyard,  where 
were  floated  those  noble  three-deckers, 
Nelson's  "  old  acquaintances."      The 
navy  of  Spain  in  1789  consisted  of  76 
line-of-battle  ships  and  52  frigates ;  now 
*'  the  Spanish  fleet  ye  cannot  see,  because 
it's  not  in  sight  j"  it  is  nearly  reduced 
to  that  armada^  decreed  to  be  built  in 
birthday  gazettes  of  1853.     In  truth 
non-commercial  Spain   (Catalonia  ex- 
cepted, which  is  not  Spain)  never  was 
r^lly  a  naval  power.    The  Arab  and 
Berber  repugnance  to  the  sea,  and  the 
confinement  of  the  ship,  still  marks 
the  Spaniard ;  and  now  the  loss  of  her 
colonies  has  rendered  it  impossible  for 
Spain  to   have   a   navy,  which  even 
CSiarles  III.  in  vain  attempted  to  force, 
although  Mons.  Gautier  was  his  ship- 

How  changed  the  site  and  scene 
from  the  good  old  times  when  Mago 
here  moored  his  fleet,  and  Csesar  his 
long  gaUeys ;  when  Philip  anchored  the 
'Hwelve  apostles,"  the  treasure-galleons 
taken  by  Essex ;  when  Drake,  in  April, 
1587,  with  80  small  ships  destroyed 
more  than  lOOFrench  and  Spanish  "big 
braggarts,"  singeing,  as  he  said,  '*  the 
King  of  Spain's  whiskers ;"  here  were 
collected  in  after  times  the  40  sail  of 
the  line  prepared  to  invade  and  conquer 
England — St.  Vincent  and  Trafalgar 
settled  that;  here,  in  June,  1808,  5 
French  ships  of  the  line^  runaways 

from  Trafalgar  under  Mons.  Bosilly, 
surrendered  nominally  to  the  Spaniards, 
for  Collingwood,  by  blockading  Cadiz, 
had  rendered  escape  impossible. 

The  Santi  Petri  river,  the  water  key 
of  La  Isla,  is  deep,  and  defended  at  its 
mouth  by  a  rock-built  castle.  This, 
the  site  of  the  celebrated  temple  of 
Hercules,  was  called  by  the  Moors 
"  The  district  of  idols."  Those  remains 
which  the  sea  had  spared  have  chiefly 
been  used  up  by  the  Spaniards  as  a 
quanv.  Park  of  the  foundations  were 
seen  in  1755,  when  the  waters  retired 
during  the  earthquake.  For  the  rites 
of  tins  pagan  convent,  see  our  paper 
in  the  Quar.  Bev.  cxxvi.  283.  The 
river  is  crossed  by  the  Puente  de 
2ktazo^  so  called  from  the  alcaide  Juan 
Sanchez  de  Zuazo,  who  restored  it  in 
the  fifteenth  century.  It  is  of  Boman 
foundation,  and  was  constructed  by 
Balbus  to  serve  both  as  a  bridge  and 
an  aqueduct.  The  water  was  brought 
to  Cadiz  from  Tempul,  near  Xerez,  but 
both  were  destroyed  in  1262  by  the 
Moors.  The  tower  was  bxiilt  by  Alonso 
el  Sabio,  who  had  better  have  restored 
the  aqueduct.  This  bridge  was  the 
pons  asinorum  of  Victor,  as  the  En- 
glish never  suffered  him  to  cross  it. 
Here  the  Marshal  set  up  his  batteries, 
having  invented  a  new  mortar  capable 
of  throwing  shells  even  into  Cadiz. 
The  defeat  of  Marmont  by  the  Duke 
at  Salamanca  recoiled  on  M.  Victor 
— ctbntj  excesgit,  evcuUf  erupit.  Now 
his  failure  is  explained  away  by  the 
old  story,  "inferior  numbers."  The 
aUies,  according  to  M.  Belmas  (i.  138), 
amounted  to  30,000,  of  which  8000 
were  English  "  men  in  buckram," 
«  Victor  ayant  k  peine  20,000."  For 
once  Napoleon  told  the  truth  at  St. 
Helena  when  he  said,  Victor  etait  wn 
hSte,  sons  talens  et  sans  tSte, 

IVom  this  bridge  return  by  land 
through  La  Isla  de  Leon,  so  called  be* 
cause  granted  in  1459  to  the  Ponce  de 
Leon  family,  but  resumed  again  by  the 
crown  in  1484.  This  island  was  the 
Erythreea,  Aphrodisia,  Cotinusa,  Tar- 
tessus  of  the  uncertain  geography  of 
the  ancients.    Here  Geryon  (ri^y,  a 



Sect.  II. 

fine  old  fellow,  the  Stranger  in  the  He- 
brew) fed  those  fat  kine  which  Hercules 
** lifted;"  and  whose  golden  fleeces-^ 
fine  wool — tempted  the  Phoenecian  ar- 
gonauts; and  bis  descendant  the  Giron 
(Duque  de  Osuna)  is  still  the  great 
Lord  of  Andalucia ;  but  the  breed  of 
cattle  is  extinct,  for  Bsetican  beef,  or 
rather  vaca,  cow,  is  now  of  the  leanest 
kine,  and  the  bulls  are  better  for  bait- 
ing than  basteing. 

San  Fernando,  the  capital  of  the  Isla, 
is  a  straggling  decaying  town,  but  gay- 
looking  with  its  fimtastic  lattices  and 
house-tops,  and  the  bright  sun  which 
gilds  the  poverty.  Here  the  Junta  first 
halted  in  their  flight,  and  spouted 
(Sept.  24,  1810)  against  the  French 
cannon.  Salt,  the  staple,  is  made  in 
the  Salinas  and  the  marshes  below, 
where  the  conical  piles  glisten  like  the 
white  ghosts  of  the  British  tents,  when 
our  red  jackets  were  quartered  here. 
CThe  salt-pans  have  all  religious  names, 
like  the  line-of-battle  sbips  (when  there 
were  any),  the  wine-cellars  of  Xerez,  or 
the  mine-shafts  of  Almaden,  e,g.  JEl 
dulce  nombre  de  Jesus,  &c.  In  these 
marshes  breed  innumerable  small  crabs, 
^angrejos,  whose  fore-claws  are  tit-bits 
for  the  Andaluz  ichthyophile.  These 
bocas  de  la  Isla  are  torn  off  firom 
the  hying  animal,  who  is  then  turned 
Adrift,  that  the  claws  may  grow  again 
for  a  new  operation ;  chiuneleons  also 
Abound.  At  No.  38,  just  below  the 
Plaza,  Kiego  lodged,  and  proclaimed 
the  "constitution"  in  1820.  The 
secret  of  this  patriotism  was  a  dislike 
in  the  ill-supplied  semi-Berber  army, 
to  embark  in  the  South  Americ&n  ex- 
pedition with  which  Ferdinand  hoped 
to  reinforce  the  blunderer  Morillo. 

Passing  the  Torregorda,  the  busy, 
dusty,  crowded,  narrow  road  La  Cal- 
zada  is  carried  along  the  isthmus  to 
Cadiz.  Still  called  el  camino  de  Creoles, 
it  runs  where  ran  the  via  Heraclea  of 
the  Romans,  which  led  to  his  temple : 
nor  is  the  present  road  much  more 
.'Spanish,  since  it  was  planned  in  1785 
by  O'Beilly,  an  Irishman,  and  executed 
hy  Du  Bouriel,  a  Frenchman. 

A.  magnificent  outwork,  La  Corta- 

dura,  cuts  the  isthmus,  which,  suppos- 
ing it  had  guns  and  men,  and  either 
were  in  efficient  order,  it  would  defend. 
Now  Cadiz  is  approached  amid  heaps 
of  filth,  which  replace  the  pleasant 
gardens  demohshed  during  the  war. 
To  the  left  of  the  land-gate,  between 
the  Aguada  and  San  Jose,  is  the  Eng- 
Ush  burial-ground,  acquired  andplanted 
by  Sir  John  Brackenbury,  father  of  the 
present  consul,  for  the  bodies  of  poor 
heretics,  who  formerly  were  buried  in 
the  sea-sands  beyond  high-water  mark. 
Now  there  is  "  snug  lying  "  here,  which 
is  a  comfort  to  all  Protestants  who  con- 
template dying  at  Cadiz,  and  are  curious 
about  Christian  burial. 

Cadiz  is  soon  entered  by  the  land- 
gate,  the  Puerta  de  Tierra.  The  walls 
and  defences  are  sadly  dilapidated,  and 
might  be  taken  by  a  bold  boat's  crew. 
The  grand  secret  in  any  warfare  against 
Spanish  fleets,  forts,  or  armies,  is  to  at- 
tack them  instantly,  as  they  will  "  al- 
ways be  found  wanting  in  eyerything 
at  the  critical  moment." 

Cadiz  is  a  good  point  of  departure 
for  ships.  Vessels  sail  regularly  for  the 
Havana ;  steamers  proceed  to  England 
and  Egypt,  te  Portugal  and  the  Basque 
provinces  and  France  ;  also  to  Grib- 
raltar^  Valencia,  and  Marseilles.  Others 
navigate  the  G-uadalquiver  up  to  Seville, 
while  diUgences  run  by  land  to  Xerez 
and  on  to  Madrid.  The  days  and 
hours  of  departure  will  be  seen  pla- 
carded on  every  wall  and  are  known  at 
every  inn. 

Route  2. — Cadiz  to  Q-ibealtab,  by 
Los  Babbios  and  Tabifa. 

Ghiclana  '. 
Va.  de  Vejer 
Va.  Taibilla 
Va.  OJen  . 
Los  Barrios 
Gibraltar    . 

The  most  expeditious  mode  is  by  steam, 
and  the  passage  through  the  straits  is 
splendid.  The  ride  by  land,  for  there 
is  no  carriage  road,  has  been  accom- 
plished by  commercial  messengers  in 



16    .. 


U    .. 


11     .. 


9     .. 


12     .. 





16  hours.  Taking  that  route,  the  better 
plan  is  to  leave  Cadiz  in  the  afternoon, 
sleep  at  CMclana  the  first  night,  and 
the  second  at  TaHfa.  Those  who 
diyide  the  journey  into  two  days, 
halt  first  at  Vejer;  jfrom  hence  there 
are  two  routes,  which  we  give  approxi- 
matively  in  miles — and  such  miles! 
The  first  route  is  the  shortest.  At  the 
Venta  de  Ojen  the  road  branches,  a 
track  leads  to  Algeciras,  10  m. ;  it  is  a 
wild  and  often  dangerous  ride,  espe- 
cially at  the  IVocha  pass,  which  is 
infested  with  smugglers  and  charcoal- 
burners,  who  occasionally  become  ra^e- 
ros  and  robbers.  At  aU  events,  "  attend 
to  the  provend,"  fill  the  bota  with  wine, 
and  the  basket  with  prog.    The  most 

interesting  route  is — 


Chiclana 13  .. 

Va.  de  Ve;Jer  ....  16  ..    29 

Va-TaibiUa    .     .     .     .  U  ..    43 

Tarifa 16  ..    69 

Algeciras 12  ..    71 

Gibraltar 9  ..    80 

Quitting  the  Isla  at  the  bridg3  of 
2uazo  we  reach  ChiclcMa^  on  a  gentle 
sandy  eminence.  Pop.  4000.     It  is  the 
laiiding  ^not  watering,  place  of  the  Cadiz 
merchants,  who,  weary  of  their  sea- 
prison,  come  here  to  enjoy  the  terra 
firma.    The  air  is  pure  and  the  baths 
luxurious.    It  is,  moreover,  a  sort  of 
medical  Botany  bay,  to  which  the  An- 
dalucian  faculty-  transports  those  many 
patients  whom  they  cannot  cure :  in 
compound  fractures  and  chronic  dis- 
orders, they  prescribe  bathing  here, 
.  ass's  nulk,  and  a  broth  made  of  a  long 
harmless  snake,  which  abounds  near 
Barrosa.    We  have  forgotten  the  ge- 
neric name  of  this  valuable  reptile  of 
Esculapius.      The    naturalist    should 
take  one  alive,  and  compare  him  with 
the  vipers  which  make  such  splendid 
pork  in  Estremadura   (see    Montan- 
ches),  or  with  lea  viperes  de  PoUoUy  to 
whose  broth  Mde.  de  Sevign^  attri- 
buted her  good  health.      (Let.  July 
8th,  1685.)     From  the  hill  of  Santa 
Ana  is  a  good  panorama;  3  L.  ofi*, 
sparkling,  hke  a  pearl  set  in  gold,  on  a 
lull  where  it  cannot  be  hid,  basks  Me- 
dina Sidoma,  Medinatu-Shidunah,  the 

city  of  Sidon,  thought  by  some  to  be 
the  site  of  the  Phoenician  Asidon,  but 
all  these  tit  bits  for  the  antiquarian 
are  "Caviare  to  the  general."  Ths 
sulphur-baths  here,  especially  the  JVt- 
en^  amarga^  are  much  used  in  cuta- 
neous and  cachetic  complaints. 

The  town  looks  pretty  from  afar 
with  its  white  houses,  gardens,  and 
painted  railings,  but  it  is  iU-paved, 
worse  drained  and  lighted,  and,  in 
fact,  is  not  worth  visiting,  being  a 
whitened  sepulchre  full  of  decay ;  and 
this  may  be  predicated  of  many  of 
these  hill-fort  towns,  which,  ghttering 
in  the  bright  sun,  and  picturesque  in 
form  and  situation,  appear  in  the  en- 
chantment-lending distance  to  be  fiiiry 
residences  :  all  this  illusion  is  dispelled 
on  entering  into  these  dens  or  dirt, 
ruin,  and  poverty :  reaUty,  which  like 
a  shadow  follows  all  too  highly-excited 
expectations,  darkens  the  bright  dream 
of  poetical  fancy.  Yet  what  would  life 
be  without  hope^  which  still  cheers 
man  on,  undaunted  by  experience. 
Again,  once  for  all,  it  may  be  said 
that  generally  the  correlative  of  the  pic- 
turesque is  the  uncomfortable,  and  the 
better  the  food  for  the  painter's  eye 
outside  the  town,  the  worse  the  chance 
of  bed  and  board  inside. 

Nothing  can  be  more  different  than 
the  aspect  of  Spanish  villages  in  fine 
or  in  bad  weather;  as  in  the  East, 
during  wintry  rains  they  are  the  acmes 
of  mud  and  misery :  let  but  the  sun 
shine  out,  and  all  is  gilded.  His  beam 
is  like  the  smile  which  lights  up  the 
habitually  sad  expression  of  a  Spanish 
woman.  Fortunately,  in  the  south  of 
Spain,  fine  weather  is  the  rule,  and 
not,  as  among  ourselves,  the  excep- 
tion. The  blessed  sun  cheers  poverty 
itself,  and  by  its  stimulating,  exhila- 
rating action  on  the  system  of  man, 
enables  him  to  buffet  against  the  moral 
evils  to  which  coimtries  the  most  fa- 
voured by  climate  seem,  as  if  it  were 
from  compensation,  to  be  more  ex- 
posed than  those  where  the  skies  are 
dull,  and  the  winds  bleak  and  cold. 
Medina  Sidonia  gives  the  ducal  title  to 
the  descendants  of  Ghtzman  el  BuenOj 



Sect.  11. 

to  whom  all  lands  lying  between  the 
Gnudalete  and  Guadairo  were  granted 
for  his  defence  of  Tarifa.  The  city 
was  one  of  the  strongest  holds  of  the 
fS&mily.  Here  the  fascinating  %  Leonora 
de  Guzman,  mistress  of  the  chivalrous 
Alonso  X[.,  and  mother  of  Henry  of 
Trastamara,  fled  from  the  yengeance  of 
Alonso's  widow  and  her  son  Don 
Pedro.  Here  again  that  cruel  king, 
in  1361,  imprisoned  and  put  to  death 
his  ill-fated  wife  Blanche  of  Bourbon, 
— ^the  MaiT-  Stuart  of  Spanish  ballads, 
— ^beautiful,  and,  like  her,  of  suspected 
chastity ;  this  execution  cost  Pedro  his 
life  and  crown,  as  it  furnished  to  France 
an  ostensible  reason  for  invading  Spain, 
and  placing  the  anti-English  Henry  of 
Trastamara  on  the  throne. 

Leaving  Chiclana,  the  track  soon 
enters  into  wild  sandy  aromatic  pine- 
clad,  snake-peopled  solitudes :  to  the 
r.  rises  the  immortal  knoll  of  Barrosa. 
When  Soult,  in  1811,  left  Seville  to 
reUeve  Badajoz,  an  opportunity  was 
offered  the  Spaniards,  by  attacking 
Victor  in  the  flank,  of  raising  the  siege 
of  Cadiz.  The  expedition  was  in  an 
evil  hour  entrusted  to  Manuel  de  la 
Pena,  a  fool  and  a  coward,  but  the 
fitvoured  creature  of  the  Duchess  of 
Osuna.  The  expedition  was  misman- 
aged by  this  incapable  from  beginning 
to  end.  In  February,  11,200  Spani- 
ards, 4300  English  and  Portuguese, 
were  landed  at  the  distant  Tarifa, 
when  La  Pena,  instead  of  resting  at 
Conil,  brought  the  English  to  the 
ground  after  24  hours  oi  intense  toil 
and  starvation.  Graham,  contrary  to 
his  orders,  had  injudiciously  ceded  the 
command  in  chief  to  the  Spaniard, 
who,  on  arriving  in  the  critical  mo- 
ment, skulked  himself  away  towards 
the  Santi  Petri,  ordering  Graham  to 
descend  from  the  Sierra  del  Puerco 
the  real  key,  to  the  Torre  Bermeja^ 
distant  nearly  a  league.  The  French, 
who  saw  the  error,  made  a  splen- 
did rush  for  this  important  height : 
but  the  gallant  Grrseme,  although  left 
alone  in  the  plain  with  his  feeble, 
starving  band,  and  scarcely  having  time 
to  form  his  lines,  the  rear  rank  fighting 

in  front,  instantly  defied  the  united 
brigades  of  Buffi^  and  Laval,  com- 
manded by  Victor  in  person,  and  having 
riddled  the  head  of  their  columns  with 
a  deadly  fire,  then  charged  with  the 
bayonet  in  the  "  old  style :"  an  hour  and 
a  half  settled  the  affair  by  a  "  sauve 
qui  pent."  Victor  decamped,  while 
La  Pena  did  not  even  dare  to  follow 
up  and  finish  the  flying  foe.  No  single 
stroke  was  struck  that  day  by  Spanish 
sabre:  but  assistance  from  Spain  ar- 
rives either  slowly  or  never.  Socorros 
de  Sspana  tarde  o  "STTSQk,  This  is  a 
very  fisivourite  Spanish  proverb  ;  for 
the  shrewd  people  revenge  themselves 
by  a  refran  on  the  culpable  want  of 
means  and  forethought  of  their  incom- 
petent rulers :  Gonzalo  de  CJordova 
used  to  compare  such  help  fco  San  Telmo 
(see  Tuy),  who,  like  Castor  and  Pol- 
lux, never  appears  until  the  storm  is 
over.  Blessed  is  the  man,  said  the 
Moorish  general,  who  expects  no  aid, 
for  then  he  will  not  be  disappohited. 

Graham  remained  master  of  the 
field.  Then,  had  La  Pena,  who  had 
thousands  of  fresh  troops,  but  moved 
one  step,  Barrosa  would  indeed  have 
been  contemporaneous  with  Torres 
Vedras,  for  on  that  very  day  Massena 
too  began  his  retreat.  Victor,  when 
he  saw  that  he  was  not  followed,  re- 
covered from  his  panic,  and  indited  a 
bulletin,  "how  he  had  beaten  back 
8000  Englishmen."  Now-a-days  our 
lively  neighbours  claim  a  more  com- 
plete victory,  and,  entering  into  details, 
relate  how  Graham's  triple  hne,  witli 
3000  men  in  each,"  was  culbute  by  the 
French,  who  were  "  un  centre  deux," 
and  that  "  the  loss  of  the  eagles  was 
solely  owing  to  the  accidental  death  of 
the  ensigns."    How  very  unlucky ! 

Touching  the  real  truth  of  this  en- 
gagement at  Barrosa,  what  says  the 
Duke  (Disp.,  March  25, 1811),  to  whom 
Graham  had  thought  it  necessary  to 
apologise  for  the  rashness  of  attacking 
with  his  handfrd  two  entire  French 
divisions? — "I  congratulate  you  and 
your  brave  troops  on  the  signed  victory 
which  you  gained  on  the  6th ;  I  have 
no  doubt  whatever  that  their  succesa 




would  have,  liad  the  effect  of  raising 
the  siege  of  Cadiz,  if  the  Spanish  troops 
had  made  any  effort  to  assist  them. 
The  conduct  of  the  Spaniards  through- 
out this  expedition  is  precisely  the 
same  as  I  have  ever  observed  it  to  be : 
they  march  the  troops  night  and  day 
without  provisions  or  rest,  and  abusing 
everybody  who  proposes  a  moment's 
delay  to  afford  either  to  the  fatigued 
or  famished  soldiers ;  they  reach  the 
enemy  in  such  a  state  as  to  be  unable 
to  make  any  exertion  or  execut-e  any 
plan,  even  if  any  plan  had  been  formed  j 
they  are  totally  incapable  of  any  move- 
ment, and  they  stand  to  see  their  allies 
destroyed,  and  afterwards  abuse  them 
because  they  do  not  continue,  unsup- 
ported, exertions  to  which  human  na- 
ture is  not  equal."  La  Peiia,  once 
safe  in  Cadiz,  claimed  the  victory  as 
Jiia!  and  now  the  EngUsh  are  either 
not  mentioned  at  all  by  Spanish  his- 
torians (Tgartuburu,  p.  179,  Madoz, 
vii.  324),  or  the  ultimate  failure  of  the 
expedition  is  ascribed  to  our  retreat! 
(Maldonado,  iii.  29.)  La  Pena,  el  delin- 
cuente  honrado,  was  decorated  with  the 
star  of  Carlos  III.!  and  Ferd.  VII., 
in  1815,  created  a  new  order  for  this 
brilliant  Spanish  victory ! !  The  Cortes 
propounded  to  G-raham  a  grandeeship, 
as  a  sop,  which  he  scornfully  refused. 
The  title  proposed,  Duque  del  derro 
del  JPuerco  (Duke  of  Pig's-hill),  was  in 
truth  more  euphonious  among  bacon- 
loving  Spaniards  than  ourselves. 

Buonaparte  attributed  Victor's  eiefeai 
to  Sebastiani  (Belm.  i.  518,  25),  who, 
influenced  by  jealousy  of  his  colleague, 
confined  himself  to  advancing  to  San 
JRoque^  where  he  remained  pillaging. 

Barrosa  was  another  ot  the  many 
instances  of  the  failures  which  the 
disunion  of  Buonaparte's  generals  en- 
tailed on  their  arms.  These  rivals 
never  would  act  cordially  together :  as 
the  Duke  observed  when  enclosing  an 
intercepted  letter  from  Marmont  to 
Foy,  "  This  shows  how  iAndsegemtry  are 
going  on ;  in  fact,  each  marshal  is  the 
7iaturalenQrD.j  of  the  king  (Joseph)  and 
of  his  neighbouring  marshal"  (Disp., 
Nov.  13, 1811). 

Spain, — I. 

The  ride  from  Barrosa  to  Tarifa 
passes  over  uncultivated,  unpeopled 
wastes.  The  country  remains  as  it  was 
left  after  the  discomfiture  of  the  Moor, 
or  looks  as  if  man  had  not  yet  been 
created.  To  the  r.  is  Conil.  3  L.  from 
Cliiclana,  and  1 L.  from  Cape  Trafalgar. 
Pop.  3000.  Bmlt  by  Guzman  el  Bueno, 
it  was  famous  for  its  tunny  fisheries.  In 
May  and  June  the  fish  return  into  the 
Atlantic  from  the  Mediterranean .  The 
almadrabay  or  catching,  a  most  Arabic 
affair,  as  the  name  implies,  used  to 
be  a  season  of  great  festivity.  For- 
merly 70,000  fish  were  taken,  now 
scarcely  4^000  j  the  Lisbon  earthquake 
of  1755  having  thrown  up  sands  on 
the  coast,  by  which  the  fish  are  driven 
into  deeper  water :  the  "  aiun  escahe- 
chado"  or  pickled  tunny,  is  the  Tct^t- 
Xi*»*i  the  "  Salsamenta,"  with  which 
and  dancing  girls,  Gfides  suppHed  the 
Roman  epicures  and  amateurs.  Ar- 
chestratus,  who  made  a  gastronomic 
tour,  thought  the  under  fillet  to  be  the 
incarnation  of  the  immortal  gods. 
Near  Conil  much  sulphur  is  found. 

The  long,  low,  sandy  lines  of  2Va- 
falgar  (Promontorium  Junonis,  hence- 
forward Nelsonis)  now  stretch  towards 
Tarifa;  the  Arabic  name,  Taraf-al- 
ghar,  signifies  the  promontory  of  the 
cave.  This  cape  bore  about  8  m.  N.E. 
over  those  hallowed  waters  where  Nel- 
son, fehx  opportunitate  mortis,  sealed 
the  empire  of  the  sea  with  his  life- 
blood  ;  for  things  so  great  can  only  be 
carried  through  by  death:  Nelson  was 
that  glorious  concentration  of  national 
spirit,  which  made  and  will  make  every 
EngUsh  sailor  do  his  duty  to  the  end 
of  time. 

Trafalgar — tanto  nomini  nullum  par 
eulogium — changed  Buonaparte's  vi- 
sion'ary  invasion  of  England,  into  the 
real  one  of  France;  England  left  now 
with  no  more  enemies  on  the«<?a,  turned 
to  the  land  for  an  arena  of  victory. 
The  spirit  of  the  Black  Prince  and  of 
Marlborough,  of  Wolfe  and  of  Aber- 
crombie  awoke,  the  sails  were  furled, 
and  that  handftd  cf  infantry  landed 
on  the  most  western  rocks  of  the  Pen- 
insula which  marched  in  one  triumph- 



Sect.  II. 

ant  course  until  it  planted  its  red  flag 
on  the  walls  of  Paris.  This  doing  the 
old  thing  in  the  old  style  is  thus  plea- 
santly referred  to  by  M.  Foy,  i.  197 : 
**  Bientot  cet  art  nouveau !  pour  les 
Anglais  allait  leur  devoir  n^cessaire 
presque  h,  I'egal  de  la  science  navale." 

Nelson,  on  the  memorable  Oct.  21, 
1805,  commanded  27  small  ships  of  the 
line  and  only  four  frigates :  the  latter, 
his  "eyes"  were  wanting  as  usual ;  he 
had  prayed  for  them  in  vain,  from  our 
wretched  admiralty,  as  the  Duke  did 
afterwards.  The  enemy  had  33  sail  of 
the  line,  many  of  them  three-deckers, 
and  seven  frigates.  Nelson,  as  soon, 
as  they  ventured  out  of  Cadiz,  consi- 
dered them  "his  property ;"  he  "bar- 
gained for  20  at  least."  He  never  re- 
garded disparity  of  numbers,  nor  count- 
ed an  enemy's  fleet  except  when  prizes 
after  the  battle — synonymous  with  him 
with  victory.  He,  with  hope  deferred, 
had  long  chased  them  over  wide  seas, 
in  full  cry,  every  rag  set,  every  sail  burst- 
ing with  impatience,  and  No.  16  sig- 
nal for  "close  action"  hoisted;  and  now, 
when  at  last  he  saw  them,  it  was  to 
give  his  "Nelsonic  touch"  no  "drawn 
battles  now,"  but  simple — Annihilation. 

Nelson  was  wounded  at  a  quarter 
before  one,  and  died  30  minutes  past 
fom\  He  lived  long  enough  to  know 
that  his  triumph  was  complete,  and 
the  last  sweet  sounds  his  dying  ears 
caught  were  the  guns  fired  at  the  flying 
foe.  He  died  on  board  his  beloved 
"Victory,"  and  in  the  arms  of  its  pre- 
siding tutelar,  only  47  years  old :  "yet," 
says  Southey,  "he  cannot  be  said  to 
have  fallen  prematurely  whose  work 
was  done,  nor  ought  he  to  be'  lamented 
who  died  so  ftdl  of  honours  at  the 
height  of  human  fame,  and  if  the  cha- 
riot and  the  horses  of  fire  had  been 
vouchsafed  for  Nelson's  translation,  he 
could  scarcely  have  departed  in  a 
brighter  blaze  of  glory.  He  has  left  us 
not,  indeed,  his  mantle  of  inspiration, 
but  a  name  and  example  which  are  at 
this  hour  inspiring  thousands  of  the 
youth  of  England ;  a  name  which  is  our 
pride,  and  an  example,  wliich  will  con- 
'  lue  to  be  our  shield  and  our  strength. 

Thus  it  is  that  the  spirits  of  the  great 
and  wise  continue  to  live  and  to  act  after 
them."     This  indeed  is  immortality. 

The  Spaniards  fought  well  at  Tra- 
falga/r^  the  nadir  of  their  marine,  as 
Lepanto  was  its  zenith :  Qravina,  their 
gaUant  noble  admiral  was  wounded  and 
died,  refusing  to  have  his  arm  amputa- 
ted, and  telling  Dr.  FeUowes,  that  he 
was  going  to  join  Nehon,  the  "greatest 
man  the  world  has  ever  produced." 

The  French  vice-admiral,  Dumanoir, 
having  kept  out  of  the  action,  fled  at 
the  close,  "  backing  liis  topsails,"  says 
Southey,  "to  fire  into  the  captured 
Spanish  ships  as  he  passed,"  when 
the  indignant  crews  intreated  to  be  al- 
lowed to  serve  against  their  quondam 
allies.  This  Dumanoir,  with  four  run- 
aways, was  caught,  Nov.  4,  ofl*  Cape 
Finisterre  by  Sir  Richard  Strachan, 
when  all  were  taken,  liis  own  ship,  the 
"  Formidable"  being  the  first  to  strike. 
This  man,  who,  Southey  thought, 
"ought  to  have  been  hanged  in  the 
sight  of  the  remains  of  the  Spanish 
fleet,"  was  acquitted  at  Toulon,  l]«cause 
he  had  ^^  manoeuvre  selon  V impulsion  d/u 
DEYOIB  et  de  fhonneur!^*  and  was 
made  a  coimt  in  1814  by  Louis  XVIII. 
Nelson's  notions  of  honour,  duty  and 
manoeuvring  were  after  a  different  fa- 
shion. His  manoeuvre — a  nautical  no- 
velty indeed — was  to  break  the  long 
line  of  the  foe  with  a  short  double  line ; 
a  manoeuvre  which  few  foreign  fleets 
will  try  against  an  Enghsh  squadron, 
whose  guns  would  sink  their  opponents 
as  they  approached  singly ;  however 
accordmg  to  M.  de  Montferrier,  *Dic- 
tionnaire  de  la  Marine,'  Paris  1841, 
"  C'est  ik  cette  science,  la  m^noeuvre^ 
que  la  marine  Fran9aise  doit  toutes  ses 
victoires;  en  effet,  il  n'y  a  point 
d'exemple,  oil,  k  forces  ^gales,  une  ar- 
m^  Anglaise  nous  ait  battus !" 

Be  that  as  it  may,  some  how 
or  another,  this  Tra&lgar  ^^  settled 
JBonetf*^  by  sea,  to  use  the  Duke^s 
phrase,  when  he  did  him  that  ser- 
vice by  lands  all  his  paper  projects 
about  "ships,  colonies  and  commerce," 
all  his  fond  phrases  of  "French  lakes," 
were  blown  to  the  winds;  accordingly. 

Andalucia.    route  2. — ^French  versions  of  Trafalgar. 


he  omitted  all  allusion  to  Trafalgar 
in  the  French  papers,  as  he  after- 
wards did  the  Dune's  victories  in 
Spain.  Thus  Pompey  never  allowed 
his  reverses  in  the  Peninsula  to  he  pub- 
lished (Hirt.  B,  H.  18).  Buonaparte 
received  the  news  of  his  misfortunes  at 
Vienna,  which  clouded  le  soleil  (TAus- 
terlitz  with  an  EngUsh  fog:  his  fury 
was  imboimded,  and  he  exclaimed, 
"Je  saurai  bien  apprendre  aux  ami- 
rau^  Fran^ais  k  vaincre"  (F,  et  C. 
XTI.  197). 

Five  months  afterwards  he  slightly 
alluded  to  this  accidental  disaster,  as- 
scribing  it,  as  the  Spaniards  falsely  do 
the  destruction  of  their  invincible  ar- 
mada, not  to  English  tars,  but  the 
winds :  "  Les  temp^tes  nous  ont  fait 
perdre  quelques  vaisseaux,  apr^s  un 
combat  imprudemment  engage."  Yet 
YiUeneuve  had  that  decided  numerical 
superiority  without  which,  according 
to  Buonaparte's  express  orders,  an 
English  fleet  was  never  to  be  attacked 
and  our  sole  unsubsidised  allies,  "les 
tempStes,"  in  real  truth  occasioned  to 
us  the  loss  of  many  captured  ships ; 
a  storm  arose  after  the  victory,  and  the 
disabled  conquerors  and  vanquished 
were  buffeted  on  the  merciless  coast : 
many  of  the  prizes  were  destroyed. 
The  dying  orders  of  Nelson,  "  Anchor, 
Hardy!  Anchor!"  were  disobeyed  by 
CoUingwood,  whose  first  speech  on  as- 
suming the  command  was,  "Well! 
that  is  the  last  thing  that  I  should  have 
thought  of!"  Collingwood  also  made 
another  small  mistake  in  his  dispatch : 
Nelson  did  not  "die  soon  afrer  his 
wound  5"  .he  lived  to  gain  the  whole 

Although  none  on  either  side  of  the 
Pyrenees  have  yet  claimed  Trafalgar  as 
their  victory,  yet  all  are  convinced,  had 
real  nautiool  valour  and  science  not 
been  marred  by  fortune  and  accident, 
that  it  ought  not  to  have  been  ours. 
Every  lie  circumstantial  was  published 
at  the  time ;  thus  the  Journal  de  JPa- 
ris,  Dec.  7,  1805,  added  8  ships  of  the 
line  to  the  English  squadron,  whUe 
the  Gazetta  de  Madrid,  of  the  19th, 
added  12.    Although  all  these  inven- 

tions are  disposed  of  by  Sir  Harris  Ni- 
colas in  Nelson's  Dispatches,  immortal 
as  those  of  the  Duke,  the  controversy 
is  not  ended ;  and  the  Spaniards  have 
taken  such  offence  at  their  allies'  ver- 
sion of  Trafalgar,  as  given  by  M.  Thiers 
in  his  Histoire  du  Consulat,  Lib.  xxii., 
and  especially  at  the  sneer  that  five 
Spanish  men  of  war  then  and  there  fled, 
having  "  sauv^  leur  existence  .beaucoup 
plus  que  leur  honneur ; "  that  a  grave 
refutation  was  put  forth  at  Madrid  in 
1850  by  Manuel  Marliani,  and  it  is  a 
very  pretty  quarrel  as  it  stands ;  mean- 
time both  of  the  beaten  parties  contend 
that  each  of  their  single  ships  was  at- 
tacked by  five  or  six  English.  The  real 
heroes  of  the  day  and  their  defaite  hero- 
ique  were  either  Senores  Churraco,  Q«- 
liano,  &c.,  or  Messieurs  Lucas,  Magon, 
&c.,  small  mention  being  made  of  the 
nobody  Nelson,  a  sort  01  loup-marin,  a 
man,  according  to  M.Thiers,  assez  home 
when  off  his  quarter-deck.  The  French 
Admiral  YiUeneuve  was  said  to  have 
killed  himself  in  despair  at  his  disgrace, 
but,  says  Southey,  "  there  is  every  rea- 
son to  conclude  that  the  tyrant  added 
him  to  the  numerous  victims  of  his 
murderous  pohcy,"  and  the  silence  ob- 
served in  the  *Moniteur'  strengthens 
this  suspicion  (see  Vict,  et  Conq^,  XTi. 

The  country  now  presenj^s  a  true 
picture  of  a  Spanish  dehesa  y  despo- 
hlado.  The  rich  soil,  under  a  vivifying 
sun,  is  given  up  to  the  wild  plant  and 
insect :  earth  and  air  teem  with  life. 
There  is  a  melancholy  grandeur  in 
these  solitudes,  where  Nature  is  busy 
at  her  mighty  work  of  creation,  heed- 
less of  the  absence  or  presence  of  the 
larger  insect  man.  Vejer — Bekkeh — 
offers  a  true  specimen  of  a  Moorish 
town,  scramBling  up  a  precipitous  em- 
inence. Pop.  9000.  The  venta  Ues 
below,  near  the  bridge  over  the  Bar* 
bate.  Here  Quesada,  in  March,  1831, 
put  down  an  abortive  insurrection.  Six 
himdred  soldiers  had  been  gained  over 
at  Cadiz  by  the  emissaries  of  Torrijos. 
The  loss  in  the  whole  contest,  on  which 
for  the  moment  the  monarchy  hung, 
was  one  killed,  two  wounded,  and  tw 

H  2 



Sect.  n. 

bruised.  According  to  Queseda's  bul- 
letin, worthy  of  his  namesake  Don 
Quixote,  his  troops  performed  ^^prodi- 
gios  de  valor!"  a  shower  of  crosses 
were  bestowed  on  the  conquering 
heroes.  Such  are  the  guerrillas,  the 
truly  "little  wars"  wluch  Spaniards 
wage  infer  se ;  and  they  may  be  well 
compared  to  the  wretched  productions 
of  some  of  the  minor  theatres,  in  which 
the  vapouring  of  bad  actors  supphes 
the  place  of  dramatic  interest,  and  the 
plot  is  perpetually  interrupted  by 
scene-shifting,  paltry  coups  de  thedtre, 
and  an  occasional  explosion  of  mus- 
ketry and  blue  lights,  with  much  smoke 
(of  cigaritos). 

A  mile  inland  is  the  Laguna  de 
Janda.  Near  this  lake,  Taric,  landing 
from  Africa,  April  30, 711,  encountered 
Boderick,  the  last  of  the  G-oths.  Here 
the  action  commenced,  July  19,  which 
was  decided  July  26,  on  the  Guadalete, 
near  Xerez.  This  one  battle  gave 
Spain  to  the  Moslem ;  the  secret  of 
whose  easy  conquest  lay  in  the  civil 
dissensions  among  the  Goths,  and  the 
aid  the  invaders  obtained  from  the 
monied  Jews,  who  were  persecuted  by 
the  Gothic  clergy.  Taric  and  Musa, 
the  two  victorious  generals,  received 
from  the  caliph  of  Damascus  that  re- 
ward which  since  has  become  a  stand- 
ing example  to  jealous  Spanish  rulers  ; 
they  were  recalled,  disgraced,  and  died 
in  obscurity.  Such  was  the  fia,te  of 
Columbus,  Cortes,  the  Great  Captain, 
Spinola,  and  others  who  have  con- 
quered kingdoms  for  Spain. 

At  the  Va.  de  Taibilla  the  track 
branches ;  that  to  the  1.  leads  to  the 
an'ocha,  while  a  picturesque  gorge  to 
the  rt.,  studded  with  nagments  of 
former  Moorish  bridges  and  causeways, 
leads  to  the  sea-shore,  jtt  the  tower 
Xa  Peua  del  Ciervo,  the  Highar  Egg61 
of  the  Moors,  the  coast  opens  in  all 
its  grandeur. 

"  Where  Mauritania's  giant  shadows  frown. 
From  mountain-cliffs  descending  sombre 

And  here  let  the    wearied    traveller 

""^ipose  a  moment  and  gaze  on  the  mag- 

-'ent  panorama!      Africa,  no  land 

I  of  desert  sand,  rises  abruptly  out  of 
the  sea,  in  a  tremendous  jumble,  and 
backed  by  the  eternal  snows  of  the 
Atlas  range ;  two  continents  lie  before 
us :  we  have  reached  the  extremities  of 
the  ancient  world ;  a  narrow  gulf  di- 
vides the  lands  of  knowledge,  liberty, 
and  civilisation,  from  the  imtrodden 
regions  of  barbarous  ignorance,  of 
slavery,  danger,  and  mystery.  Yon 
headland  is  Trafftlgar.  Tarifa  juts  out 
before  us,  and  the  plains  of  Salado,< 
where  the  Cross  triumphed  over  the 
Crescent.  The  whit«  walls  of  Tangiers 
glitter  on  the  opposite  coast,  resting, 
like  a  snow-wreath,  on  dark  moun- 
tains :  behind  them  lies  the  desert, 
the  den  of  the  wild  beast  and  of 
wilder  man.  The  separated  continents 
stand  aloof^. frowning  sternly  on  each 
other  with  the  cold  injurious  look  of 
altered  kindness.  They  were  once 
united ;  "  a  dreary  sea  now  flows  be- 
tween," and  severs  them  for  ever.  A 
thousand  ships  hurry  through,  laden 
with  the  commerce  of  the  world :  every 
sail  is  strained  to  fly  past  those  waters, 
deeper  than  ever  plummet  sounded, 
where  neither  sea  nor  land  are  friendly 
to  the  Etranger.  Beyond  that  point 
is  the  bay  of  Gribraltar,  and  on  that 
gray  rock,  the  object  of  a  himdred 
fights,  and  bristling  with  twice  ten  hun- 
dred cannon,  the  red  flag  of  England, 
on  which  the  sun  never  sets,  still  braves 
the  battle  and  the  breeze.  Far  in  the 
distance  the  blue  Mediterranean 
stretches  itself  away  like  a  sleeping  lake. 
Europe  and  Africa  recede  gently  frtjm 
each  other ;  coast,  cape,  and  mountain, 
face,  form,  and  nature,  how  alike !  Man, 
his  laws,  works,  and  creeds,  how  dif- 
ferent and  opposed ! 

It  is  geologically  certain  that  the 
two  continents  were  once  united  by  a 
dip  or  valley,  as  is  proved  by  the  vari- 
ations of  soundings.  The  "wonder- 
working" Hercules  (t.  e,  the  Phoeni- 
cians) is  said  to  have  cut  a  canal 
between  them.  The  Moors  had  a 
tradition  that  this  was  the  work  of 
Alexander  the  Great  (Ishkhander),  who 
built  a  bridge  across  the  openuig,  then 
Tery  narrow  j  it  gradually  widened  un- 




til  all  further  increase  was  stopped  by 
the  high  lands  on  each  side.  On  these 
matters  consult  Pliny,  *  N.  H.*  iii.  3, 
and  the  authorities  cited  in  our  paper, 
Quar.  Rev.  cxxvi.  293. ' 

The  Moors  called  the  Mediterranean 
the  White  iSe^jBahr  elAbiad,  and  Bahr 
Hum,  the  JRoman  Sea;  they  termed 
this  SstrechOy  this  Strait,  which  our 
tars  have  vulgarised  into  the  "  Gut," 
Bab-ez-zakak,  the  "  gate  of  the  narrow 
passage."  The  length  of  the  straits 
from  Cape  Spartel  to  Ceuta  in  Africa, 
and  from  TraMgar  to  Europa  Point 
in  Spain,  is  about  12  L.  The  W.  en- 
trance is  about  8  L.  across,  the  E.  about 
5  L. ;  the  narrowest  point  is  at  Tarifa, 
about  12  m.  A  constant  current  sets 
in  from  the  Atlantic  at  the  rate  of 
2J  m.  per  hour,  and  is  perceptible  150 
m.  down  to  the  Cabo  de  G-ata  j  hence 
it  is  very  difficult  to  beat  out  in  a 
N.W.  wind.  Some  have  supposed  the 
existence  of  an  under  current  of  denser 
water,  which  sets  outwards  and  relieves 
the  Mediterranean  from  this  accession 
of  water,  in  addition  to  aU  the  rivers 
from  the  Ebro  to  the  Nile  in  a  coast 
circuit  of  4500  L.  Dr.  Halley,  however, 
has  calculated  that  the  quantity  evapo- 
rated by  the  sun,  and  Hcked  up  by 
hot  drying  winds,  is  greater  than  the 
supply,  and  certainly  the  Mediterranean 
has  receded  on  the  E.  coast  of  the 
Peninsula.  The  absorption  on  a  surface 
of  1,149,287  square  statute  miles,  by 
Halley's  rule,  would  amount  to  7966 
million  tons  a  day  j  yet,  on  the  whole, 
the  level  of  the  Mediterranean  remains 
unchanged,  for  Nature's  exquisite  sys- 
tem of  compensation  knows  no  waste. 

Between  Za  Peita  del  Ciervo  and 
Tarifa  lies  a  plain  often  steeped  in 
blood,  and  now  watered  by  the  brackish 
Salado.  Here  Walia,  in  417,  defeated 
the  Yandali  Silingi  and  drove  them  into 
Africa ;  here  the  chivalrous  Alonso  XI. 
(Oct.  28,  1340)  overthrew  the  miited 
forces  of  Yusuf  I.,  Abu-1-hajaj,  King  of 
Granada,  and  of  Abu-1-hassan,  King  of 
Fez,  who  made  a  desperate  and  last 
attempt  to  reinvade  and  reconquer 
Spain.  This  victory  paved  the  way  for 
the  final  triumph  of  the  Cross,  as  the 

Moors  never  recovered  the  blow.  The 
accounts  of  an  eye-witness  are  worthy 
of  Froissart  (see  Chron.  de  Alonso  XI„ 
ch.  248,  254).  Cannon  made  at  Da- 
mascus were  used  here,  for  the  first 
time  in  Europe,  as  is  said  by  Conde, 
iii.  133.  According  to  Mariana  (xvi.  7) 
25,000  Spanish  infantry  and  14,000 
horse  now  defeated  400,000  Moors  and 
70,000  cavalry.  The  Christians  only 
lost  20  men,  the  infidels  200,000.  Such 
bulletins  are  to  be  ranked  with  those 
of  Livy  or  Buonaparte's  "military 
romances.'*  These  multitudes  could 
never  have  been  packed  away  in  such  a 
limited  space,  much  less  fed.  To  count 
is  a  modem  practice — the  ancient  and 
"  bulletin  "  mode  was  to  guess  num- 
bers, and  to  augment  or  diminish  as 
suited  best. 

Taeifa,  Pop.  9,000,  the  most  Moor- 
ish town  of  Andalucia — that  Berheria 
Cristiana — was  the  ancient  Punic  city 
called  Josa,  which  Bochart  (Can.i.  477) 
translates  the  "  Passage ; "  an  appro- 
priate name  for  this,  the  narrowest 
point  of  the  straits :  the  Romans  re- 
tained this  signification  in  their  Julia 
Traducta:  the  Moors  called  it  after 
Tarif  Ibn  Malik,  a  Berber  chief,  the  first 
to  land  in  Spain,  and  quite  a  distinctper- 
son  from  Taric.  Tarifa  bears  for  arms 
its  castle  on  waves,  with  a  key  at  the 
window ;  and  the  motto,  "  Sedfuertea 
en  la  guerraj"*  be  gallant  in  fight.  Like 
Calais,  it  was  once  a  frontier  key  of 
great  importance.  Sancho  el  Bravo 
took  it  in  1292,  when  Alonso  Perez 
de  Guzman,  as  aU  others  dechned, 
offered  to  hold  this  post  of  danger  for  a 
year.  The  Moors  beleaguered  it,  aided 
by  the  Infante  Juan,  a  traitor  brother 
of  Sancho's,  to  whom  Alonso's  eldest 
son,  aged  9,  had  been  entrusted  pre- 
viously as  a  page.  Juan  now  brought 
the  boy  under  the  walls,  and  threatened 
to  kill  hinn  if  his  fiither  would  not 
surrender  the  place.  Alonso  drew  his 
dagger  and  threw  it  down,  exclaiming, 
"  I  prefer  honour  without  a  son,  to  a 
son  with  dishonour."  He  retired,  and 
the  Prince  caused  the  child  to  be  put  to 
death.  A  cry  of  horror  ran  through  the 
Spanish  battlements:   Alonso  rush^^^' 



Sect.  II. 

forth,  beheld  his  son's  body,  and  re- 
turning to  his  childless  mother,  calmly 
observed,  "  I  feared  that  the  infidel  had 
gained  the  city."  Sancho  the  King 
likened  him  to  Abraham,  from  this 
parental  sacrifice,  and  honoured  him 
with  the  "  canting  "  name  "  ElBueito,^ 
The  Q-ood  (^Ghuzman,  Ghitman,  Good- 
man). He  became  the  fomider  of  the 
princely  Dukes  of  Medina  Sidonift,  now 
merged  by  marriage  in  the  Villafrancas. 
On  this  spot  the  recording  ballads  in 
Duran,  v.  203,  will  best  be  read. 

Tari/a,  nearly  quadrangular,  contains 
some  12,000  inhab. ;   the  narrow  and 
tortuous  streets  are  enclosed  by  Moorish 
walls.    The  Alameda  runs  under  the 
S.  range  between  the  town  and  the  sea : 
the  Alcazar,  a  genuine  Moorish  castle, 
lies  to  the  E.,  just  within  the  walls, 
and  is  now  the  abode  of  galley  slaves. 
The  window  from    whence    Guzman 
threw  the  dagger  has  been  bricked  up, 
but  may  be  known  by  its  border  of 
azulejos;  the  site  of  the  child's  murder 
is  marked  by  a  more  modem  tower — 
called  La  Torre   de   Guzman.      The 
**  Lions "  of  Tarifa  are  the  women,  or 
las  TarifenaSy  who  are  proverbial  for 
gracia  y  meneo.     They  continue  to 
wear  the  mantilla  as  the  Arabs  do  the 
boorko,  and  after  the  present  Egyptian 
fashion  of  the  tob  and  Hhabarah,  in 
which  only  one  eye  is  discovered  ;  that 
however  is  generally  a  piercer,  and  as  it 
peeps  out  from  the  sable  veil  like  a  star, 
beauty  is  concentrated  into  one  focus 
of  light  and  meaning.    These  tapadaSy 
being  all  dressed  alike  walk  about  as 
at  a  masquerade,  most  effectually  con- 
cealed, insomuch  that  husbands  have 
actually  been  detected  making  love  to 
their  own  vrives  by  mistake.     These 
Parthian    assassin-glances    have    fur- 
nished jokes  abundant  to  the  wits  of 
Spain.     Quevedo  compares  these  rifle- 
women  to  the  ahadefo,  which  means 
both  a  water-wagtail  and  the  Spanish- 
fly  ;  and  thus  combines  the  meneo  and 
the  stimulant.     Such,  doubtless,  was 
the  mode  of   wearing    the    mantilla 
among      the      Phoenician    coquettes. 
"  Woe,"  says  Ezekiel  (xiii.  18),  who 
-^w  Tyre  so  weU, "  Woe  to  the  women 

that  make  kerchiefs  upon  the  head  of 
every  stature  to  hunt  souls."     Next  in 
danger  to  these  tapadas  were  the  bulls, 
which  used  to  be  let  loose  in  the  streets, 
to  the  delight  of  the  people  at  the  win- 
dows, and  horror  of  those  who  met  the 
uncivil  quadruped  in  the  narrow  lanes. 
The  crumbling  walls  of  Tarifa  might 
be  battered  with  its  oranges,  which  al- 
though the  smallest,  are  beyond  com- 
parison the  sweetest  in  Spain,  but  de^ 
fended  by  brave  men,  they  have  defied 
the  ball  and  bomb.     Soult,  taught  by 
Barrosa  the  importance  of  this  landing- 
place,  was  anxious  to  take  it,  and  had 
he  done  so,  must  soon  have  been  master 
of  all  Andalucia,  Gibraltar  excepted. 
Gen.  Campbell,  in  defiance  of  higher 
authorities,  most  wisely  determined  to 
garrison  it,  and  sent  1000  men  of  the 
47th  and  87th,  undei  Col.Skerrett :  600 
Spaniards  under  Copons  were  added. 
Skerrett,  brave  but  always  unfortunate, 
despaired ;  but  Charles  Felix  Smith  of 
the  Engineers  was  skilful,  and  Col., 
now  Lord  Gough,  a  resolute  soldier. 
Victor  and  Laval,  Dec.  20,  1811,  in- 
vested the  place  with   10,000  men; 
between  the  27th  and  30th  a  practi- 
cable breach  was  made  near  the  Retiro 
gate;  then  the  Spaniards  under  Copons, 
who  were  ordered  to  be  there  to  defend 
it,  were  not  there  —they,  however,  sur- 
vived to  claim  all  the  glory  (Madoz, 
xiv.  609  ;  Nap.  xii.  6)  ;  but  Gough  in 
a  good  hour  came  up  with  his  87th, 
the  "Eagle-catchers,"   and,  with  500 
men,  beat  back  1800  picked  Frenchmen 
in  a  manner  "  surpassing  all  praise," 
and  has  lived  to  conquer  China  and 
Gwalior.    Yictor,  Fictus  as  usual,  re- 
treated silently  in  the  night,  leaving 
behind  all  his  artiQery  and  stores.  This 
great  glory  and  that  astounding  failure 
were  such  as  even  the  Duke  had  not 
ventured  to  calculate  on :  he  had  dis- 
approved of  the  defence,  because,  al- 
though "  we  have  a  right  to  expect  that 
our  officers  and  troops  wiLL  perform 
their  duty  on  every  occasion,  we  had  no 
right  to  expect  that  comparatively  a 
small  number  would  be  able  to  hold 
Tarifa,  commanded  as  it  is  at  short 
distances,  and  enfiladed  in  every  direc* 




tion,  and  unproyided  with  artillery, 
and  the  walls  scarcely  cannon-proof. 
The  enfemy,  howeyer,  retired  with  dis- 
grace, infinitely  to  the  honour  of  the 
brave  troops  who  defended  Tarifa" 
(Disp.,  Feb.  1, 1812).  The  vicinity  of 
Trafalgar,  and  the  recollection  of  Nel- 
son's blue  jackets,  urged  every  red  coat 
to  do  that  day  more  than  his  duty. 
Now-a-days  the  Tarifeuos  claim  all  the 
glory,  nor  do  the  Paez  MeUados  and 
Co.  even  mention  the  English  :  so 
Skerrett  was  praised  by  Lord  Liverpool, 
and  Campbell  reprimanded  ;  sic  vos 
non  vobis !  The  English  not  only  de- 
fended but  repaired  the  breach.  Their 
masonry  is  good,  and  their  inscription, 
if  not  classical,  at  least  teUs  the  truth : 
'*  Hanc  partem  muri  a  Q-allis  obsiden- 
tibus  dirutam,  Britanni  defensores  con- 
struxerunt,  1812."  In  1823,  when  no 
87th  was  left  to  assist  these  heroic 
Tarifeuos,  the  French,  under  the  puny 
Angouleme,  attacked  and  took  the  place 
instantly  :  the  inference  is  conclusive. 

The  real  strength  of  Tarifa  consists 
in  the  rocky  island  which  projects  into 
the  sea,  on  which  a  fortress  has  long 
been  building.  There  is  a  good  light- 
house, 135  ft.  high,  visible  for  10  L., 
and  a  small  sheltered  bay.  This  castle 
commands  the  straits  under  some  cir- 
cumstances, when  ships  are  obliged  to 
pass  within  the  range  of  the  batteries, 
and  if  they  do  not  hoist  colours  are  at 
once  fired  into,  especially  those  coming 
from  Gibraltar.  They  fire  even  into 
our  men  of  war :  thus,  in  Nov.  1830, 
the  "Windsor  Castle,"  a  74,  taking 
home  the  43rd,  was  hulled  without  I 
any  previous  notice.  The  "Windsor 
Castle,"  like  a  lion  yelpt  at  by  a  cur, 
did  not  condescend  to  sweep  the  Tarifa 
castle  from  the  face  of  the  earth,  yet 
such  is  the  only  means  of  obtainmg 
redress :  none  is  ever  given  at  Madrid. 
England  is  nowhere  treated  more  con- 
tumeliously  than  by  Spain  and  Por- 
tugal, the  two  weakest  and  most  un- 
grateM  governments  in  Europe,  and 
saved  by  her  alone  from  being  mere 
French  provinces.  The  Duke,  even 
while  in  the  act  of  dehvering  them,  was 
entirely  without  any  influence  (GK*  Sept. 

5,  1813),  and  not  "  even  treated  as  a 
gentleman."  "There  are  limits,  how- 
ever," as  even  he  said,  "  to  forbearance." 
Tarifa,  indeed,  is  destined  by  the  Spa- 
niards to  counterbalance  the  loss  of  the 
Mock.  This  fortress  is  being  built  out 
of  a  tax  levied  on  persons  and  things 
passing  from  Spain  into  Gibraltar : 
thus  the  English  are  made  to  pay  for 
their  own  annoyance.  Tarifa,  in  war 
time,  swarmed  with  gun-boats  and 
privateers.  "They,"  says  Southey, 
"  inflicted  greater  loss  on  the  trade  of 
Great  Britain  than  all  the  fleets  of  the 
enemy,  by  cutting  off'  ships  becalmed 
in  these  capricious  waters."  A  frigate 
steamer  at  Gibraltar  will  soon  abate 
that  nuisance.  Tliose  who  wish  to 
examine  Guzman  Castle,  or  to  draw  it, 
may  as  well  obtain  the  governor's  per- 
mission, since  the  vicinity  of  Gibraltar, 
which  has  been  made  the  hot-bed  of 
revolutionists  of  all  kinds,  from  Torri- 
jos  downwards,  has  rendered  every 
Spanish  garrison  near  it  almost  as  sen* 
sitive  as  the  Phoenicians,  who  wel- 
comed every  stranger  who  pried  about 
the  straits  by  throwing  him  into  the  sea. 
The  Spaniards  in  office  are  apt  to  have 
a  delirium  tremens  when  they  see  the^ 
man  of  the  pencil  and  note-book :  they 
instantly  suspect  that  he  is  making  a 
plan  to  take  the  castle. 

The  ride  to  Algeciras  over  the  moun- 
tain is  glorious ;  the  views  are  splendid* 
The  wild  forest,  through  which  the 
Guadahnacil  boils  and  leaps,  is  worthy 
of  Salvator  Bosa.  Gibraltar  and  its 
beautiful  bay  are  seen  through  the 
leafy  vistas,  and  the  bleeding  branches 
of  the  stripped  cork-trees,  fnnged  with 
a  most  ddicate  fern :  the  grand  Bock 
crouches  6  guisa  de  Leon  cuando  se 
posa.  How  imposing  this  mountain 
mass  ere  the  sun  has  risen  from  behind! 
"Poussin,"  say  the  French,  "could 
not  paint  it;  Chateaubriand  could 
not  describe  it ;"  or  M.  JoinviUe  take 
it.  This  is  indeed  the  sentinel  and  mas- 
ter of  the  Mediterranean,  the  "  Great 
Sea"  of  the  Bible,  the  bond  of  nations, 
the  central  cradle  of  civilisation ;  and 
different  indeed  would  have  been  the 
world's  condition,had  this  expauseber 



Sect.  II. 

a  desert  sand ;  and  happy  the  eye  and  | 
the  moment  when  any  catch  their  first  i 
sight  of  this  most  classic  sea,  to  behold 
whose  shores  was  truly,  as  Dr.  John- 
son said,  the  grand  end  of  travelling. 
These  are  the  waters  on  which  com-  ' 
merce  first  wafted  with  white-winged  ' 
sails  all  the  art  and  science  that  raises 
us  aboTC  the  savage.    How  grand  the 
page  of  history  that  records  the  mighty 
deeds  they  have  witnessed !  how  beau- 
tiful in  picture  and  poetry  this  blue 
and  sunlit  sea !     The  general  colour  is 
the  deepest  ultramarine,  with  a  singular 
phosphorescent    luminosity   produced 
by  the  myriads  of  infusoria :  a  green 
tint  indicates  soundings,   and  a  deep 
indigo  blue,  profound  depth. 

Algedras  Hes  in  a  pleasant  nook. 
Inns :  Fonda  Francesa  near  the  beach. 
Fonda  de  Fspaua.  This,  the  Portus 
Alhus  of  the  Romans,  was  the  green 
island  of  the  Moors,  Jeziratu-1-Kha- 
dra;  an  epithet  still  preserved  in  the 
name,  of  the  island  opposite.  La  Isla 
Verde,  also  called  de  las  Palomas. 
The  King  of  Spain  is  also  King  of 
Algeciras,  a  remnant  of  its  former  im- 
portance, it  being  the  Moors'  key  of 
Spain.  It  was  taken  by  the  gallant 
AJonso  XI.,  March  24, 1344,  after  a 
siege  of  20  months,  at  which  foreign 
crusaders  from  all  Christendom  at- 
tended, who  no  doubt  did  the  best 
of  the  work,  for  the  benefit  and  glory 
of  Nosotros.  It  was  the  siege  of  the 
age,  and  40  years  afterwards  Chaucer, 
describing  a  true  knight,  mentions  his 
having  been  at "  Algecir  " — a  Waterloo, 
a  Trafalgar  man.  Our  chivalrous  Ed- 
ward III.  contemplated  coming  in  per- 
son to  assist  AlonsoXI.,a  monarch  after 
his  own  heart.  The  chronica  de  Alonso 
XI.  gives  the  Froissart  details,  the  gal- 
lant behaviour  of  the  English  under 
the  Earls  of  Derby  and  Salisbury 
(Chr.  301),  the  selfish  misconduct  of 
the  French  under  Q-aston  de  Foix,  who 
kept  aloof  at  the  critical  moment  (Chr. 
311).  The  want  of  every  thing  in  the 
Castilian  camp  was  ternfic:  cosas  de 
FspaTia,  Alonso  destroyed  the  Moor- 
ih  town  and  fortifications. 

''odem  rectangular  common-place 

Algeciras,  pop.  11,000,  has  risen  like  a 
rhoenii,  having  been  rebuilt  in  1760 
by  Charles  III.,  to  be  a  hornets'  nest 
against  Gibraltar,  and  such  it  is, 
swarming  with  privateers  in  war-time, 
and  with  guarda  costas  or  preventive 
service  cutters  in  peace.  What  a  con- 
trast from  old  Moorish  Tarifa;  in  a 
morning's  ride  we  jump  from  one 
age  and  people  to  another.  The  hand- 
some plaza  has  a  fountain  erected  by 
Castafios,  who  was  governor  here  in 
1808,  when  the  war  of  independence 
broke  out.  He,  as  usual,  was  without 
arms  or  money,  and  utterly  unable  to 
move,  imtil  the  English  merchants  of 
Gibraltar  advanced  the  means  ;  he  then 
marched  to  Bailen,  where  the  incapa- 
city of  Dupont  thrust  greatness  on  him. 
The  artist  should  sketch  Gibraltar 
from  near  the  aqueduct  and  Molino 
de  San  Bernardino.  The  walk  to  the 
water-falls  is  picturesque,  the  cork- 
trees grand,  the  picknicks  pleasant. 

Between  Algeciras  and  Tarifa,  June 
9,  1801,  the  gallant  Saumarez  attacked 
the  combined  French  and  Spanish 
fleets  under  Linois ;  the  enemy  con"- 
sisted  of  10  sail,  the  English  of  6.  The 
"  Superb,"  a  74,  commanded  by  Capt. 
Kichard  Keats,  out-sailed  the  squadron, 
and  alone  engaged  the  foe,  taking  the 
"  St.  Antoine,"  a  French  74,  and  burn- 
ing the  "  Real  Carlos  "  and  "  San  Her- 
menigildo,"  two  Spanish  three-deckers 
of  112  guns  each.  Keats  had  sHpped 
between  them,  and  then  out  again, 
leaving  them  in  mistake  from  the  dark- 
ness to  fire  at  and  destroy  each  other. 
Algeciras  is  the  naval  and  military 
position  from  whence  Gibraltar  is 
watched  and  worried,  for  the  foreigtier's 
possession  of  that  angulus  rankles 
deeply,  as  well  it  may.  In  the  tena- 
cious memory  of  Spain,  which  never 
forgives  or  forgets,  it  is  hardly  yet 
a  fait  accompli.  During  sunmier,  the 
cool  stone-houses  of  Algeciras  are  in- 
finitely better  suited  to  the  climate, 
than  the  Btuffj  dwellings  on  the  arid 
rock;  and  here  the  foreign  steamers 
touch,  which  ply  backwards  and  for- 
wards between  Cadiz  and  Marseilles. 

The  distance  to  Gibraltar  is  about 




5  m.  across  by  sea,  and  10  round  by 
land.  Tlie  coast-road  is  intersected  by 
the  rivers  G-uadaranque  and  Palmones : 
on  crossing  the  former,  on  the  eminence 
JEl  HocadillOf  now  a  farm,  the  com 
grows  where  once  Carteia  flourished. 
This  was  the  Phoenician  Melcarth  (Me- 
lech  Kartha),  King's- town,  the  city  Of 
Hercules,  the  type,  symbol,  and  per- 
sonification of  the  navigation,  coloniza- 
tion, and  civilization  of  Tyre :  the 
Phoenicians,  be  it  remembered,  called 
it  Tartessus,  Heracleon.  Humboldt, 
however,  reads  in  the  Car  the  Iberian 
prefix  of  height.  This  was  afterwards 
among  the  earUest  and  one  of  the  few 
Greek  settlements  tolerated  in  Spain 
by  their  deadly  rivals  of  Tyre. 

Carteia  was  sacked  by  Scipio  Africa- 
nus,  and  given  (171  b.c.)  to  the  illegiti- 
mate children  of  Boman  soldiers  by 
Spanish  mothers  (Livy  xliii.  3).  Here 
the  younger  Pompey  fled,  wounded, 
after  his  defeat  of  Munda,  whereupon 
the  Carteians,  his  former  partisans,  at 
once  proposed  giving  him  up  to  Caesar: 
they  have  had  their  reward ;  and  the 
fisherman  spreads  his  nets,  the  punish- 
ment of  Tyre,  on  her  false,  fleeting, 
and  perjured  daughter.  The  remains 
of  an  amphitheatre,  and  the  circuit  of 
walls  about  2  miles,  may  yet  be  traced. 
Tho  Moors  and  Spaniards  have  alike 
destroyed  the  ruins,  working  them  up 
as  a  quarry  in  building  Algeciras  and 
San  Boque.  The  coins  found  here  are 
very  beautiful  and  numerous  (see  Flo- 
rez,  Med.  i.  293).  Mr.  Kent,  of  tJie  port- 
office  at  Gibrsdtar,  formed  a  Carteian 
museum,  consisting  of  medals,  pottery, 
glass,  &c.  Consult,  for  ancient  au- 
thorities, Ukert  (i.  2.  346), 'and  'A 
Discourse  on  Cmrteia^  John  Conduit, 
4to.,  London,  1719;  and  the  excellent 
*  Journey  from  Oibr  altar  to  Malaga^ 
Francis  Carter,  2  vols.,  London,  1777. 

From  ^l  JRocadillo  to  Gibraltar  is 
about  4)  m.  through  the  Spanish  hues. 
The  whole  ride  from  Tarifa  took  us 
about  10  h. 

Midway  towards  Abyla  the  great 
sea-fight  took  place  between  LoeHus 
and  Adherbol  (Livy  xxiii.  30),  and 
again  betiYeen  l^idius  and  Varus,  and 
that  fearful  subsequent  storm  which, 

as  after  Trafalgar,  buffeted  victors  and 
vanquished  (Florus,  iv.  2). 

RoTJTB  3. — Cadiz  to  Seyille  by 

While  waiting  for  the  completion  of 
a  railway  there  are  several  ways  of 
getting  to  Seville;  first,  by  land,  in 
the  diligence,  through  Xerez;  secondly, 
by  water,  by  steamers  up  the  Ghiadal- 
quivir ;  and  thirdly,  by  a  combination 
of  land  and  water. 

Those  who  prefer  the  land,  may  take 
the  diligence  to  San  Lucar,  which  it 
reaches,  having  passed  through  the  Isla 
and  made  the  circuif  of  the  bay  there, 
a  route  interesting  only  to  crab-fanciers 
and  salt-refiners.  The  country,  vege- 
tation, and  climate  are  tropical.  Be- 
tween the  Puerto  and  San  Lucar  the 
traveller  wiU  remember  the  Oriental 
ploughings  of  Elijah,  when  he  sees  20 
and  more  yoke  of  oxen  labouring  in 
the  same  field  (1  Kings,  xix.  19). 

San  JJucar  de  Barrameda^  Luciferi 
Fanum,  rises  amid  a  treeless,  sandy, 
undulating  country,  on  the  1.  bank  of 
the  Guadalquivir.    White  and  gUtter- 
ing,  it  is  an  ill-paved,  dull,  decaying 
place ;  pop.  16,000.      Lm,  JFonda  del 
Comercio ;  the  best  cafe  is  JEl  Oro^  on 
the  Plazuela.    This  town,  taken  from 
the  Moors  in  1264,  was  granted  by 
Sancho  el  Bravo,  to  Guzman  el  Bueno. 
The  importance  of  the  transatlantiq^ 
trade  induced  Philip  IV.,  in  1645,  to 
resume  the   city,    and   make    it  the 
residence    of   the    captain-general    of 
Andalucia.     Visit  the  ancient  English 
Hospital  of  St.   George,  founded  in 
1517  by    Henry  VIII.    for    English 
sailors.     Godoy,  in  1799,  sold  the  pro- 
perty, and  promised  to  pay  interest  on 
the  proceeds.      In  1854  the  unpaid 
capital  and  arrears  due  from  the  go- 
vernment amounted  to  2400^.    From 
San  Lucar  Fernando  Magalheans  em- 
barked, Aug.  10, 1519,  on  the  first  cir- 
cumnavigation of  the  world :  the  Vic- 
toria was  the  only  ship  which  returned 
Sept.  8,  1522,  Fernando  having  been 
kUled,  like  Capt.  Cook,  by  some  savages 
in  the  Philippine  Islands.    San  Lucp- 
exists  by  its  wine-trade,  and  is  t' 

■n-     O 




mart  of  the  inferior  and  adulterated 
vintages  which  are  foisted  off  in  Eng- 
land as  sherries.  Nota  bene,  here,  at 
least,  drink  manzanilla,  however  much 
it  may  be  eschewed  in  England,  which 
being,  fortunately,  not  a  wine  growing 
coimtry,  imports  the  very  best  of  all 
others,  leaving  the  inferior  for  native 
consumption.  The  name  describes  its 
peculiar  light  camomile  flavour,  which 
is  the  true  derivation,  for  it  has  no- 
thing to  do  with  manzanay  an  apple, 
and  still  less  with  the  town  Manzanilla 
on  the  opposite  side  of  the  river.  It  is 
of  a  delicate  pale  straw  colour,  and  is 
extremely  wholesome;  it  strengthens 
the  stomach,  without  heating  or  ine- 
briating; hence  the  Andalucians  are 
passionately  fond  of  it.  Excellent 
manzanilla  is  to  be  procured  in  Lon- 
don, of  G-orman,  16,  Mark  Lane. 
Drink  it,  ye  dyspeptics ! 

The  climate  of  San  Lucar  is  ex- 
tremely hot :  here  was  established,  in 
1806,  the  botanical  Garden  de  Aclima- 
tacion,  in  order  to  acclimatize  South 
American  and  African  animals  and 
plants :  it  was  arranged  by  Boutelou 
and  Eojas  Clemente,  two  able  gar- 
deners and  naturalists,  and  was  in  high 
order  in  1808,  when  the  downfall  of 
Godoy,  the  founder,  entailed  its  de- 
struction. The  populace  rushed  in, 
killed  the  animals,  tore  up  the  plants, 
and  pulled  down  the  buildings,  because 
the  work  of  a  hated  individual.  But 
at  all  times  Spanish,  like  Oriental  ven- 
geance is  blind  even  to  its  own  interests, 
and  retaliates  against  persons  and  their 
works  even  when  of  pubhc  utility. 

San  Lucar  is  no  longer  the  point  of 
embarkation,  which  is  now  about  a  mile 
up  the  river  at  Bonanza,  so  called  from 
a  hermitage,  Luciferi  fanum,  erected 
by  the  South  American  Company  at 
Seville  to  Na.  8a.  de  Bonanza,  or  our 
Lady  of  fine  weather,  as  the  ancients 
did  to  Yenus.  Here  is  established  an 
aduana,  where  luggage  is  examined. 
The  district  between  Bonanza  and  San 
Lucar  is  called  Algaida,  an  Arabic 
word  meaning  a  deserted  waste,  and 
such  truly  it  is :  the  sandy  hiQocks  are 
■"^^'^thed  with  aromatic  brushwood, 
ry  pines,  and  wild  grapes.    The 

view  over  the  flat  marisma,  with  its 
agues  and  fevers,  swamps  and  shifting 
sands,  arenas  voladeras,  is  truly  desert- 
like, and  a  fit  home  of  birds  and  beasts 
of  prey,  hawks,  stoats,  robbers,  and 
custom-house  officers.  M.  Fenelon,  in 
his  *T^emaque'  (Ub.  viii.),  describes 
these  localities  as  the  Elysian  Fields, 
and  peoples  the  happy  valleys  with 
patriarchs  and  respectable  burgesses. 

For  the  journey  by  water,  the  de- 
partures and  particulars  of  the  steamers 
to  Seville,  are  advertised  in  the  Cadiz 
papers  and  placarded  in  all  the  posadas. 
Aner  crossing  La  JBahia  the  Guadal- 
quivir is  entered,  near  Cipiona  Point. 
Here  was  the  great  Phoenician  light- 
house called  Cap  JEon,  the  "  Rock  of 
the  Sun."  This  the  vain-glorious 
Greeks,  who  never  condescended  to 
learn  the  language  of  other  people, 
"  barbarians,"  converted  into  the  Tower 
of  Cepio,  Tov  KetTiMvts  ftv^yos,  the  **  Cae- 
pionis  Turris"  of  the  Romans.  Those 
who  wish  to  avoid  the  rounding  this 
point  by  sea  may  cross  over  to  the 
Puerto,  and  take  a  calesa  to  San  Lucar, 
and  there  rejoin  the  steamer.  Seville  is 
distant  about  80  m.  The  voyage  is  per- 
formed in  7  to  8  hours,  and  in  less 
when  returning  down  stream.  Fare, 
first  cabin,  3  dollars ;  there  is  a  good 
restaurant  on  board. 

LaPuebla Ui  L. 

Coria 2 

Gelbes i 

San  Juan  de  Alfarache      .     .        i 

The  smoke  of  the  steamer  and  actual 
inspection  of  the  localities  discharge 
the  poetry  and  illusion  of  the  far-famed 
and  much  overrated  Guadalquivir  of 
classical  and  modem  romance.  "  Thou 
Bsetis,"  sing  the  native  poets, "  crowned 
with  flowers  and  olives,  and  girdled  by 
beauteous  nymphs,  waftest  thy  Hquid 
crystal  to  the  west,  in  a  placid  amorous 
current."  Spaniards  seldom  spare  fine 
words,  when  speaking  of  themselves  or 
their  country ;  and  this  pellucid  river, 
in  sober  reality  and  prose,  is  here  dull 
and  dirty  as  the  Thames  at  Sheemess, 
and  its  "  Elysian  Fields"  are  as  unpic- 
turesque  as  those  at  Paris  or  our  "  Isle 
of  Dogs."  The  turbid  stream  slowly 
eats  its  way  through  an  alluvial  level^ 




given  up  to  herds  of  cattle  and  aquatic 
fowls :  notliing  can  be  more  dreary : 
no  white  sails  enliven  the  silent  waters, 
no  villages  cheer  the  desert  steppes  j 
here  and  there  a  choza  or  hut  offers  a 
poor  refuge  from  the  red  hot  sun.  In 
this  riverain  tract,  called  La  MarUma, 
swamps,  ague,  and  fever  are  perpetual. 
In  these  plains,  £Eivourable  to  animal 
and  vegetable  life,  fatal  to  man,  the 
miserable  peasantry,  like  those  on  the 
Pontine  marshes,  look  yellow  skeletons 
when  compared  to  their  fat  kine.  Here 
in  the  glare  of  summer  a  mirage  mocks 
the  thirsty  sportsman.  This  Sarah  or 
vapour  of  the  desert  with  its  optical 
deceptions  of  atmospheric  refractions 
is  indeed  the  trick  of  fairies,  a  Fata 
Morgana^  and  well  may  the  Arabs  term 
it  Moyet-Eblis^  the  Devil's  water.  On 
the  r.  hand,  in  the  distance,  rise  the 
mountains  of  Bonda.  The  G-uadal- 
quivir,  the  "  great  river,"  the  Wdda-l- 
Kebir  or  Wada-l-adhem  of  the  Moors, 
traverses  Andalucia  from  E.  to  W.  The 
ZincaU,  or  Spanish  gipsies,  also  call  it 
Len  JBaro,  the  "  great  river."  The  Ibe- 
rian name  was  Certis  (Livy  xxviii.  16), 
which  the  Komans  changed  into  Bsetis, 
a  word,  according  to  Santa  Teresa,  who 
understood  imknown  tongues,  derived 
from  Bseth,  "  blessedness ;"  but  the 
G^eneralissima  of  Spain  had  revelations 
which  were  denied  to  ordinary  mortals, 
to  geographers  like  Bennell,  or  to  phi- 
lologists, hke  Humboldt  and  Bocluurt, 
who  suspects  (Can.  i.  34^  the  etymology 
to  be  the  Punic  Lebitsin,  the  lakes  or 
swamps  of  the  Bsetis  termination, 
whence  the  Idbt/sfitio  lacu  of  Pest. 
Avienus  (Or.  Mar.  289).  The  river 
rises  in  La  Mancha,  about  10  L.  "N.  of 
Almaraz,  flows  down,  and  at  Ecija 
receives  the  Gtenil  and  the  waters  of 
the  basin  of  Granada :  other  numerous 
affluents  come  down  from  the  mountain 
valleys  on  each  side.  Under  the  An- 
cients and  Moors,  navigable .  to  Cor- 
dova, it  formed  a  portavena  to  that 
district,  which  overflows  with  oil,  com, 
and  wine.  Under  the  Spanish  mis- 
government  these  advantages  were  lost, 
and  now  small  craft  alone  reach  Seville, 
and  with  difficulty.    They  have  been 

talking  for  the  last  300  years  of  im- 
proving the  navigation,  see  Las  obras 
del  Maestro  JPerez  Feman  de  Oliva, 
4to,  Cordova,  1586,  p.  131;  and  in 
1820  a  new  company — conservators  of 
the  river — was  formed  for  the  purpose, 
and  a  tax  laid  on  the  tonnage  of  ship- 
ping, which  has  been  duly  levied,  al- 
though not  much  more  has  been  done 
beyond  jobbing :  meantime  the  bed  is 
filling,  the  banks  falling  in,  with  no  side 
canal,  no  railroad,  to  supply  the  want  and 
shorten  the  line  of  this  tortuous  river. 

1  The  river  below  Seville  has  branched 
off,  forming  two  unequal  islands.  La 

;  Isla  Mayor  and  Menor.  The  former 
the  Xaptal  of  the  Moors,  and  Captel  of 
old  Spanish  books,  has  been  cultivated 
with  cotton  by  the  company,  who  also 
cut  a  canal  through  the  Isla  Menor, 
called  La  Cortadura,  by  which  3  L.  of 
winding  river  are  saved.  Foreign  ves- 
sels are  generally  moored  here,  and  their 
cargoes  are  conveyed  up  and  down  in 
barges,  whereby  smugglmg  is  vastly  fa- 
ciUtated.  At  Coria,  lamous  under  the 
Bomaus  for  bricks  and  pottery,  are 
still  made  the  enormous  earthenware 
jars  in  which  oil  and  olives  are  kept : 
these  tinajas  are  the  precise  amphorce 
of  the  ancients,  and  remind  one  of 
Morgiana  and  the  Forty  Thieves.  The 
river  next  winds  under  the  Moorish 
Hisnu-1-faraj,  or  the  "Castle  of  the 
Cleft,"  or  of  the  prospect  "a!  Faradge," 
now  called  San  Juan  de  Alfarache ; 
and  then  turns  to  the  r.,  and  skirting 
the  pleasant  public  walk  stops  near  the 
Torre  del  Oro,  gilded  with  the  setting 
sun,  and  darkened  by  Aduaneros,  who 
worry  passengers  and  portmanteaus. 

BouTE  4. — Cadiz  to  Sbville  by 

SanFemando    .     .     .     .  2i 

Puerto  Real 2    ..      4* 

Puerto  de  Sa.  Maria    .     .  2    ..      6i 

Xerez 2     ..      8i 

Va.  del  Cuervo .     .     .     .  3i  . .  12 

Fa.  de  la  Vizcaina  ...  1     ..  13 

Torres  de  Alocaz   .     .    .  2i  . .  15^ 

Utrera 3*  ..  19 

AlcaUi  de Guadaira     .     .  2    ..  21 

SeviUa 2    ..  23 

This  is  a  portion  of  the  high  road  from 



Sect.  II. 

Cadiz  to  Madrid ;  the  whole  distance 
is  108J  L.  There  is  some  talk  of  a 
railroad,  to  be  made  and  paid  for  by 
Englishmen,  hMifestina  lente  is  a  Spa- 
nish axiom,  where  people  are  slow  to 
begin  and  nerer  finish.  The  journey  is 
uninteresting,  and  sometimes  danger- 
ous :  leaving Xerez  the  lonely  road  across 
the  plains  skirts  the  spin's  of  the  Bonda 
mountains,  sometimes  the  lair  of  mala 
petite,  Moron  being  generally  their 
head-quarters,  for  smuggling  and  the 
intricate  country  favour  these  wild 
weeds  of  the  rank  soil. 

The  best  plan  of  route  from  Cadiz 
to  Seville,  is  to  cross  over  to  the  Puerto 
by  steam  and  take  a  calesa  to  Xerez, 
paying  1  dollar ;  although  the  road  is 
indifferent  the  drive  is  pleasant,  and 
the  view  from  the  intervening  ridge, 
La  huena  vista,  is  worthy  of  its  name : 
the  glorious  panorama  of  the  bay  of 
Cadiz  is  a  perfect  belvedere.  There  is 
a  decent  posada  at  this  half-way  rest- 
ing-place. From  Xerez  drive  in  a  ca- 
lesa  to  Bonanza,  about  3  L.  of  weaii- 
some  road,  and  there  rejoin  the  steamer. 
The  best  Posada  at  Xerez  is  of  San 
Dionisio  on  the  Plaza  La  Consolacion. 
F.  Travieso — 3,  CaUe  de  la  Lenzeria. 
The  great  hospitable  wine-merchants 
seldom,  however,  permit  any  one  who 
comes  with  an  introduction  "to  take 
his  ease  in  mine  own  inn." 

Xerez  de  la  Frontera,  or  Jerez — ^for 
now  it  is  the  fashion  to  spell  all  those 
Moorish  or  German  guttural  words, 
where  an  X  or  Q-  is  prefixed  to  an  open 
vowel,  with  a  J:  e,  g.^  Jimenez  for 
Ximenez,  Jorge  for  George,  &c. — is 
called  of  the  frontier^  to  distinguish  it 
from  Jerez  de  los  Caballeros,  in  Estre- 
madura.  It  was  termed  by  the  Moors 
Sherish  Mlistin,  because  sdlotted  to  a 
tribe  of  Philistines.  The  new  settlers 
from  the  East,  preserved  alike  the  names 
of  their  old  homes,  and  their  hatred  of 
neighbours.  Jerez,  pop.  34,000,  rises 
amid  vine-clad  slopes,  studded  with 
coriijos  y  haciendas,  with  its  white- 
washed Moorish  towers,  blue-domed 
Colegiata,  and  huge  JBodegas,  or  wine- 
stores,  looking  like  pent-houses  for 
men-of-war   at  Chatham*      Supposed 

by  many  to  have  been  the  ancient 
Astaregia  Ceesariana,  some  mutilated 
sculpture  exists  in  the  Calle  de  Biz' 
cocheroa  and  Calle  de  los  Idolos,  for 
the  Xeresanos  call  the  old  graven 
images  of  the  Pagans  idols,  while  they 
bow  down  to  new  sagradas  imagenes 
in  their  own  churches.  Part  of  the 
original,  walls  and  gates  remain  in  the 
old  town ;  the  suburbs  are  more  regu- 
lar, and  here  the  wealthy  wine-mer- 
chants reside.  Xerez  was  taken  from 
the  Moors,  in  1264,  by  Alonso  el  Sabio, 
the  Learned.  The  Moorish  alcazar, 
which  is  near  the  public  walk,  is  well 
preserved,  and  offers  a  good  specimen 
of  these  turreted  and  walled  palatial 
fortresses.  It  belongs  to  the  Duque  de 
San  Lorenzo,  on  the  condition  that  he 
cedes  it  to  the  king  whenever  he  is  at 
Xerez.  The  Casa  de  Miquelmes,  "with 
its  torre  de  Homenaje,  may  also  be 
visited.  Observe  the  Berruguete  facade 
of  the  Casas  de  Cdbildo,  erected  in 
1 575.  Notice  the  £Ei9ade  of  the  churches 
of  Santiago  and  San  Miguel,  especially 
the  Gothic  details  of  the  latter.  The 
Colegiaia,  begun  in  1695,  is  vile  chur- 
rigueresque;  the  architect  did  not  by 
accident  stumble  on  one  sound  rule,  or 
deviate  into  the  commonest  sense :  but 
the  wines  of  Jerez  are  in  better  taste 
than  the  temples,  and  now-a-days  more 
go  to  the  cellar  than  to  the  church< 
The  vinous  city  has  a  few  books  and 
coins.  The  legends  and  antiquities  of 
Xerez  are  described  in  Los  Santos  de 
Xerez,  Martin  de  Roa,  4to.,  Seville, 
1671 ;  and  there  is  a  new  history  by 
Adolf  0  de  Castro.  Xerez  was  renowned 
for  its  Majos,  who  were  considered, 
however,  of  a  low  caste,  muy-cruos, 
crudos,  raw,  when  compared  to  the 
Majo  fino,  the  mug  cocio^ocido,  the 
boUed,  the  well-done  one  of  Seville — 
phrases  as  old  as  Martial.  The  Majo 
Xerezano  was  seen  in  all  his  flash 
glory  at  the  much  frequented  fairs  of 
Ma^  1  and  Aug.  15 ;  but  picturesque 
nationalities  are  giving  place  to  the 
common-place  coats  and  calicos  of  civi- 
lization. He  is  a  great  bull-fighter, 
and  a  fine  new  Plaza  has  recently  been 
built  here.    His  requiehros  are,  how- 




ever,  over-flavoured  with  sal  Andaluqay 
and  his  jaleos  and  jokes  rather  prac- 
tical :  iurlas  de  manosy  hurlas  de 
JCerezanos.  The  quantity  of  wine  is 
supposed  to  make  these  valienfes  more 
boisterous  and  occasionally  ferocious, 
than  those  of  all  other  Aiidaluciaus : 
" for  all  this  valour"  as  Falstaff  says, 
"comes  of  sherris."  They  are  great 
sportsmen,  and  the  shooting  in  the 
Marisma,  especially  of  deer,  bustards, 
wild  fowl,  and  woodcocks,  is  first-rate. 
Parties  are  made,  who  go  for  weeks  to 
the  Coto  de  Doua  Ana  and  del  Rey, 

The  growth  of  wine  amounts  to 
some  500,000  arrohas  annually;  tiiis 
Moorish  name  and  measure  contains  a 
quarter  of  a  hundred  weight :  30  go  to 
a  bota  or  butt,  of  which  some  34,000 
are  annually  produced,  running  from 
8000  to  10,000  really  fine.  This  wine 
was  first  known  in  England  about  the 
time  of  our  Henry  VII.  It  became 
popular  under  Ehzabeth,  when  those 
who  under  Essex  sacked  Cadiz  brought 
home  the  fashion  of  good  "  sherris 
sack."  It  is  still  called  seco  here, 
which  is  the  old  English  seek,  the 
French  sec,  a  word  used  in  contradis- 
tinction to  the  sweet  malvoisies.  It  was 
ousted  by  Madeira  wine,  but  brought 
back  into  fashion  by  Lord  Holland, 
whose  travels  in  Spain  abroad,  and 
table  at  home,  gave  him  the  right  to 
dictate  in  dinnering  at  least.  Mean- 
while the  bulk  of  good  Spaniards 
scarcely  know  sherry  beyond  its  im- 
mediate vicinity.  It  is,  in  fact,  a 
foreign  wine,  and  made  and  drunk  by 
foreigners;  nor  do  Spaniards  like  its 
strength,  and  stUl  less  its  high  price. 
Thus,  even  at  Granada,  it  is  sold  as  a 
liqueur.  At  Seville,  in  the  best  houses, 
one  glass  only  is,  or  in  our  time  used 
to  be,  handed  round  at  dinner  as  the 
golpe  medico,  or  chasse,  the  »m^  '"' 
?^K6i  of  Athenseus  (1.  20).  The  first 
class,  called  "  Vino  seco,  fino,  oloroso 
y  generoso"  is  very  dear,  costing  half 
a  dollar  a  bottle  on  the  spot.  Pure 
genuine  sherry,  from  10  to  12  years 
old,  is  worth  from  50  to  80  guineas 
)er  butt,  in  the  hodega ;  and  when 
^ight,  insurance,  duty,  and  charges 

are  added,  will  stand  the  importer  from 
100  to  130  guineas  in  his'cellar.  A 
butt  win  run  from  108  to  112  gallons, 
and  the  duty  is  5#.  Qd,  per  gallon.  Such 
a  butt  will  bottle  about  62  dozen. 

The  excellence  of  sherry  wines  is 
owing  to  the  extreme  care  and  scientific 
methods  introduced  hj  foreigners,  who 
are  chiefly  French  and  Scotch.  The 
great  houses  are  Pedro  Domecq,  Pe- 
martin,  Gordon,  Garvey,  Isasi,  Bermu- 
dez,  Beigbeder.  A  Bodega,  the  Boman 
horrea,  the  wine-store  or  apotheca,  is, 
unlike  our  excavated  cellars,  always 
above  groimd.  The  interior  is  deli- 
ciously  cool  and  subdued,  as  the  heat 
and  glare  outside  are  carefully  excluded ; 
here  thousands  of  butts  are  piled  up 
during  the  rearing  and  maturing  pro- 
cesses. Sherry,  when  perfect,  is  made 
up  from  many  difierent  butts:  the 
"entire"  is  in  truth  the  result  of 
Xerez  grapes,  but  of  many  sorts  and 
varieties  of  flavour.  Thus  one  barrel 
corrects  another,  by  addition  or  sub- 
traction, until  the  proposed  standard 
aggregate  is  produced.  All  this  is 
managed  by  the  Capataz  or  head  man, 
who  is  usually  a  Montaues  from  the 
Asturian  mountains,  and  often  becomes 
the  real  master  of  his  nominal  masters, 
whom  he  cheats,  as  well  as  the  grower. 
He  passes  this  life  of  probation  in 
tasting :  he  goes  round  the  butts,  mark- 
ing each  according  to  its  character,  cor* 
recting  and  improving  eaeh  at  every 
successive  visit. 

The  callida  junctura  ought  to  unite 
fulness  of  body,  a  nutty  flavour  and 
aroma,  dryness,  absence  from  acidity, 
strength,  spirituosity,  and  durability. 
Little  brandy  is  necessary :  the  vivi- 
fying power  of  the  unstinted  sun  of 
Andalucia  imparting  sufficient  alcohol, 
which  ranges  from  20  to  23  per  cent, 
in  fine  sherries,  and  only  12  in  clarets 
and  champagnes.  Pine,  pure  old  sherry 
is  of  a  rich  brown  colour.  The  new 
raw  wines  are  paler ;  in  order  to  flatter 
the  tastes  of  some  English,  "  pale  old 
sherry "  must  be  .had,  and  the  colour 
is  chemically  discharged  at  the  expense 
of  the  dehcate  aroma.  The  amontil' 
lado  is  so  called  from  a  peculiar,  bitter- 


BOUTE  4. — ^XEREZ — ^WINES — THE  CARTUJA.  Sect.  II, 

almond,  dry  flayour,  somewhat  like  the 
wines  of  MontiUa,  near  Cordova :  much 
sought  after,  it  is  dear,  and  used  in 
enriching  poorer  and  sweetish  wines. 
There  is  always  a  venerable  butt  that 
contains  some  Madre  vino,  or  rich  wine, 
by  which  young  butts  are  reared  as 
by  mother's  milk.  The  contents  are 
very  precious,  and  the  barrels  named 
after  Ferdinands,  Nelsons,  Wellingtons, 
kings  and  heroes.  The  visitor  is  just 
allowed  a  sip,  by  way  of  bonne  bouche. 
The  sweet  wines  of  the  sherry  grape 
are  deUcious.  The  best  are  the  Mos- 
cadel,  the  Pedro  Ximenez,  so  called 
from  a  G^erman  vine-grower,  and  the 
JPajarete ;  this  term  has  nothing  to  do 
with  the  pajaros,  or  birds  which  pick 
the  most  luscious  grapes,  but  simply 
is  the  name  of  the  village  where  it  was 
first  made. 

Every  traveller  will  of  course  pay 
a  visit  to  a  great  Bodega,  the  lion  of 
Xerez  and  big  as  a  cathedral,  a  true 
temple  of  Bacchus :  those  of  P.  Domecq 
or  Charles  Gordon  are  the  finest.  The 
foi*mer  gentleman  has  some  pictures, 
but  his  best  gallery  is  that  of  butts  of 
sherryj  There  the  whole  process  of 
making  sheny  wiU  be  explained.  The 
lecture  is  long,  and  is  illustrated  by 
experiments.  Every  cask  is  tasted, 
from  the  raw  young  wine  to  the  ma- 
ture golden  fluid.  Those  who  are  not 
stupified  by  drink  come  out  much 
edified.  From  the  result  of  many 
courses  of  lectures,  we  recommend  the 
student  to  hold  hard  during  the^r^^ 
samples,  for  the  best  wine  is  reserved 
for  the  last,  the  qualities  ascending  in 
a  vinous  climax.  Perhaps  the  better 
plan  would  be  to  reverse  the  order,  and 
begin  with  the  best  while  the  palate  is 
fresh  and  the  judgment  sober.  All  the 
varieties  of  grape  and^oil  are  carefully 
described  in  the  JSnsayo  sobre  las  vari- 
edades  de  la  Vid  en  Andalucia,  Simon 
Bojas  Clemente,  4to.,  Mad.,  1807 ;  in 
the  Memorias  sobre  el  Cultivo  de  la  Vid, 
Esteban  Boutelou,  4to.,  Mad.,  1807 ; 
see  also  our  notices  in  the  '  Quarterly 
Keview,'  cxxvi.  308  j  and  in  the  *  Ga- 
therings,' ch.  xiv.     The  student  will 

-»  do  well  to  drive  out  and  visit  some 

crack  vineyard,  and  inspect  the  vinous 
buildings  and  contrivances.  Many  of 
the  great  growers  have  villas  on  their 
vineyards,  such  as  JEl  Eecreo,  Valse^ 
quillo.  La  Qrayiga,  &c.;  this  latter 
belongs  to  Mr.  Domecq,  whose  vine- 
yard, Maehcurnudo,  is  the  primest,  and 
really  the  Johannisburg  ot  Jerez;  the 
Carrascal,  Barbiana  alta  y  baja,  Los 
Tercios,  Cruz  del  Husillo,  Anina,  San 
Julian,  Mochiele,  and  Carraola,  are 
also  deservedly  celebrated. 

No  one  should  fail  to  visit  the  Car- 
tuja  convent,  which  lies  about  2  m.  to 
the  E.,  although  this  once  magnificent 
pite  is  now  desecrated.  The  finest  oiE" 
the  Zurbaran  pictures  have  passed  into 
England,  having  been  6old  dog-cheap 
at  the  sales  of  Louis  Philippe  and  Mr. 
Standish,  in  1853 ;  some  lew  others, 
the  refuse,  are  in  the  Museo  at  Cadiz. 
This  Carthusian  monastery  was  founded 
in  1477  by  Alvaro  Obertos  de  Valeto; 
whose  figure  in  armour  was  engraved 
in  brass  before  the  high  altar :  one 
Andres  de  Bibera,  in  the  time  of 
Philip  II.,  added  the  Doric  Hejrrera 
portal :  the  more  modem  fa9ade  is  very 
bad.  This  Cartuja  was  once  very  rich 
in  excellent  vineyards,  and  possessed 
the  celebrated  breeding-grounds  of  An- 
dalucian  horses,  to  which  the  French 
dealt  the  first  blow.  The  decree  of 
suppression,  in  1836,  destroyed,  at  one 
fell  swoop,  both  monk  and  animal. 
The  establishments  have  been  broken 
up,  and  the  system  ruined.  The  loss 
of  the  horses  will  long  be  felt,  when 
that  of  the  friars  is  forgotten.  On  the 
Carthusian  convents  and  monks  of 
Spain,  consult  Primer  Instituto  de  la 
Sagrada  Religion  d^  la  Cartuja,  Jo- 
seph de  Valles,  4(o.,  Mad.,  1663. 

Below  the  Cartuja  rolls  the  Guada- 
lete.  A  small  hill,  called  el  real  de 
Don  Modrigo,  marks  the  head-quarters 
of  the  last  of  the  Goths :  here  the  battle 
was  terminated  which  put  an  end  to  his 
dynasty  (see  p.  148).  Lower  down  is 
el  Portal,  the  port  of  Xerez,  whence 
the  sherries  were  embarked  for  elPuerto 
before  t^e  railroad  conveyed  the  butts 
to  the  very  shipboard. 

The  Guada2e^,from  the  terminating 




syllables,  has  been  connected,  by  those 
who  prefer  sound  to  sense,  with  the 
Lethe  of  the  ancients,  which,  however, 
is  the  Limia,  near  Viana,  in  Portugal, 
and  obtained  its  oblivious  reputation, 
because  the  Spanish  army,  their  leader 
being  killed,  forgot  on  its  banks  the 
object  of  the  campaign,  and  disbanded 
most  orientally  each  man  to  "  his  own 
home.*'     Cosas  de  JEspana. 

This  Limsea,  or  Limia,  was  the  fur- 
thest point  to  which  Brutus  advanced, 
as  his  troops  trembled,  fearing  that 
they  should  forget  their  absent  wives. 
Florus  (ii.  17.  12)  records  this  unmili- 
tary  fear.  Strabo  (iii.  229)  observes 
that  some  called  the  Limia  BiXiSvet, 
which  Oasaubon  happily  amends  oliXto- 
v£v9ti  the  riuvius  Obhvionis  of  Pliny, 
Mela,  and  Liyy.  The  Grteco-Roman 
name  of  the  Gaudalete  was  Ohrysos, 
and  golden  is  the  grape  which  grows 
on  its  banks :  it  is  that  fluid,  and  not 
what  flows  between  them,  which  erases 
their  absent  dames  from  the  memories 
of  bad  husbands.  It  is  stated  by  Flo- 
rez  (Esp.  Sag.  ix.  53)  that  the  liame 
Chrysos  was  changed  by  the  victorious 
Moors  into  Wad-al-lededy  JEl  rio  de 
deleite,  the  river  of  dehght ;  but  this 
is  a  very  doubtful  etymology,  and  the 
Moorish  name  really  was  Wada-leJcah. 
A  wild  bridle-road  through  Arcos  com- 
municates with  Honda.     See  p.  263. 

The  Camino  real,  on  leaving  Xerez, 
on  one  side  skirts  a  waste  called  La 
Llanura  de  Caulina;  it  is  well  pro- 
vided with  bridges,  by  which  the  many 
streams  descending  from  the  moun- 
tains to  the  rt.  are  crossed.  The  lonely 
expanse  is  truly  Spanish,  and  in  spring 
teems  with  beautiful  flowers,  of  which 
the  botanist  may  fill  a*  vasculum  and  a 

UtrerayVtricvlBf  during  the  Moorish 
struggle,  was  the  refuge  of  the  agricul- 
turist who  fled  from  the  Spanish  talas 
and  border  forays,  and  is  inhabited  by 
rich  farmers,  who  rent  the  estates 
around,  where  much  com,  oil,  fruit, 
and  wine  is  produced ;  here  vast  flocks 
are  bred,  and  those  fierce  bulls  so  re- 
nowned in  the  Plaza.  Pop.  11,000. 
The  streets  and  alamedas    are   kept 

clean  and  fresh  by  running  streams. 
Formerly  flourishing  and  very  popu- 
lous, it  fell  into  decay,  but  withSn  10 
years  has  been  much  improved  by  an 
alcalde  named  Cuadra.  The  Carmelite 
convent  was  tiumed  into  a  prison,  and 
the  Sn.  Juan  de  Dios  into  a  philhar- 
monic theatre.  The  Sa.  Maria  de  la 
Mesa  has  a  good  Berruguete  portal, 
called  el  Perdon,  and  a  tomb  of  a  Ponce 
de  Leon,  with  an  armed  kneeUng  figure. 
Tliere  is  a  ruined  castle.  Utrera,  in  a 
military  point,  is  of  much  importance. 
The  high  road  from  Madrid  to  Cadiz 
makes  an  angle  to  reach  Seville,  which 
can  be  avoided  by  marching  from  Ecija 
direct  through  Arahal.  The  saints  of 
Utrera  have  long  rivalled  the  buUs : 
thus  the  Yirgen  de  la  Consolacion  at 
the  Convento  de  Minimos,  outside  the 
town,  N.E.,  is  the  Palladium  of  the 
ploughmen.  Built  in  1561,  it  used  to 
be  frequented  by  thousands  on  the  8th 
of  Sept.,  when  a  fair  was  held,  and 
votive  offerings  made :  now  httle  more 
takes  place  than  the  sale  of  children's 
toys ;  nay,  there  is  a  scheme  of  tiuming 
the  building  into  a  madhouse.  Tem- 
pora  mutantur.  Consult  an  especial 
book  on  this  "  Santuario  "  by  Bodrigo 
Caro,  8vo.,  Osuna,  1622.  Consult  JSpi- 
logo  de  Utrera^  Pedro  BomanMelendez, 
4to.,  Sevilla^  1730.  About  2  L.  from 
Utrera  is  a  fine  oUve  hacierida  of  the 
Conde  de  Torre  Nueva,  which  is  well 
managed  j  at  Morales  1  L.  to  1.  are  the 
ruins  of  a  most  ancient  castle.  There 
is  a  short  bridle-road  to  Seville,  by  which 
Alcaic  is  avoided  and  left  to  the  rt. 

Alcald  de  Ghiadaira,  where  the  Po- 
sada is  very  tidy,  signifies  the  "  castle 
of  the  river  Aira,"  and  was  the  Punic 
Hienippa,  a  "  place  of  many  springs." 
It  is  idso  called  de  los  Panaderos,  "  of 
the  bakers,^'  for  it  has  long  been  the 
oven  of  Seville :  bread  is  the  staff 
of  its  existence,  and  samples  abound 
everywhere ;  JRoscas,  a  circular-formed 
rusky  are  hung  up  hke  garlands,  and 
hogazas,  loaves,  pla43ed  on  tables  out- 
side the  houses.  "  Panis  liic  long^ 
pulcherrimus ;  it  is,  indeed,  as  Spa- 
niards say,  Pan  de  IHos — the  "angels" 
bread  of  "  Esdras."      Spanish  href  " 



Sect.  II. 

was  esteemed  by  the  Itomans  for  its 
lightness  (PUn.  'N.  H.'  xvui.  7).  All 
ckisses  here  gaia  their  bread  by  making 
it,  and  the  water-miUs  and  mule-mills, 
or  (Uahona9f  are  never  still ;  they  ex- 
ceed 200  in  number :  women  and  chil- 
dren are  busy  picking  out  earthy  parti- 
cles from  the  grain  which  get  mixed, 
from  the  common  mode  of  threshing 
on  a  floor  in  the  open  air — the  era,  or 
Boman  area.  The  com  b  very  care- 
fully ground,  and  the  flour  passed 
through  several  hoppers  in  order  to 
secure  its  fineness.  Visit  a  large  bake- 
house, and  observe  the  care  with  which 
the  dough  is  kneaded.  It  is  worked 
and  re- worked,  as  is  done  by  our  biscuit- 
bakers:  hence  the  close-grained  caky 
consistency  of  the  crumb.  The  bread 
is  taken  into  Seville  early  every  morn- 
ing. Alcala,'pop.  about  6000,  is  pro- 
verbial for  salubrity,  and  is  mucli  re- 
sorted to  as  a  summer  residence,  and 
it  always  escapes  the  plagues  which 
so  often  have  desolated  Seville;  the 
air,  freshened  by  the  pure  Bonda 
breezes,  is  rarefied  by  the  many  ovens, 
of  which  there  are  more  than  50.  For 
local  information  consult  the  Memorias 
Historicas  de  Alcalde  Leandro  Jose  de 
Flores,  duo,  Sevilla,  1833-4. 

The  castle  is  one  of  the  finest  Moor- 
ish specimens  in  Spain,  and  was  the 
land-key  of  Seville.  It  surrendered, 
Sept.  21,  1246,  to  St.  Ferdinand,  the 
garrison  having  ^* fraternised^*  with 
Ibn-1-Ahmar,  the  petty  king  of  Jaen, 
who  was  aiding  the  Christians  against 
the  SeviUians,  for  internal  divisions 
und  local  hatreds  have  always  been 
causes  of  weakness  to  unamalgamating 
Spain.  The  Moorish  city  lay  imder 
the  castle,  and  no  longer  Exists.  A 
small  mosque,  now  dedicated  to  San 
Miguel,  on  whose  day  the  place  was 
taken,  and  made  into  a  barrack  by  the 
French,  is  all  that  remains.  Observe 
the  tapia  walls,  the  mazmorras,  subter- 
ranean com  granaries,  the  cisterns,  al- 
ffibes,  the  inner  keep,  and  the  huse  don- 
jon tower,  la  torre  mocha  (mota),  built 
by  the  Spaniards.  The  river  below 
makes  a  pretty  sweep  round  the  rocky 
e,  and  long  lines  of  walls  run  down, 

following  the  slopes  of  the  irregular 
ground.  The  gardens  are  all  that  Flora 
and  Pomona  can  combine. 

In  the  town  observe  the  pictures  in 
San  Sebastian  by  Fr**.  Pacheco,  father- 
in-law  to  Velazquez,  and  also  a  "  Pur- 
gatory" by  him  in  the  church  of  San- 
tiago. In  the  convent  de  las  monjas 
is  a  Betablo  with  six  small  bas-reliefis 
by  Montanes.  The  "  Sa.  Clara  receiv- 
ing the  Sacrament"  is  the  best;  his 
small  works  are  rare  and  beautifiil. 

Alcala,  the  "  city  of  springs,"  sup- 
plies temperate  Seville  both  with  bread 
and  water,  prison  or  Iberian  fare.  The 
alembic  hill  is  perforated  with  tunnels : 
some  are  2  L.  in  length.  The  line 
of  these  underground  canals  may  be 
traced  on  the  outsides  of  the  hill  by 
the  lumbreraSf  louvres,  or  ventilators. 
Do  not  fail  to  visit  the  Molino  de  la 
Mina,  whence  Pedro  de  Ponce  Leon, 
in  1681,  took  the  title  of  marquis. 
The  excavations  in  the  bowels  of  the 
rock  are  most  picturesque,  and  no 
crystal  can  be  clearer  than  the  streams. 
Some  of  these  works  are  supposed  to 
be  Boman,  but  the  greater  part  are 
Moorish.  The  collected  fluid  is  car- 
ried to  Seville  by  an  aqueduct;  the 
first  portion  is  enclosed  by  a  brick 
caueria.  The  Boman  works  were  com- 
pletely restored  in  1172  by  Jusuf  Abu 
Jacub  (Conde,  ii.  380) ;  but  all  was 
permitted,  as  usual,  to  go  to  decay 
under  the  Spaniards :  the  coping  was 
broken  in,  and  the  water  became  turbid 
and  unwholesome.  In  1828,  Don  Jose 
Manuel  de  Arjona,  Asistente  of  Seville 
and  its  great  improver,  set  apart  about 
40,000  dollars  from  a  tax  on  meat,  for 
the  restoration  of  this  supply  of  vital 
importance  to  an  almost  tropical  city ; 
but  this  ready  money  was  seized  upon, 
in  1830,  by  the  needy  Madrid  govern- 
ment, and  spent  in  putting  down 
Mina's  rebellion  aft«r  the  three  glorious 
days  at  Paris.  The  aqueduct,  on  ap- 
proaching Seville,  is  carried  in  on  some 
400  arches,  called  "  Canos  de  Car- 
mona"  because  running  along  the 
road  leading  to  that  city.  The  sports- 
man may  walk  with  his  gun  over  the 
flats  between  AlcaU  and  Seville  to  the 






1.  of  ths  high-road,  which  are  full  of 
snipes  and  wild-fowl  in  winter. 

The  v&lley  of  the  Chaadaira  above 
Alcald  should  be  visited  by  the  artist, 
to  see  the  Moorish  mills  and  towers 
which  Iria/rte  sketched,  who,  accord- 
ing to  Murillo,  was  fit  to  paint  Para- 
dise, so  relative  is  praise.  Iriarte^  a 
second-rate  artist,  was  almost  the  only 
landscape-painter  Spain  lias  produced. 
There,  as  among  the  ancients,  land- 
scape was  used  as  a  mere  background 
or  accessory,  and  deemed  beneath  the 
dignity  of  art.  Neither  the  Church 
nor  the  people  were  worshipers  of 
Nature,  or  had  any  genuine  percep- 
tion of  her  charms. 

Leaving  Alcala,  the  noble  causeway 
winds  gently  round  the  hill,  hanging 
over  the  river.  In  the  plains  below, 
amid  orange  and  ohve-groves,  rise  the 
sun-gilt  towera  of  stately  Seville.  The 
Moorish  Giralda  is  pre-eminently  the 
emphatic  point.  To  the  r.  of  the  road, 
about  2  miles  from  Seville,  is  the  Mesa 
del  Rey,  a  square  stone  table  on  which 
the  bodies  of  criminals  are  quartered,  "a 
pretty  dish  to  set  before  a  long ;"  this  is 
an  Arabic  custom,  andsuch  atableexists 
at  Cairo  (Lane,  i.  332).  Next,  we  reach 
La  Cruz  del  Campo,  placed  in  an  open 
Moorish-looking  temple,  but  erected  in 
1482.  It  is  also  callea  el  Humilladero  : 
here  travellers  used  to  kneel,  and  thank 
the  Virgin  and  Santiago  for  safe  arrival 
at  their  journey's  end,  having  escaped 
the  pains  and  perils  of  Spanish  travel ; 
now  both  these  dangers  and  their  piety 
are  much  decreased;  here  the  liJsta- 
Clones  (see  p.  187)  from  the  Casa  de 
JPilatos  terminate. 

The  bridle-road  from  Xerez  to  Se- 
ville is  much  shorter  than  the  circuit 
made  by  the  dihgence ;  it  crosses  the 
plains,  but  is  scarcely  carriageable  ex- 
cept in  summer, 

EorTE  5. — Xeeez  to  Sbvillb. 

Lebrija 5 

Cabezas  de  Sn.  Juan    .     .  2 

A  los  Palacios  ....  3 

Sevilla 4 


An  uninteresting  ride  over  the  Ma- 

risma  leads  to  Lebrija,  nicely  placed  on 
a  slight  eminence,  with  a  dLeaent posada. 
This  is  the  ancient  Nebrissa-Veneria, 
according  to  Pliny  (*  N.  H.,*  iii.  1)  ; 
others  read  Venaria,  and  connect  it, 
with  the  huntings  of  the  Nimrod  Bac- 
chus and  his  wines  (Sil.  Ital.  iii.  393). 
Bochart  derives  the  name  from  the 
Punic  N'ae-Pritzaf  a  "  land  of  over- 
flowing," to  wliich  these  riverain  flats 
are  subject.  Here  was  bom  the  great 
grammarian  and  restorer  of  letters  in 
Spain,  Antonio  Cala  Jarana  del  Ojo, 
better  known  as  Nebritsensis.  Observe 
Ija  Mariquita  del  MarmolejOy  a  head- 
less Boman  statue,  now  christened  the 
Uttle  marble  Mary;  notice  the  florid 
plateresque  Hetablo  of  the  Parroquia, 
once  a  mosque, '  with  some  of  the  ear- 
liest carvings  in  cedar  and  mahogany 
of  Alonso  Cano,  1630-36,  especially 
the  Virgin  and  Child,  with  all  his  mild 
and  melancholy  grace,  and  the  St. 
Peter  and  St.  Paul.  Behind  the  church 
is  a  pretty  orange  planted  cloister,  with 
a  good  crucifix  by  Montaiies.  Leaving 
Lebrija,  the  plains  become  more  mono- 
tonous. Of  Cabezas  de  San  Juauy  a 
miserable  hamlet,  the  proverb  says,  No 
se  hace  nada  en  el  consejo  del  rey^  sin 
Cabezas.  To  judge  by  the  results  of 
most  of  the  councils  of  Madrid,  the  ca- 
binet has  too  often  been  selected  from 
this  wrong-headed  village.  It  was  one 
of  the  first  places  which  responded  to 
the  cry  of  Biego,  for  which  he  was 
ha»ged,  and  so  many  others  lost  their 
heads  on  the  scaffold.  Before  arriving 
at  Los  Palacios,  is  a  long-ruined  Ro- 
man and  Moorish  causeway,  La  alcan^ 
tarilla  (Arabic^,  the  Uttle  bridge), 
raised  on  accoimt  of  the  inundations 
above  the  level  of  the  Marisma,  and 
now  half  dilapidated.  Los  Palacios 
are  any  thing  now  but  palaces.  The 
common  occurrence  of  the  term  de- 
notes either  the  past  magnificence  of 
Spaniards,  or  their  habit  of  calling 
their  geese  swans* 



Sect.  II. 

Route  6. — San  Lucae  to  Aya- 


Torre  be  Solavar    ...  2 

Torre  de  Carboneros   .     .  1  . .  3 

De  la  Higuerita.    .     .     .  2  . .  6 

Del  Oro  .,,,,.  3  ..  8 

Moguer 3  ..  11 

Huelva 1  ..  12 

Alfaraque 1  ..  13 

Gartaya 2  ..  15 

Lepe       ......  1  ..  16 

Redondela 1  ..  lY 

Ayamonte 3  ..  20 

It  remains  to  describe,  as  shortly  as 
possible,  the  dreary  roadless  country 
which  lies  on  the  r.  bank  of  the  Gua- 
dalquivir, and  which  extends  to  the 
G-uadiana  and  the  Portuguese  frontier. 
This  is  called  the  Marisma  or  marsh 
district,  and  also  the  Condadoy  or 
county  of  Niebla:  formerly  it  was  a 
petty  Moorish  kingdom  and  with  most 
of  this  district  passed  into  the  great 
Guzman  family.  Let  none  go  there 
except  driven  by  dire  necessity,  or  on  a 
sporting  excursion.  Spanish  mis-go- 
vernment and  neglect  have  here  done 
their  worst. 

There  is  constant  communication  by 
water  in  picturesque  Misticos;  those 
who  go  by  land  must  ride.  The  accom- 
modations are  everywhere  wretched : 
attend,  therefore,  to  the  provend,  as 
nothing  of  comfort  will  be  found  but 
what  the  wayfarer  brings  with  him. 
The  wide  plains  are  almost  uninhabited 
and  uncultivated,  but  the  inherent  fer- 
tihty  of  the  soil  is  evidenced  by  the 
superb  stone-pines  and  fig-trees,  which 
may  be  termed  indigenous.  The  coast- 
road  is  guarded  by  AtaUiyasy  or 
"  watch-towers,"  Arabic^  Talidh^  from 
taleai  to  "  look  out  from  above :"  they 
are  of  remotest  antiquity,  as  the  coasts 
of  Spain  have  always  been  exposed  to 
piratical  descents  from  Africa,  where 
the  descendants  of  the  Carthaginians 
never  forgot  their  dispossession  by  the 
Bomans.  The  Berber  Moors  recovered 
the  country  of  their  Oriental  fore- 
fathers ;  and  their  descendants,  again 
dispossessed  by  the  Spaniards,  remem- 
"^^er  a  land  which  they  still  consider 
ir  rightful  property. 

Hannibal  buiit  so  many  of  these 
atalayas  on  the  coast  from  Cadiz  to 
Saguntum  that  they  went  br  his  name, 
"  turres,  speculas  Hannibalis "  (Plin. 

*  N.  H.'  ii.  71)  ;  Csesar  followed  his 
example  (Hirt.  *B.  H.'  7)  ;  from  these, 
signals  were  made  by  fire  at  night,  by 
smoke  by  day.  These  were  the  "  sign  of 
fire"  (Jer.  vi.  1),  the  ^^vzrat  of  Thueyd. 
(iii.  22),  and  see  Polyb.  (x.  43,  45), 
and  the  magnificent  lines  of  jEschylus 
(Ag.  291).  Pliny  describes  these  *4gnes 
prsenunciativos"  as  used  "propter  pira- 
ticos  terrores,"  and  so  Charles  V.  re- 
paired these  marteUo  towers  when 
threatened  by  the  invasions  of  Barba- 
rossa.  Thus  they  have  occupied  the 
same  sites,  and  testify  the  continuance 
of  the  same  fears  of  unchanged  Iberia, 
whether  Carthaginian,  Koman,  Moor- 
ish, Gothic,  or  Spanish ;  many  are  very 
picturesque,  perched  on  headlands  and 
eminences;  they  stand  forth  on  the 
blue  sky,  like  lonely  sentinels  and  mo- 
numents of  the  dangers  of  this  ever- 
troubled  land.  They  now  are  generally 
occupied  by  preventive  service  guards. 

They  are  commonly  built  in  tapia^ 
a  sort  of  African  or  Phoenician  con- 
crete, introduced  with  the  system  of 
the  towers  themselves,  and  like  them 
continued  imchanged  in  the  cognate 
lands  of  Spain  and  Barbary.  The 
component  mixture  of  stones,  mortar, 
and  rubble,  is  placed  moist  in  a  move- 
able frame  of  wood  kept  together  by 
bolts ;  it  is  then  rammed  down,  the 
bolts  withdrawn,  and  moved  onwards 
or  upwards  as  the  case  requires.  Hence 
the  Bomans  called  them  "parietes 
formacei,"  walls  made  in  frames  (PUny, 

*  N.  H.*  XXXV.  14)  ;  he  particularly  de- 
scribes those  of  Spain,  and  notices  their 
indestructibility  :  they,  in  fact,  become 
sohd  masses,  petrifactions.  The  Goths 
continued  the  practice,  calling  the 
method  "  formatum  j"  and  horma  still 
means  a  mud  wall.  The  word  tapia  is 
Arabic ;  it  is  still  called  toU  in  Egypt, 
and  signifies  an  earthen  wall,  Devonic^, 
Coh,  These  walls  continue  to  be  now 
built  both  in  Andalucia  and  Barbary 
after  the  same  ancient  method  (see  our 
paper  in  the  Quart.  Bev.  cxvi.  537,  for 




the  learning  and  practice  of  these  Ta- 
rieties  of  Coh). 

»  Moguer — Lontigi  Alontigi — the  pre- 
sent word  means  in  Arabic  caves^  of 
which  there  are  many  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood— rises  gently  above  the  Rio 
G?into,  and  traffics  in  wine  and  fruit ; 
the  town  and  castle  are  much  dilapi- 
dated. The  parish  church-tower  is 
built  after  the  Giralda  of  Seville.  Be- 
low Moguer  is  the  port,  Palos,  Palus 
Streplaca.  Visit,  one  short  L.  from 
JPalos,  the  Franciscan  convent  Santa 
Maria  Mdbida,  a  Moorish  name  so 
common  in  Spain,  and  signifying 
"frontier  or  exposed  situations,"  R4b- 
bitah,  Bebath,  which  were  defended  by 
the  Babitos ;  these  were  the  Marabi- 
tins,  the  Morabitos,  the  Almorabides 
of  Conde,  a  sort  of  Ghilzee,  a  half  fa- 
natic soldier-monk,  from  whom  the 
Spaniards  boirowed  their  knights  of 

This  convent  was  ordered,  in  1846,  to 
be  preserved  as  a  national  memorial, 
and  is  to  be  fitted  up  forinvalidsoldiers; 
it  has  already  given  shelter  to  those 
great  men  whom  Spain  could  once 
produce ;  but  it  is  now  fasi  going  to 
ruin,  and  the  wood  of  the  cells  stripped 
off.  Here,  in  1484,  Columbus,  craving 
charity  with  his  little  boy,  was  received 
by  the  Prior  Juan  Perez  de  Marchena. 
^fh\a  monk,  when  the  wisest  kings  and 
councils  had  rejected  as  visionary  the 
scheme  of  the  discovery  of  the  New 
World,  alone  had  the  vdt  to  see  its 
probability,  the  coiu*age  to  advocate 
the  plan,  and  the  power  to  prepare  the 
experiment.  He  must,  indeed,  share 
in  the  glory  of  the  discovery  of  Ame- 
rica, for  by  his  influence  alone  with 
Isabella,  was  his  proteg^  Columbus  en- 
abled to  sail  on  this  expedition.  The 
armament  consisted  of  two  caravels,  or 
light  vessels  without  decks,  and  a  third 
one  of  larger  burden  j  120  persons  em- 
barked and  started  "on  the  3rd  of 
August,  1492,  fi^m  this  port  of  Palos, 
and  bidding  adieu  to  the  Old  World, 
launched  forth  on  that  unfathomed 
waste  of  waters,  where  no  sail  had 
ever  been  spread  before  "  (Prescott,  ii» 
214).    Columbus  was  accompanied  by 

some  adventurers  of  the  name  of  Pin- 
zon,  a  family  not  yet  extinct  in  these 
locaUties ;  and  to  this  very  port,  on 
March  15,  1493,  7  months  and  11 
days  afterwards,  did  he  return,  having; 
reaUsed  his  grand  conception,  con- 
ferred a  new  world  on  his  sove- 
reigns, and  earned  immortality  for 
himself — services  soon  to  be  repaid  by 
breach  of  faith  and  ingratitude.  Co- 
sas  de  JSspana.  At  Palos,  again, 
Cortes  landed  in  May,  1528,  after  the 
conquest  of  Mexico,  and  also  found 
shelter  in  the  same  convent  walls  where: 
Columbus  had  lodged  on  his  return 
35  years  before,  and  like  him  returned 
to  be  also  shghted  and  ill-rewarded^ 
By  a  strange  coincidence,  Pizarro,  the^ 
conqueror  of  Peru,  was  also  at  Palos  at 
this  moment,  commencing  that  career 
of  conquest,  bloodshed,  and  spoUation, 
which  Cortes  was  about  to  close.  Pi- 
zarro was  assassinated.  Those  accom-> 
plished  Americans,  Prescott  and  Wash- 
ington Irving,  have  with  singular  grace 
and  propriety  illustrated  the  age  ot 
Ferdinand  and  Isabella,  when  their 
country  was  discovered.  For  the  best 
works  on  its  early  history,  consult 
catalogue  published  by  Mr.  Eich,  in 
London,  1832  :  or,  in  the  *  JBiblio'^ 
theque  Americainey  by  M.  Temaux.. 
Paris,  1837.  Palos  now  is  a  poor 
fishing  port,  and  a  thing  of  decrepid. 

Jffuelva,  Onuba,  of  Phoenician  origin 
(consult  " Disertacion  sohre  Onuha^^' 
Barco  y  Qasca,  4to.  Sev.  1755  j  and 
*  JSuelva  ilvtstrada^  Juan.  Ag.  de  Mora.. 
4to.  Sev.  1762),  stands  on  the  conflu- 
ence of  the  Odiel  and  Tinto.  Some 
antiquaries  read  in  the  word  Onuha 
"  abimdance  of  grape  bunches."  As- 
tarloa  prefers  the  Basque,  and  trans-^ 
lates  Wuelba  as  a  "hill  placed  under 
a  height."  It  is  a  seaport,  and  the 
capitfii  of  its  triangular  province;  there- 
are  two  TxaAd^ng  posadas ;  pop.  7000.. 
It  is  a  busy  tunny-fisliing  town,  and 
in  constant  communication  with  Por- 
tugal, Cadiz,  and  Seville,  sending  much 
fruit  and  floor  mattings  to  the  latter- 
places.  Thew^ater  is  deUcious.  The 
vestiges  of  a  Roman  aqueduct  are  faf' 



Sect.  II. 

disappeai*ing,  having  long  served  as  a 
quarry  to  the  hoorish  cultivators  of 
the  rich  environs.  Meantime  the  mo- 
dest motto  of  the  place  is  "Portus 
Maris  et  terree  cust-odia !" 

Jffueha  is  15  L.  from  Seville ;  the 
road  is  merely  a  bridle  one.  The  chief 
traffic  is  carried  on  by  passage-boats, 
which  navigate  the  Guadalquivir.  The 
land  route  is  as  follows : — 

Saa  Juan  del  Puerto     .     .  2 

Niebla 2  ..  4 

Villarasa 2  ..  6 

LaPalma 1  ..  7 

Manzanilla 2  ..  9 

San  Lucar  la  Mayor      .     .  4  . .  13 

Seville 3  ..  16 

The  country  is  uninteresting,  al- 
though of  extraordinary  fertility  in 
titheable  oil,  wine,  fruit,  and  grain. 
NiehUty  accordingly,  has  5  parish 
churches,  and  had  2  convents,  a  decent 
spiritual  supply  for  580  inhab.  Niebla, 
the  ancient  Ilipla,  (Livy  xxv.  1),  lies 
between  the  rivers  VUlarasa  and  Beas^ 
and  has  a  castle  ruined  by  the  French, 
and  a  most  ancient  but  dilapidated 
bridge.  It  is  the  chief  town  of  its 
county  or  condado^  which  formed  a 
small  principahty  under  the  Moors ; 
here  much  bad  wine  is  made,  wliich  is 
sent  to  San  Lucar,  and  converted  for 
the  EngUsh  market  into  fine  sherry, 
neat  as  imported,  at  only  36 j.  the  dozen, 
bottles  included.  Palma,  with  some 
3500  souls,  is  equally  dull,  which,  in- 
deed, may  be  predicated  throughout 
this  fat  district,  which  a  judicious  tra- 
veller will  carefully  avoid. 

Continuing  R.  vi.,  after  leaving 
Huelva  and  crossing  the  Odiel  is  Lepe^ 
Leppa,  Leptis,  near  the  Bio  de  Fiedra : 
it  is  a  poor  town  in  a  rich  district, 
having  been  twice  sacked  by  the  French. 
The  population,  some  3000,  are  fisher- 
men and  smugglers.  Lepe  furnished 
the  Londoners  in  Chaucer's  time  with 
"  rede  and  white  wine,"  which,  accord- 
ing to  the  Pardoner's  tale,  was  sold  in 
"  Fish  Street  and  Chepe,"  and  "  crept 
eubtelly"  into  the  brains  of  the  citizens. 
These  drinks  probably  came  from  Be- 
dondella,  where  the  wines  are  excel- 

"^t,  and  the  fruit  delicious,  especially 

the  figs,  the  best  of  which  are  the  Lozio 
and  Pezo  mudo.  Here  grows  the  reed, 
juncOy  of  which  the  fine  Andaluciaji 
esteraSf  floor-mattings,  are  made.  Ayo' 
monte,  Sonoba,  Ostium  Anse,  was  the 
city  whence  the  Roman  miUtary  road 
to  Merida  commenced.  An  island  on 
the  Guadiana  is  still  called  Tyro,  and 
vestiges  of  ruins  may  be  traced.  Popu- 
lation, nearly  5000.  There  are  2  par- 
roquias  and  a  ruined  castle,  and  al- 
though a  frontier  fortress  it  is  in  a  most 
Spanish  and  Oriental  state  of  neglect, 
yet  it  calls  itself  the  key  and  port  of 
the  Guadiana :  the  neighbouring  pine- 
forests  provide  timber  for  building  mw- 
ticos  and  coasting  craft. 

In  the  ninth  century  the  Normans 
or  Northmen  made  piratical  excursions 
on  the  W.  coast  of  Spain.  They  passed, 
in  8-43,  from  Lisbon  down  to  the  straits, 
and  everywhere,  as  in  France,  over- 
came the  unprepared  natives,  plunder- 
ing, burning,  and  destroying.  They 
captured  even  Seville  itself,  Sept.  30, 
844,  but  were  met  by  the  Cordovese 
Kalif,  beaten  and  expelled.  They  were 
called  by  the  Moors  Majus,  Madjous, 
Magioges  (Conde,  i.  282),  and  by  the 
early  Spanish  annalists  Ahnajuzes.  The 
root  has  been  erroneously  derived  from 
Mecycfy  Magus,  magicians  or  superna- 
tural beings,  as  they  were  almost  held 
to  be.  The  term  Madjous  was,  strictly 
speaking,  applied  by  the  Moors  to 
those  Berbers  and  Africans  who  were 
Pagans  or  Muwallads,  i,  e.  not  believers 
in  the  Koran.  The  true  etymology  is 
that  of  the  Gog  and  Magog  so  fre- 
quently mentioned  by  Ezekiel  (xxxviii. 
and  xxxix.)  and  in  the  Bevelations  (xz. 
8)  as  ravagers  of  the  earth  and  nations, 
May-Gogg,  "  he  that  dissolveth." — The 
fierce  Normans  appeared,  coming  no 
one  knew  fi*om  whence,  just  when  the 
minds  of  men  were  trembling  at  the 
approach  of  the  millennium,  and  thus 
were  held  to  be  the  forerunners  of  the 
destroyers  of  the  world.  This  name 
of  indefinite  gigantic  power  survived 
in  the  Mogigangas^  or  terrific  images, 
which  the  Spaniards  used  to  parade  in 
their  religious  festivals,  hke  the  Gogs 
and  Magogs  of  our  civic  wise  men  of 




the  East.    Thus  Andalucia  being  the ' 
half-way  point  between  the  N.  and  S.E.,  I 
became  the  duel  meeting-place  of  the , 
two  great  ravaging  swarms  which  have  1 
desolated  Europe :   here  the  stalwart ' 
children  of  frozen  Norway,  the  wor- 1 
shippers  of  Odin,  clashed  against  the ' 
Saracens  from  torrid  Arabia,  the  fol-  I 
lowers  of  Mahomet.    Nor  can  a  greater 
proof  be  adduced  of  the  power  and 
relative  superiority  of  the  Cordovese 
Moors  over  the  other  nations  of  Eu- 
rope, than  this  their  successful  resist- 
ance to  those  fierce  invaders,  who  over- 
ran without  difficulty  the  coasts    of 
England,  France,  Apulia,  and  Sicily: 
conquerors  everywhere  else,  here  they 
were  driven  back  in  disgrace.    Hence 
the  bitter  hatred  of  the  Normans  against 
the  Spanish  Moors — ^henoe  their  aUi- 
ances  with  the  Catalans,  where  a  Nor- 
man impression  yet  remains  in  archi- 
tecture ;  but,  as  in  Sicily,  these  barba- 
rians,   unrecruited  from    the  North, 
soon  died  away,  or  were  assimilated  as 
usual  with  the  more  pohshed  people, 
whom  they  had  subdued  by  mere  su- 
periority of  brute  force. 

RorTE  7. — San  LrcAB  to  PoETrGAL. 

Palacio  de  Dofia  Anna     .  4 

AlRocio 3  ..  7 

AlnronLe 3  ..  10 

Rociana       .  ...  2  ..  12 

Niebla 2  ..  14 

TrigueroB 2  ..  16 

Gibraleon 2  ..  18 

Sao  Bartolom€  ....  3  ..  21 

A  los  Caatillegos     ...  3  ..  24 

San  Lucar  de  Guadiana    .  3  . .  27 

The  first  portion  is  some  of  the  finest 
shooting  country  in  Andalucia.  Ma- 
rismillas  is  an  excellent  preserve.  The 
palace  of  I>ona  Ana,  a  corruption  of 
Onana,  was  the  celebrated  sporting  seat 
of  the  Duque  de  Medina  Sidonia,  where 
he  received  Phihp  IV.  in  1624.  To 
the  N.  lies  the  Goto  del  Bey,  or  Lomo 
del  Gfrullo.  The  shooting-box  of  this 
royal  preserve  was  built  last  century 
by  Francisco  Bruna,  the  alcaide  of  the 
alcazar  of  Seville,  under  whose  jurisdic- 
tion these  woods  and  forests  ar3  or  were. 
Parties  who  come  with  a  permission 

from  the  Alcaide  can  be  lodged  in  this 
Palacio,  as  it  is  here  called ;  but  this 
Spanish  palace,  as  often  elsewhere, 
means,  in  plain  English,  -  cuatro  pa- 
redes,  four  bare  walls.  A  prudent  man 
— experto  crede — will  always  send  on 
a  galera  laden  with  everything  from  a 
cook  to  a  mattress :  take  especially 
good  wine,  for  fuel  and  game  alone 
are  to  be  had.  This  coto  is  distant  8 
L.  from  Seville,  and  the  route  runs 

BoluUos  .         ....  3 

Aznalcazar 2 

Villa  Manrique  ....  1 

El  Coto 2 



The  ride  is  wild ;  the  first  5  L.  run 
through  the  Ajarafe,  Arabic^  Sharaf, 
"  the  hilly  country."  This  fertile  dis- 
trict, once  called  the  garden  of  Her- 
cules, was  reserved  by  St.  Ferdinand  as 
the  hon's  share  at  the  capture  of  Seville. 
It  produced  the  finest  Beetican  olives 
of  antiquity,  and  imder  the  Moors  was 
a  paracUse,  but  now  all  is  riiin  and  de- 
solation. The  Spaniards  in  their  tolas, 
or  raids,  ravaged  everything,  and  broken 
roads  and  bridges  mark  their  former 
warfEire.  The  ruins  have  remained  un- 
removed,  unrepaired,  after  six  centuries 
of  neglect  and  apathy ;  meanwhile  there 
is  not  only  excellent  lodging  for  owls  in 
the  old  buildings,  but  capital  cover  for 
game  of  every  kind,  which  thrive  in 
these  wastes,  where  Nature  and  her  feriB 
are  left  in  undisputed  possession.  No 
man  who  is  fond  of  shooting  wiU  fail 
spending  a  week  either  at  the  Coto  del 
Mey,  or  that  of  I>ona  Ana, 

Leaving  the  last  place,  and  passing 
the  sanctuary  of  our  Lady  of  Dew,  we 
reach  Almonte,  in  the  **Condado"  of 
Niebla,  which  is  described  at  p.  162. 

Triffueros  (Cunistorgis)  was  the  port 
whence  the  ancients  shipped  the  ores 
of  the  Sierra  Morena,  the  Montes  Ma- 
rianos.  GHbraleon,  as  the  Arabic  name 
signifies,  "the  hiU  of  Color,"  pop. 
2500,  is  a  decayed  but  ancient  place. 
San  Ijucctr  de  ChMdiana  is  the  poor, 
ill-provided  frontier  town,  on  its  river, 
which  divides  Spain  from  Portugal, 
and  is  navigable  to  the  picturesque 
rock-built  Mertola,  5  L.  Ayamonte  lie» 



Sect.  II. 

l)elow  San  Lucar,  distant  about  6  L. 
"by  water  (see  Rte.  vi.) :  we  again  re- 
peat, let  none  visit  this  rt.  bank  of  the 
•Q-uadalquivir,  except  to  shoot. 


"  Quien  no  ha  visto  d  SeviUa^ 
No  ha  visto  d  maraviUa," 

*'  He  who  has  not  at  Seville  been, 
Has  not,  I  trow,  a  wonder  seen." 

Inns. — Fonda  de  Madrid,  Plaza  de 
Magdalena ;  the  best  but  dearish ; 
Fonda  de  JEuropa,  Calle  Q-allegosj 
good,  charges  30  reals  a  day;  La 
Meynay  Calle  de  Jimios,  an  old  and 
more  genuine  Spanish  ^o^oo^a,  is  kept 
by  a  civil  Portuguese ;  coldish  in  winter, 
it  is  pleasant  enough  in  summer.  Po- 
sada de  la  Union,  Calle  de  la  Union. 
There  are  many  decent  casas  de  pu^n- 
loss  the  charges  vary  from  15  to  26 
reals  a  day ;  lodgings  also  may  be  had 
in  plenty,  and  bad  dinners  sent  from 
the  restaurateurs.  The  traveller  should 
lodge  near  the  Plaza  San  Franpisco, 
and  if  he  intends  to  reside  here  a  winter, 
in  the  Calle  de  las  Armas,  or  at  all 
events  in  the  parish  San  Vicente,  which 
is  the  aristocratic  quarter.  Avoid  the 
flat  districts  near  the  Macarena,  as 
subject  to  inundations,  and  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  the  Torre  del  Oro,  near 
which  the  open  Ta^a/rete — little  better 
than  a  Fleet-ditch — exhales  fever  and 

In  the  quarters  we  recommend,  while 
few  large  houses  are  to  be  let  furnished, 
the  rent  for  those  unfurnished  is  mo- 
derate— from  40^.  to  50^.  a  year:  a 
palace,  as  far  as  size  goes,  may  be  had 
for  lOOZ.  a  year ;  a  Spanish  house,  at 
best,  is  poorly  furnished,  according  to 
our  wants  and  notions,  but  carpets, 
&c.,  are  a  nuisance  here  to  every  living 
being  except  fleas. 

Those  about  to  furnish  will  find  tole- 
rable and  second-hand  articles  supplied 
at  the  brokers'  shops,  which  form  a 
street  of  themselves,  running  out  of  the 
Plaqa  de  la  Fncamadon:  and  these 
chalanes  wOl,  when  the  stranger  leaves, 
take  the  things  off*  his  hands;  let  no 
new  comer  buy  or  sell  with  these  un- 
conscionable people,  but  commission 

some  respectable  native;  thus  a  house 
may  be  furnished  in  a  day  or  two. 

Seville,  this  marvel  of  Bstica,  the 
Zeviya  de  mi  alma  of  the  Andalucians, 
being  a  place  of  easy  access  and  of  many 
attractions,  is  more  visited  than  most 
cities  of  Spain:  accordingly  the  demand 
of  foreigners  has  created  a  supply  of 
that  useful  personage  the  regular  lac- 
quey de  place,  who  is  rarely  to  'be  met 
with  in  other  towns.    Amon^  them 
Antonio  Bailly,  to  be  heard  of  at  the 
Reyna,  or  at  his  house,  No.  6,  CaUe 
Reynoso,  can  be  recommended,  not  only 
as  a  good  guide  in  the  town,  but  for  a 
courier  or  travelling  servant  through- 
out Spain  :  he  has  much  experience  in 
that  line,  and  makes  a  capital  factotum 
and  dragoman  to  those  who   cannot 
discourse  eloquent  Spanish.     Antonio 
is  i&t  and  good-humoured,  speaks  Eng- 
lish well,  can  sing  a  good  Andalucian 
song,  manage  to  get  up  a  gipsy /wmow 
en  Triana,  &c.  &c.     This  dance  is  the 
real  thing,  and  the  unchanged  exhibi- 
tion of  the  ImprobcB  GaditancB  of  an- 
tiquity.   A  public  Baile  is  given  in  the 
Salon  Oriente  every  Saturday  evening, 
admittance  one  dollar.     English  ladies 
had  fer  better  not  go.    Another  intelli- 
gent guide,  Ghtstave  de  Willinskif  maybe 
heard  of  at  the  Europa;  By  birth  a  Pole, 
he  was  formerly  a  professor  of  languages, 
of  which  he  speaks  many.     Jose  Lasso 
de  la  Vega,  an  officer  who  once  served 
under  Sir  C,  Campbell,  and  who  is  to 
be  heard  of  at  the  Union,  speaks  excel- 
lent CastUian.     Pascual  Rose,  at  the 
Madrid,  a-  native  of  Gibraltar,  speaks 
five  languages,  is  a  good  cook  and  a 
capital  servant.    Ditto  FredericJc  Bar- 
low,  who  was  bom  in  Spain  of  an  Eng- 
lish father.     Qaetano  PeicJcler,  an  an- 
cient and  good  Cicerone,  lives  at  No.  3, 
Calle  de  los  Menores  ;  he  is  a  Spaniard 
by  birth,  although  of  German  origin, 
and  speaks  English  weU:   he  traffics 
also  in  copies  of  pictures,  clay  figures, 
&c.    All  travellers  should  consult  Don. 
Julian  Williams,  our  most  excellent  and 
obliging  Vice-Consul.    There  is  a  Ca- 
sino here  in  the  Plaza  del  Duque,  in 
the  old  ducal  palace;  but  no  one  is 
admitted  in  the  Majo   (the  genuine 

Andalucia,    route  7. — Seville — tradesmen — history. 


dress  of  Seville)  dress,  all  nowadays  is 
80  civilised  and  denationalised! 

The  £Gur  ses  will  find  the  Calles 
Francos  and  de  la  Sierpe  the  most 
fashionable  and  best  supplied  shopping 
streets.  Grenerally  speaking  the  dif- 
ferent trades  dwell,  as  anciently  in  the 
East  (Jer.  xxxvii.  21),  in  streets  appro- 
priated to  themselves;  thus  booksellers 
congregate  in  the  Calle  de  Genoa — 
their  Paternoster-row ;  silversmiths  live 
under  the  arcades  of  the  Plaza  and  in 
the  adjoining  Calle  Chicarreros;  hard- 
ware dealers,  here  called  los  Alemanes^ 
reside  opposite  the  cathedral ;  saddlers 
and  makers  of  the  gaiter,  the  embroi- 
dered national  botin,  in  the  Calle  de  la 
Mar:  of  these  Bernardo  Delgado  is 
the  best ;  Penda,  Calle  de  la  Borcigue- 
neria  (a  Moorish  boot),  was  the  crack 
tnajo  tailor ;  Martinez,  Calle  de  Genoa, 
ranks  high  for  more  European  raiment. 
The  names  of  many  of  the  streets — 
Calle  Francos,  Genoa,  Alemanes,  Flo- 
centines,  &c.,  offer  the  surest  evidence 
that  traffic  was  chiefly  managed  by 
foreigners,  Flemings  especially,  who  had 
factories  and  privileges,  and  this  even 
in  vaunted  commercial  Seville. 

The  invalid  will  find  Seville  a  very 
eligible  place  for  winter  residence.  Dr. 
Francis  (p.  37)  gives  full  hygienic 
details,  and  justly  enlarges  on  the  vo- 
luptuous softness  of  the  air,  of  a  nature 
which  exhilarates  both  morally  and  phy- 
sically. He  dwells  on  the  effects  of  its 
sunshine,  which  rekindle  strength  and 
youthful  feelings.  Calmness  forms  a 
marked  character  of  the  climate,  which 
is  dryer  ahd  warm^  than  Cadiz,  and 
very  suitable  for  cases  of  bronchitis 
and  atonic  dyspepsia;  another  pecu- 
liarity is  the  kindly  manner  in  which 
serious  wounds  heal. 

The  man  of  letters  will  not  lack  food 
for  the  mind,  as  few  cities  have  had 
more  chroniclers  than  Seville.  The 
best  works  are  Historia  de  Sevilla, 
Alonso  Morgado,  foL,  Sev.  1587 ;  His- 
toria de  Sevilla,  Pablo  de  Espinosa 
de  los  Monteros,  fol.,  2  parts,  Sev. 
1627-30;  Antiffuedadesde  Sevilla, 'Ro- 
drigo  Caro,  fol.,  Sev.  1634;  Anales 
FcclesiasticoSf  Diego  Ortiz  de  Zuniga, 

fol.,  Sev.  1677 ;  this  excellent  work  was 
continued  down  to  1700  in  the  2nd 
ed.  by  Espinosa  y  Carcel,  6  v.  4to., 
Mad.  1795-96.  Anales  Ecclesiasticos 
y  Seglares,  firom  1671  to  1746,  by  Lo- 
renzo Bautista.  Zuniga,  fol.,  Sev.  1748  j 
also  Compendia  Historico,  Sev.  1766 ; 
and  the  new  ed.  under  the  name  of 
Varflora :  this  author  also  published  a 
work  on  the  Worthies  of  Seville,  Hijos 
de  Sevilla,  1796.  Of  modem  guides 
there  is  the  poor  *  Guia,'  by  Herera 
Davila,  Sev.  1832 ;  Seville  and  its  Vtci- 
nity,  by  F.  H.  Standish,  Lond.  1840,  a 
still  more  dull,  inaccurate  compilation. 

The  capture  of  Seville  from  the 
Moors  by  St.  Ferdinand,  a  campaign 
of  romance,  has  been  illustrated  by  the 
ballads  and  fine  arts  of  Seville.  The 
student  will  consult  the  Froissart-like 
Chronica  del  Sancto  JRey,  by  Don 
Lucas,  Bishop  of  Tuy,  an  eye-witness, 
fol.,  YaUadoUd,  1555 ;  the  Memorial, 
Juan  Pineda,  fol.,  Sev.  1627 ;  Acta  S, 
Ferdinandi,  Daniel  Paperbroch,  fol., 
Antwerp,  1688  j  the  Fiestas  de  la 
Santa  Iglesia  de  Sevilla,  Fernando  de 
la  Torre  Farfan,  foL,  Sev.  1672-3:  this, 
one  of  the  few  really  artistical  books  of 
Spain,  is  illustrated  with  etchings  by 
Sevillian  painters.  For  the  fine  arts 
there  are  the  excellent  Descrvpcion 
Artistica  de  la  Catedral  de  Sevilla, 
Cean  Bermudez,  8vo.,  Sev.  1804,  and 
his  Uttle  volume  on  the  Fintura  de  la 
Escuela  SevUlana,  Cadiz,  1806,  and  the 
Sevilla  Artistica,  J.  Colon  y  Colon, 
Sev.  1841 ;  for  Ecclesiastical  Antiqui- 
ties consult  Florez,  Fsp.  Sag.  ix.  j 
Ponz,  Viage,  ix.;  Sevilla  Fintoresca, 
Jose  Amador  de  los  Bios,  4to.,  Sev. 
1844.  The  Arabic  in  it  is  inaccurate: 
the  author  then  had  no  Gayangos  to 
help  him.  Consult  also  Noticia  Artis- 
tica by  Gonzalez  de  Leon,  and  the  good 
article  on  Seville  in  Madoz,  xiv.  209, 
which  is  a  book  of  itself. 

There  are  two  plans  of  Seville;  one 
very  large  and  accurate,  by  Vargas  y 
Machuca,  1788$  the  other  more  con- 
venient for  the  pocket,  by  Herrera  y 
Davila,  1832.  The  streetology  is  diffi- 
cult as  the  town  is  a  labyrinth  of  lanes, 
each  of  which  resembles  the  other;  and 



Sect.  II. 

as  the  names  of  many  of  them  were 
very  absurdly  changed  in  1845,  the 
little  duodecimo  street  guide,  or  Calle- 
jero,  pubhshed  in  1846  by  Alvarez,' 
will  be  useful. 

Before  examining  Seville  as  it  is,  a 
brief  epitome  of  the  past  may  be  pre- 
fiftced :  the  history  and  date  of  its  foun- 
dation is  lost  in  the  obscurity  of  remote 
antiquity,  as  is  pretty  clear,  when  men 
go  to  Hispan  and  Hercules,  who  pro- 
bably never  existed.  The  old  name 
HiBpal  sounds  very  Punic,  and  is  de- 
rived by  Arias  Montano  from  Sejphela 
or  Speia,  a  plain,  which  is  much  more 
likely  than  the  derivation,  a  pcUis,  the 
piles  on  which  it  is  not  built;  this,  a 
mere  coincidence  of  soimd,  not  sense, 
misled  San  Isidoro  (Or.  xv.  1),  a  dread- 
ful "  maker  of  shots,"  but  who,  being  its 
archbishop,  might  have  known  better. 
Sut  sound  etymological  principles  are 
quite  modem,  and  when  Niebuhr 
alluded  to  "that  unspeakable  spirit 
of  absurdity  which  always  came  over 
even  the  most  sagacious  Greeks  and 
Romans  the  moment  they  meddled 
with  etymology,"  he  might  well  have 
added  "patristic  and  mediaeval  scho- 
lars and  even  saints."  Be  that  as  it 
may,  Hispal,  if  not  of  Iberian  founda- 
tion, was  certainly  a  Phoenician  settle- 
ment connecting  Gaddir  with  Cordova : 
the  Greeks  changed  the  name  into 
l^craka,  and  the  Bomans  into  Hispalis, 
of  which  the  Moors  made  Ishbiliah, 
whence  Sibilia,  Sevilla. 

Of  its  ante-Boman  history  little  is 
known  beyond  the  fact  that  it  was  soon 
eclipsed  by  Italica^  a  mihtary  town,  by 
Gades,  a  sea-port,  and  by  Cordova,  the 
residence  of  patrician  settlers.  JuUus 
Csesar  patronised  Seville,  because  Cor- 
dova had  espoused  the  side  of  Pompey ; 
having  captured  it  Aug.  9,  forty-five 
years  before  Christ,  he  became  its 
second  foimder,  made  it  his  capital,  a 
conventus  juridicuSy  or  town  of  assize, 
and  gave  it  the  title  Somulaf  the  little 
Bome;  but  even  then  it  was  more  a 
Pimic  than  Boman  city,  and  by  no 
means  splendid,  according  to  Italian 
notions  (Strabo,  iii.  208)  j  it  was,  how- 
ler, walled  round  (Hirt.  *  B.  H.'  35). 

Seville  was  the  capital  of  the  Silingi, 
and  of  the  Goths  imtil  the  sixth  cen- 
tury, when  Leovigild  removed  his  court 
to  Toledo,  as  being  more  centrally  situ- 
ated, while  HermenegilduB,  liis  son  and 
heir,  remained  as  viceroy  ;  he  soon  re- 
linquished the  Arian  faith,  and  declared 
against  his  father,  by  whom  he  was 
put  to  death  as  a  rebel ;  but  when  the 
Athanasian  Creed  was  finally  intro- 
duced, he  was  canonized  as  a  martyr. 
These  religious  wars  were  headed  by 
the  brothers  San  Laureano  and  San 
Isidoro,  men  of  powerful  intellects, 
successively  Archbishops  of  Seville, 
and  now  its  sainted  tutelars.  The 
former  is  called  the  "Apostle  of  the 
Goths,"  the  latter  the  "Egregious 
Doctor  of  Spain."  (See  Index,  Jw- 

Seville,  with  all  Spain  to  the  west,  was 
conquered  by  the  Mahomedans  under 
the  same  Kalif  Walid,  who  subjugated 
Scinde  also  to  the  east.  The  unwarlike 
city  surrendered  to  the  Moors  at  once, 
after  the  defeat  of  Don  Boderick  on 
the  Guadalete :  there  was  treason  and 
dissension  within  its  walls,  for  the  de- 
throned monarch's  widow,  Egilona, 
soon  married  Abdu-1-aziz,  the  son  of 
the  conqueror  Musa-Ibn-Nosseir.  Se- 
ville continued  its  allegiance  to  the 
Xahf  of  Damascus  until  the  year  756, 
when  'Abdu-r-rahman  established  at 
Cordova  the  western  Kali&te  of  the 
Beni  Umeyyah  family,  to  which  Se- 
ville remained  subject  until  1031,  when 
that  dynasty  was  overturned,  and  with 
it  the  real  dominion  in  Spain  of  the 
Moor.  Then  the  ill-connected  fabric 
spht  into  sects,  almohades  and  ahnO" 
roffides,  and  separate  adventurers  set 
themselves  up  as  kings — sheiks — over 
each  province  and  town,  to  become 
rivals  and  enemies  of  each  other.  The 
Sevillian  separate  monarchy  was  short- 
lived. The  house  divided  against  itsdf 
could  not  stand,  and  still  less  at  a  mo- 
ment when  the  kingdoms  of  Leon  and 
Castile  were  consohdated  under  St.  Fer- 
dinand, one  of  their  best  of  kings,  and 
bravest  of  soldiers. 

^  He  advanced  into  Andaluoia,  taking 
city  after  city,  the  petty  rulers  being 




unable  to  resist  single-handed :  nay, 
partly  from  tribe  hatred  and  partly 
from  selfish  policy,  they  assisted  as 
fdlies  of  the  Christians,  each  bidding 
against  each  other ;  thus  Ibn-1-ahmar, 
the  upstart  Sheikh  of  Jaen,  mainly 
contributed  to  the  capture  of  Seville. 
The  city  was  besieged  from  the  S.E. 
side,  at  Tablada,  Aug.  20,  1247 :  the 
details  are  quite  a  romance,  especially 
the  vision  of  the  Virgin,  the  breaking  of 
the  bridge  of  boats  by  Eamon  Bon^Eiz, 
and  the  prowess  of  Diego,  M  Mach-acaj 
the  brother  of  Garci  Perez  de  Vargas, 
the  model  of  Don  Quixote  (i.  8) .  These 
are  the  subjects  and  heroes  of  baUads, 
and  of  the  poem  of  the  Conde  de  la 
Boca,  SI  Fernando^  6  Sevilla  Restau- 
raday  Milan,  1632:  an  author  who 
modestly  likened  himself  to  Tasso,  and 
took  San  Isidoro  for  his  Apollo.  Se- 
ville surrendered  Nov.  23,  1248,  on  el 
dia  de  San  Clemente,  The  citizens 
had  previously  been  subject  to  the 
Emperor  of  Morocco,  but  at  the  death 
of  Arrashid,  their  African  liege  lord, 
in  1242,  they  had  chosen  a  king  of 
their  own,  whom  they  soon  displaced, 
establishing  a  sort  of  republican  Junta, 
headed  by  Sakkaf,  the  Axataf  of  Spa- 
nish annals.  Thus  Seville  was  lost  to 
the  Moors  after  a  possession  of  636 
years.  After  the  capture  St.  Ferdinand 
divided  the  houses  and  lands  among 
his  soldiers,  and  this  curious  *  JReparH- 
mieniOf'  or  Doomsday  Book  of  Seville, 
exists,  printed  in  the  2nd  vol.  of  Espi- 
nosa's  work;  and  many  families  can 
trace  their  actual  houses  and  posses- 
sions up  to  this  original  partition. 
For  the  nobility  of  Andalucia,  see  iVb- 
hleza  del  Andaluzia,  G-onzalo  Argote 
de  Molina,  fol.,  SevUla,  1588 :  it  has 
plates  of  their  coats  of  arms,  and  is  a 
fine  and  rarish  book. 

St.  Ferdinand  granted  to  the  city  for 
arms,  himself  seated  on  his  throne,  with 
San  Laureano  and  San  Isidoro  for  his 
supporters.  He  died  here,  while  medi- 
tating an  invasion  of  Africa,  worn  out 
by  long  services,  May  31,  1252,  and 
was  canonized  in  1668  by  Clement  IX. ; 
his  body  was  removed  to  its  present 
shrine,  in  1729,  by  Philip  V.  All  these 

Spain — I. 

events  and  persons  form  subjects  for 
the  authors  and  artists  of  Seville,  and 
are  therefore  briefly  stated.  They  have 
been  tersely  summed  up  in  the  distich 
which  is  inscribed  over  the  Puerta'de 
la  Came — 

"  Condidit  Alcides— renovavit  Julius  urbem, 
Restituit  Christo  Femandus  tertius  heros." 

This  is  thus  paraphrased  over  the 
Puerta  de  Xerez : — 

**  Heradeg  me  ecUficd, 
Julio  C^sotr  me  cercd 

De  muros  y  torres  altos; 
{Un  Rey  Godo  meperdid),  omitted. 
£1  Rey  Santo  me  gan6t 
Con  Oarci  Perez  de  Vargas." 

**  Hercules  built  me ;  Julius  Csesar  surrounded 
me  with  walls  and  lofty  towers ;  a  Gothic  king 
lost  me ;  a  saint-like  king  recovered  me,  assisted 
by  Gard  Peree  de  Vargas." 

Seville,  in  the  unnatural  civil  wars 
after  the  conqueror's  death,  was  the 
only  city  which  remained  faithful  to 
his  son  and  successor,  Alonso  el  Sabio, 
the  Uamedy  but  not  wise.  He  was  like 
our  pedant  James  I.,  so  well  described 
by  Gondomar,  as  "  The  most  learned 
fool  in  Christendom,"  and  both  would 
have  made  better  professors  than  kings 
— capaces  imperii^  nisi  imperassent. 
Alonso  gave  Seville  the  badge,  which  is 
to  be  seen  carved  and  painted  every- 
where. It  is  called  JSl  Nodo,  and  is 
thus  represented :  No.  8  do  ;  the  hiero- 
glyphic signifies  No-m^ha  dexa-Do,  "  It 
has  not  deserted  me."  Madexa  in  old 
Spanish  meant  a  knot,  and  is  the  G-o- 
thic  Mataxa,  Nodus  (San.  Isid.  Or% 
xix.  29).  Thus  was  reproduced  unin- 
tentionally the  old  Phoenician  mer- 
chant mark,  the  Nodus  Herculis — the 
knot  which  guaranteed  the  genuineness 
of  the  contents  of  every  bale :  hence 
the  Mark  of  these  foimders  of  com- 
merce became  the  symbol  of  peace, 
trade,  and  of  the  god  of  thieves,  and 
was  perpetuated  by  the  Greeks  in  the 
twisted  ornaments  of  the  herald  Cadu" 
ceus  of  Mercury  (Macrob.  Sat.  i.  19). 

Seville  continued  to  be  the  capital  of 
Spain,  and  especially  of  Don  Pedro, 
who  was  more  than  half  a  Moor,  until 
Charles  V.  removed  the  court  to  Val- 
ladolid  i  yet  it  remained  fiuthful — ^true 




Sect.  II. 

to  the  sun,  although  not  shone  upon — 
during  the  outbreak  of  the  comunerosy 
and  was  rewarded  by  a  motto,  "Ab 
Hercule  et  Csesare  nobilitas,  a  se  ipsd 
fidelitas."  The  discorepy  of  the  New 
World  raised  Seville  to  a  more  than 
former  splendour ;  it  became  the  mart 
of  the  golden  colonies,  and  the  residence 
of  princely  foreign  merchants.  Buona- 
parte's invasion  and  the  subsequent 
loss  of  the  transatlantic  possessions  cast 
her  down  from  her  palmy  pride  of 
place.  The  Junta  risked  the  battle  of 
OcaJia  in  despite  of  the  Cassandra 
warnings  of  the  Duke,  and  were  de- 
feated ;  the  conquerors  then  overran 
Andalucia,  and  in  a  few  days  the  heroic 
city  surrendered  (Feb.  2,  1810),  with- 
out even  a  show  of  fight.  Soult 
then  became  its  petty  king,  for  he  set 
Joseph  at  defiance.  "Mercy,"  says 
Schepeler,  "  was  erased  from  Ms  orders 
of  the  day :"  here  he  levied  gigantic 
contributions,  and  "  inexorably,"  as  he 
boasted,  carried  into  efiect  his  Draco 
decree  of  May  9,  1810,  ordering  "  all 
Spaniards  taken  in  arms  to  be  shot, 
without  any  form  of  trial;"  for  this 
he  himself  was  excluded  from  the  law 
of  nations  by  the  Regency.  Aug.  15. 
Well  might  Toreno  (xvi.)  exclaim, 
describing  the  illegal  execution  of  Juan 
Manuel  Lopez,  Nov.  29, 1811 :  "  Des- 
garra  el  corazon  crudeza  tan  desapia- 
dada  y  ha/rhara." — Toreno  (xx.)  esti- 
mates theFrench  plunder  at  six  millions 
sterling;  and  he  gives  the  details;  so 
does  Schepeler  (iii.  129) .  Soult*  s  name  is 
held  at  Seville  in  the  same  detestation  as 
Murat*s  is  at  Madrid,  and  Sebastiani's 
at  Qranada.  These  calculations  do  not 
include  the  stolen  pictures ;  Soult  as- 
ked the  dealer,  Mr.  Buchanan,  100,000 
napoleons  for  the  Munllos  alone. 
As  Moore  at  Sahagun  had  once  before 
saved  the  Andalucians,  now  the  Duke 
at  Salamanca,  delivered  them  again,  a 
little  fact  entirely  omitted  by  Madoz 
(xiv.  429),  and  Soult  fled  from  Seville 
Aug.  27, 1813,  closely  followed  by  Col. 
Skerrett.  Sir  John  Downie,  when  his 
Spanish  legion  of  Loyal  Estremenians 
would  not  fight,  joined  the  Enghsh, 
'ho  would,  and  charged   the  bridge 

three  times ;  he  was  wounded  and 
taken  prisoner,  yet  threw  back  to  his 
followers  his  sword,  that  its  honour 
might  remain  unsullied;  it  was  that 
of  Pizarro,  and  had  been  given  to  him 
in  reward  of  previous  valour,  and  now 
is  in  the  Armeria  at  Madrid,  No.  1769 : 
Downie  was  afterwards  made  Alcaide 
of  the  Alcazar,  not  Alcalde^  as  CoL 
Gurwood,  not  the  accurate  Duke,  notes 
(Disp.  June  11,  1809).  The  office  of 
Alcaide  is  one  of  high  honour ;  it  is 
the  Moorish  Kaid,  Dux  Arcis,  the 
other  a  petty  village  magistrate :  it  is 
almost  the  difference  between  the  Con- 
stable of  the  Tower,  and  a  Tower  con- 
stable. Downie  began  life  as  a  clerk 
in  the  commissariat,  and  was  a  true 
Andaluz.  The  English  entered  Seville 
amid  the  rapturous  acclamations  of 
the  inhabitants,  thus  deUvered  from 
Soult's  terrorism,  scaffolds,  and  con- 

Seville,  in  1823,  was  made  the  asylum 
of  the  bragging  Cortes,  who  halted  here 
in  their  flight  from  Madrid,  and  who 
again  fled  at  the  first  approach  of  An- 
gouldme ;  but  this  capital  of  the  ever 
unwarUke  Andalucians  never  held  out 
against  any  one  except  Espartero  in 
July,  1843.  That  siege  lasted  about 
9  days,  and  during  6  only  were  any 
bombs  fired.  Accordingly,  less  than 
100  Sevillians  were  wounded,  of  whom 
only  20  died:  of  the  assailants  only 
29  were  killed.  Such  was  the  efficacy 
of  the  attack  and  defence  on  a  city 
containing  nearly  100,000  souls. 

Seville,  the  marvel  of  Andalucia,  can 
be  seen  in  less  than  a  week,  but  the 
invaUd,  artist,  and  antiquarian  may 
employ  some  weeks  there  with  plea- 
sure and  profit.  The  best  time  to 
visit  this  town  is  in  the  spring,  be- 
fore the  great  heats  commence,  or  in 
autumn,  before  the  November  rains 
set  in.  The  winter  is  occasionally 
very  wet ;  ice  and  snow,  however,  are 
almost  unknown,  except  for  eating, 
when  brought  as  luxuries  from  the 
mountains  of  the  Sierra  Morena :  the 
lower  part  of  the  town,  near  the  Ala- 
meda  Vtefa^  is  often  flooded  by  the 
river  inundations,  but  the  streets  are 




proyided  with  maleoones  or  hatches, 
which  are  then  shut  down  and  keep 
out  the  water.  The  summer  is  so  very 
hot,  that  it  is  ^most  impossible  to  &ce 
the  sun,  which,  with  every  precaution, 
can  with  difficulty  be  reduced  to  84° 
Fahr.  in-doors.  However,  the  town  is 
never  more  healthy  than  during  these 
great  heats.  Then  the  inhabitants 
keep  still  in  their  cool  houses  until 
the  evening ;  but  this  confinement 
is  against  the  curious  sight-seeing 
stranger.  Seville  is  one  of  the  most 
agreeable  towns  in  Spain  for  a  length- 
ened residence,  except  in  the  dog-days. 
It  is  near  Cadiz  and  Gibraltar,  and  of 
easy  access  to  the  Englishman.  The 
shooting  to  the  rt.  of  the  Guadalquivir 
is  good  and  novel;  the  theatres  are 
tolerable;  the  masquerading  at  car- 
nival-time entertaining ;  the  dances, 
both  those  of  the  stage  and  the  gip- 
sies, are  truly  nation^  and  Oriental. 
The  fairs  of  Mairena  and  Italica  (the 
latter  now  the  fashion)  exhibit  the 
M(ifo  and  Maja  gUttering  in  their 
native  sun,  shorn,  indeed,  of  former 
glory,  by  the  fatal  invasion  of  calico 
and  civilisation,  the  worst  foes  to  bar- 
baric splendour  and  costume.  Seville 
is  the  alma  mater  of  the  bull-fight, 
and  the  best  animals  and  masters  of 
the  art  are  furnished  from  Beetica. 
The  religious  functions  are  unrivalled, 
especially  in  the  Holy  Week — Corpus, 
St.  John's  Day — Christmas,  with  its 
Nitcimientog,  carols,  and  shepherd- 
dances — and  the  winter  Bosarios.  The 
ceremonial  of  the  Semana  Santa  is 
second  in  interest  to  that  of  Bome 
alone,  and  is  in  many  respects  quite 
peculiar,  such  as  in  the  Pasos,  or 
painted  and  graven  images,  which  are 
carried  through  the  streets  in  solemn 
procession ;  then  also  the  numumentOy 
or  sepnlclure,  in  which  the  hoRt  is 
buried,  is  lighted  up  in  the  cathedral, 
and  forms  a  splendid  sight,  which  must 
be  seen  to  be  really  understood. 

These  form  a  large  item  of  the  scanty 
and  moderate  amusements  of  the  bulk 
of  Sevillians.  Their  life  is  very  Orien- 
tal ;  they  delieht  in  cool  repose  and  the 
cigar.    They  nate  bustle,  exertion,  or 

being  put  out  of  their  way :  from,  not 
being  overdrugged  with  amusements — 
all  tasted,  nought  enjoyed — they  are 
not  liable  to  bore,  which  haunts  the 
most  mis-named,  most  ennuyed  people 
on  earth,  our  gay  world:  pleasure  to 
them  is  an  exception,  and  is  enjoyed 
with  the  rapture  of  children.  They 
plunge  at  one  bound  from  habitual 
gravity  into  boisterous  joy — du  sublime 
au  ridicule.  This  alternation  of  sloth 
and  violent  exercise — inedia  et  labor 
(Just.  xUv.  2) — was  one  of  the  marked 
features  of  the  Iberian  character,  as  it 
also  is  of  Asiatic  nations.  To  be  dri- 
ven about  and  abroad,  in  a  thirst  for 
pubUc  amusements,  is  the  desperate  re- 
source of  the  higher  states  of  wealth, 
luxury,  and  civilisation. 

The  city  itself  lies  on  the  1.  bank  of 
the  Guadalquivir^  which  flows  along 
the  arc  of  its  irr^ular,  ^most  circular 
shape ;  the  circumference  is  about  5  m. : 
it  is  enclosed  in  Moorish  walls  of  con- 
creteortapia,  which,  towards  the  Fuerta 
de  Cordova,  are  some  of  the  most  per- 
fect in  Spain,  and  are  provided  with 
66  towers  and  15  gates.  Seville  is  the 
see  of  an  archbishop,  having  for  suffira- 
gans  Cadiz,  Malaga,  Ceuta,  the  Canary 
Islands,  and  Tenenfie.  It  was  once 
one  of  the  most  levitical  cities  of  Spain, 
and  contained  140  wealthy  convents 
and  churches.  It  is  the  residence  of  a 
captain-general,  of  an  audiencia,  whose 
chief  judge  is  (xRedeUte^efUe;  it  con- 
tains 28  parishes  and  10  suburbs  of 
arrabales,  of  which  Triana,  on  the 
opposite  bank,  is  like  the  Trastevere  of 
Rome,  and  the  abode  of  picturesque 
gipsies  and  snuigglers,  and  where  the 
artist  leaves  his  heart.  Seville  has  the 
usual  provincial  civil  and  military  esta- 
blishments of  all  kinds,  such  as  bar- 
racks, prisons,  hospitals,  and  so  forth, 
which  do  not  deserve  much  notice  of 
foreigners,  who  manage  all  these  things 
so  much  better.  But  Spain  is  not  the  i 
place  for  political  economists,  lovers 
of  statistics,  poor-laws,  and  drainage; 
suaves  res.  Seville  possesses  a  Boyal 
Alcazar,  n  Plaza  de  Toros,  2  theatres,  a 
liceo,  public  library  and  museum,  a  uni- 
versity, and  beautiful  walks :  it  glorie'' 

I  2 



Sect.  II. 

in  the  titular  epithets  of  mu,y  leal  y 
nohle,  to  which  Ferd.  VIF.  added  muy 
heroica,  and  Senor  Lopez,  in  1843,  "  in- 
victai'*  after  the  repulse  of  Espartero. 
All  this  would  seem  ironical  to  those 
who  do  not  know  Spaniards  and  their 
system  of  concealing  disgrace  by  grant- 
ing honours  in  proportion  as  they  are 
least  deserved.  Seville,  fit  capital  of 
the  "  mazime  imbelles  Turdetani,"  has 
always  been  the  first  to  brag  and  then 
surrender :  it  has  never  successfully 
resisted  any  one,  except  their  Duke 
of  Victory!  The  population  exceeds 
100,000.    Madoz  makes  it  119,600. 

The  city  was  purely  Moorish,  as  the 
Moslem,  during  a  possession  of  5  cen- 
turies, entirely  rebuilt  it,  using  the 
Koman  buildings  as  materials.  The 
cHmate  is  so  dry  and  conservative  that 
the  best  houses  are  still  those  erected 
by  the  Moors,  or  on  their  models,  and 
most  charming  and  unique  they  are, 
and  perfectly  suited  to  the  climate : 
narrow  tortuous  streets  which  keep  out 
the  sun,  and  wide  spacious  mansions 
with  cool  courts  and  gardens  :  now  the 
Baker  Streets  of  civiUsation  are  all  the 
rage;  and  stuffjr  small  houses  with 
staircases,  and  broad  streets,  in  which 
mortals  are  roasted  tdive,  prove  how 
wise  the  Moors  were.  Of  Roman  re- 
mains there  are,  consequentlv,  scarcely 
any.  The  Sevillians  pretend  that  the 
walls  and  the  Torre  del  Oro  were  built 
by  Juhus  CsBsar,  which  is  sheer  non- 
sense, as  they  are  incontestably  Moor- 
ish, both  in  form  and  construction. 
The  Roman  city  was  very  small :  it 
extended  from  the  Puerta  de  Came, 
through  the  Plaza  San  Nicolas  and 
San  Salvador,  to  the  Puerta  de  Triana. 
In  the  Calls  de  los  Mammies  exists 
the  portico  of  a  Roman  temple;  3 
pillars  remain  buUt  into  the  Moorish 
nouses,  with  their  shafts  deeply  buried 
by  the  accumulated  rubbish.  In  the 
Alameda  Viefa  are  2  Roman  pillars, 
moved  there  in  1574  by  the  Conde  de 
Barajas,  the  great  repairing  and  build- 
ing governor  of  his  day,  who  put  them 
there  in  imitation  of  the  Piazza  de  Sig- 
lori  at  Venice.  In  the  CaUe  Abodes^ 
22,  ore  some  well-preaerved  Roman 

aubgrundariay  or  underground  tombs 
for  infistnts,  whose  bodies  were  never 
burnt  on  ftineral  piles-^  they  were  dis- 
covered in  1298  and  shut  up,  because 
thought  to  be  the  schools  where  the 
Moors  taught  magic ;  they  can  be  now 
descended  into,  and  are  curious.  In  the 
Ce.  de  la  Ouna,  No.  8,  was  accidentally 
discovered  a  subterraneous  Roman 
aqueduct,  which  still  flows  full  of  fresh 
water,  although  its  existence  is  abso- 
lutely unknown  to  the  majority  of  Se- 
villians, and  no  steps  have  ever  been 
taken  to  trace  or  recover  this  precious 
supply.  In  the  Casa  de  PUatos  are 
some  mutilated  antiques,  of  the  second- 
rate  merit  of  such  sculpture  as  is 
usually  found  in  Spain.  In  the  Museo 
are  heaped  up,  as  in  a  stonemason's 
yard,  a  few  antiquities  of  a  low  art, 
foimd  in  some  road-making  and  acci- 
dental excavation  at  Italica.  Don  Juan 
Wetherell,  Plaza  San  Bartolom^,  No. 
16,  has  a  collection  of  Roman  and 
Mexican  antiquities :  '  the  latter  were 
formed  in  S.  Ainerica  by  a  judge  named 
Gonzalez  Garvajal.  A  catalogue,  with 
Hthographic  prints,  was  published  by 
Mr.  W.  at  Seville  in  1842. 

Seville  is,  however,  a  museum  of 
Moorish  antiquities,  and  one  of  the  best 
places  to  observe  the  Arabic  ceilings  and 
marqueterie  woodwork,  artesonados  y 
ataraceas ;  the  stucco  panelling,  Ara- 
bic5  Tarkish,  the  Uenzos  de  Almizates, 
Almocarhes,  u^aracas  ;  notice  also  the 
elegant  window  divided  by  a  marble 
shaft,  Ajimes,  an  Arabic  term,  meaning 
an  opening  which  lets  in  the  sunbeam : 
beautiful  specimens  exist  in  the  Al- 
cazar, Calle  Pajaritos,  No.  15,  Gasa 
Prieto,  Ce.  Naranjos,  and  Casa  Mon- 
tijo,  behind  the  Parroquia  of  Omnium 
Sanctorum.  A  vast  number  of  Moor- 
ish houses  exist,  although  sadly  de- 
graded by  adaptations  to  modem  wants 
and  usages.  The  streets  are  narrow — 
a  wise  provision — in  order  to  keep 
them  shady  during  the  heat — now  the 
mania  is  to  widen  them :  the  exteriors 
are  plain,  and  windows  looking  to  the 
streets  were  hardly  known  before  the 
time  of  Charles  V.  They  are  still  bar- 
ricaded vrith  rfQoSy  or  iron  gratings, 




and  protected  in  summer  by  an  estera, 
or  matting,  thus  forming  a  favourite  al 
fresco  boudoir  for  the  fair  sex.  These 
shutterless  windows  form  the  evening 
rendezvous  to  the  cloaked  lover  who 
whispers  soft  nothings  to  his  bar-im- 
prisoned sweetheart ;  hence  he  is  said 
to  Uve  on  iron,  comer  hierro  ;  another 
term  for  this  popular  recreation  is  pelar 
la  pava  "  to  pluck  the  turkey."  The 
houses  generally  have  an  entrance 
porch,  el  Zctguan  (Arabiod  sahan), 
which  leads  to  the  cancel^  or  open- 
worked  iron  gate;  the  interiors  are 
built  with  an  open  square  courtyard, 
paUo^  on  each  side  of  which  are  corre- 
dores  supported  by  marble  pillars ;  a 
fiiente  or  fountain  plays  in  the  middle  j 
this  court  is  covered  over  in  summer 
with  an  awning,  velo,  toldo,  and  be- 
comes the  drawing-room  of  the  in- 
mates, who,  during  the  summer,  oc- 
cupy the  cool  ground-floor,  and  migrate 
to  the  warmer  upper  one  in  winter. 
These  houses  are  rich  in  Moorish 
earthenware  tilings,  which  are  still 
called  azulejos,  jlhis  word,  like  azul, 
is  derived  from  the  Arabic,  but  from  a 
different  root.  The  latter  is  derived 
from  lazurad^  the  lapis  lazuli;  the 
former  from  Zuleija^  Zuleichy  a  var- 
nished tile.  Lazurad,  indeed,  strictly 
speaking,  was  borrowed  from  the  Per- 
sian; the  Arabic  word  blue  being 
azrag  usruk,  is  blue  black,  whence  our 
BUie  Beard;  the  feminine  is  zv/rka, 
whence  th^  Spanish  zarco^  which  is 
only  applied  to  light  blue  eyes.  Most 
names  of  colours  in  the  Spanish  are 
derived  from  Arabic  words,  such  as 
Alba^alde,  Carmen,  Gualdo,  Azultur- 
qui,  MuanOy  Alazan.  The  Moor  was  the 
real  chemist  and  decorator,  from  whom 
the  rude  Gk>tho-Spaniard  learned  his 
arts  and  the  words  to  express  them. 
The  use  of  the  Azulejo  is  very  ancient 
and  Oriental.  The  sapphire  and  blue 
were  always  the  fa,vourite  tints  (Exod. 
xxiv.  10 ;  Isa.  liv.  11).  The  substance 
is  composed  of  a  red  clay,  the  surface 
of  which  is  highly  glazed  in  enamelled 
colours.  The  material  is  cool,  clean, 
and  no  vermin  can  lodge  in  it.  The 
Moors  formed  with  it  most  ingenious 

harlequinades,  combining  colour  and 
pattern.  These  enamelled  tiles,  un- 
doubtedly, were  the  types  of  the  Ma- 
jolica of  Italy,  which  passed  from 
Valencia  to  Majorca  (Majolica),  and 
thence  to  Pisa  and  Pesaro. 

Tlie  best  Aztdejo  specimens  in  Se- 
ville, are  the  Dados  in  the  Patio  of  the 
Alcazar,  of  which  some  are  Moorish, 
others  are  of  the  timeof  Don  Pedro,  while 
those  in  the  chapel  were  made  in  1504. 
Next  in  date  comes  the  most  curious 
portal  oiLasMonjas  de  Sa.  Paida;  then 
the  dados  in  the  Casa  JPHatos,  and  after 
that  the  summer-house  in  the  Alcazar 
garden,  1546 ;  of  the  same  period  are 
the  Berruguete  dados  in  the  Alcazar 
library.  Those  at  San  Augustin  were 
designed  in  1611,  when  yellows  were 
all  the  fashion  ;  soon  after  the  custom 
of  representing  monks  and  sacred  sub- 
jects became  very  prevalent.  See,  for 
examples,  the  facade  of  the  church  to 
the  rt.  outside  the  Puerta  del  Fopolo, 
and  those  in  blue  at  the  Caridad,  after 
designs  of  Murillo. 

More  than  half  Seville  is  Moorish, 
but  we  shall  only  select  the  cream ; 
and  first,  visit  the  cathedral  tower, 
the  GIBALDA,  so  called  from  the 
vane,  que  ffira,  which  turns  round. 
Of  this  beautiful  belfry,  and  unique 
in  Europe,  much  error  has  been  dis- 
seminated. It  was  built  in  1196  by 
Abu  Jusuf  Yacub,  who  added  it  to  the 
mosque  which  his  illustrious  father, 
of  the  same  name,  had  erected.  Ac- 
cording to  Zufdga  (i.  3),  the  founda- 
tions were  composed  of  destroyed  Ro- 
man and  Christian  statuary :  the 
Moors  attached  such  veneration  to  this 
Mueddin  tower,  that  before  the  capitu- 
lation they  wished  to  destroy  it,  but 
were  prevented  by  the  threat  of  Alonso 
el  Sabio  of  sacking  the  city  if  they  did. 

"  Abu  Jusuf  Yacub  was  the  great 
builder  of  his  age  (See  also  Oonde,  ch. 
49)  ;  he  caused  a  bridge  of  boats  to  be 
thrown  across  the  G-uadalquivir  on  the 
11th  of  October,  A.D.  1171.  He  bmlt 
also  a  portion  of  the  exterior  walls, 
and  erected  wharfs  along  the  banks  of 
the  river.  He  repaired  the  Roman 
aqueduct,  now  known  as  the  Canos  d' 



Sect.  II. 

Carmona,  He  raised  the  great  Mosque 
of  Seville,  which  was  similar  in  design 
and  execution  to  the  celebrated  Mez- 
quita  at  Cordova  i  begun  in  Oct.,  a.d. 
1171,  it  was  completed  by  his  son  and 
successor,  Abil  Yusuf  Yakub,  who,  in 
the  year  of  the  Hejira,  593  (a.d.  1196), 
added  the  tower,  the  work  of  J^ber, 
whom  the  Spanish  authors  call  Gever, 
and  who,  firom  the  coincidence  of  his 
name,  has  been  reputed,  though  most 
erroneously,  to  have  been  the  inventor 
of  algebra.*  This  tower,  Uke  the  koot- 
sahea  of  Morocco,  and  the  smaller  and 
unfinished  one  of  Babdt,  also  the  works 
of  the  same  architect,  was,  probably, 
erected  for  the  double  purpose  of  call- 
ing the  faithful  to  prayer,  and  for  as- 
tronomical observations.  On  the  sum- 
mit were  placed  four  brazen  balls  (Man- 
zanaSi  apples),  so  large,  we  are  in- 
formed, that,  in  order  to  get  them  into 
the  building,  it  was  necessary  to  remove 
the  key-stone  of  a  door,  called  *The 
Grate  of  the  Muezzins,'  leading  from  the 
mosque  to  the  interior  of  the  tower : 
that  the  iron  bar  which  supported  them 
weighed  about  ten  cwt.,  and  that  the 
whole  was  cast  by  a  celebrated  alche- 
mist, a  native  of  Sicily,  named  Abii 
Leyth,  at  the  cost  of  50,000^.  sterling. 
And  it  is  a  curious  fact,  showing  the  mi- 
nute accuracy  of  the  writer  from  whom 
we  quote  these  particulars,  that  when, 
during  the  earthquake  in  1395,  157 
jrears  after  the  overthrow  of  the  Moor- 
ish power,  these  balls,  together  with 
the  iron  support,  were  thrown  down, 
the  latter  was  weighed,  and  the  weight, 
as  given  by  one  of  the  historians  of  Se- 
ville, is  exactly  the  same  as  that  stated 
by  the  Mohammedan  writer."  Thus 
much  our  accurate  friend  Ghiyangos, 
who  here,  and  for  the  first  time,  has 
cleared  away  the  slough  of  errors  in 
which  many  have  been  engulphed,  and 
threatens  all  those  who  copy  what  they 
find  written  in  bad  Spanish  and  worse 
foreign  guides. 

To  build  towers  was  the  fashion  of 

*  Algebra  is  simply  a  contraction  of  the  Ara- 
bic phrase  AZ-Je&re,  condensation,  contraction,  in 
•contradistinction  to  Al  Mok'abalah,  comparison, 

the  period.  Thus  the  Asinelli  tower 
of  Bologna,  371  feet  high,  was  raised 
in  1109,  and  that  of  St,  Mark,  at  Ve- 
nice, 350  feet  high,  in  1148.. 

lie  original  Moorish  tower  was  only 
250  ft.  high,  the  additional  100  being 
the  rich  filigree  belfry,  was  most  hap- 
pily added,  in  1568,  by  Fernando  Buiz, 
and  is  elegant  and  attractive  beyond 
description.  It  is  girdled  with  a  motto 
from  the  Proverbs  (xviii.  10)  ;  Nomen 
Domini  fortissima  turris.  On  grand 
festivals  it  is  lighted  up  at  night,  and 
then  seems  to  hang  Uke  a  brilliant 
chandeUer  from  the  dark  vault  of 
heaven.  The  pretty  form  and  idea  was 
taken  from  the  silver  Custodias  of  the 
period.  This  "  star-y-pointing  tower  '* 
forms  the  emphatic  feature  of  Seville  j 
seen  from  afar  it  rises  like  the  mast  of 
a  mighty  ship.  It  is  a  square  of  50  ft. 
The  Moorish  ajarctcas^  or  sunk  pat- 
terns, difier  on  each  side.  Observe 
the  elegant  intersecting  arches,  so  com- 
mon in  the  Norman-Saracenic  of  Apu- 
lia. The  upper  niches  were  painted  in 
fresco  by  Luis  de  Vargas,  1538-58; 
but  the  work  is  almost  obUterated, 
while  the  subjects  lower  down  have 
been  repainted  and  spoilt.  The  ascent 
is  by  easy  ramps.  The  panorama  is 
superb,  but  the  clock,  made  by  a  Fran- 
ciscan monk,  one  Jose  Cordero,  1764, 
is  here  considered  the  grandest  marvel : 
it  replaced  the  first  ever  put  up  in  Spain 
A.  D.  1400.  The  pinnacle  is  crowned 
with  Ml  GUrandillOi  a  female  figure  in 
bronze  of  La  Fe,  The  Faith,  a  some- 
what strange  choice  of  a  vane  blown 
about  with  every  wind  (of  doctrine),  and 
of  a  sex  and  character  for  what  should 
never  vary  or  be  fickle,*  not,  perhaps, 
ill  chosen  by  a  church  which  veers  as 
best  suits  its  own  interest,  twisting  the 
scriptures  at  its  will ;  and,  as  Dryden 
says — 

"  Such  airy  faith  will  no  foundation  find. 
The  words  a  weathercock  to  every  wind." 

The  figure  is  truly  Italian,  and  was 
cast  in  1568  by  Bartolome  Morel.   Al- 

*  The  Pagan  Spaniard  Seneca  may  be  quoted. 

'«  Veoto  quid  levius  ?     PulmeD— quid  rulmrne  ?    Fama. 
Quid  Fbit:&  ?    Mulier— quid  Muliere  ?— othil.** 




though  14  fib.  high,  and  weighing  2800 
lbs.,  it  tuma  with  the  slightest  breeze.  It 
bears  the  LabcM-o,  or  banner  of  Constan- 
t  ine.  This  belfry  is  the  home  of  a  colony 
of  the  twittering,  careering  hawk,  the 
Falco  Hnunculoides,  The  first  Christian 
knight  who  ascended  the  Giralda  after 
the  conquest  was  Lorenzo  Poro  (Law- 
rence Poore),  a  Scotchman.  His  de- 
scendant, the  Marques  de  Motilla,  still 
owns  the  ancestral  house  in  the  Oalle 
de  la  Cuna.  A  Scotch  herald  will  do 
well  to  look  at  the  coats  of  arms  in  the 

The  Giralda  was  the  great  tower 
from  whence  the  mueddin  summoned 
the  faithful  to  prayers  ;  and  here  still 
hang  his  substitutes,  the  bells,  for  they 
are  almost  treated  as  persons,  being  all 
duly  baptized,  before  suspended,  with  a 
peculiar  oil,  which  is  consecrated  ex- 
pressly during  the  holy  week,  and  they 
are  christened  after  saints.  The  largest 
is  called  Scmta  Maria^  or  La  Qorda. 
When  Spanish  campanas  are  rung,  the 
performance  is  called  a  repique,  which 
is  totally  unlike  our  sweet  village  bells, 
or  impressiye  cathedral  peal.  In  no 
country  was  the  original  intention  of 
bells,  per  cctcciare  il  diabolOf  to  scare 
away  the  devil,  more  piously  fulfilled 
than  in  the  Peninsula :  all  are  doleful, 
from  the  dull  tinkle  of  the  muleteer^s 
cencerro,  to  the  passing  toll  of  the 
steeple.  There  is  no  attempt  at  me- 
lody in  their  repiqne,  no  chime,  no 
triple  bob  majors.  The  music  is  de- 
void alike  of  ringer  science,  rural  rus- 
tic melody,  or  the  solenm  association  of 
sounds,  the  poetry  of  the  steeple,  the 
"  nighest  bordering  on  heaven."  The 
campanas  are  headed  with  cross  beams 
of  wood,  almost  of  the  same  weight  as 
the  bells  themselves,  and  are  pulled  at 
until  they  keep  turning  round  and 
round,  head  over  heels,  except  when 
they  are  very  large  ;  then  the  clapper 
is  agitated  by  a  rope,  a  golpe  de  badajo. 
Any  orchestral  discipline  and  regularity 
is  not  a  thing  of  Oriental  Spain;  the 
bells  are  all  pulled  their  own  way,  like 
a  company  of  guenlleros,  or  a  Dutch 
concert,  where  each  performer  plays 
his  own  tune.    Each  bell,  be  it  said, 

is  struck  singly  for  its  special  pur- 
poses :  La  G-orda,  for  instance,  at  the 
Ave  Maria.  A  solemn  peal  is  called 
clamor  de  campanas;  and  a  requiem 
for  a  dead  pope  or  king,  a  tocando  d 

The  Giralda  is  under  the  especial 
patronage  of  the  two  DivcB^  the  Santas 
Justina  y  Bufina,  who  are  much  revered 
at  Seville,  and  not  at  all  anywhere  else. 
In  a  thimderstorm,  1 504,  they  scared  the 
devil,  who  unloosed  the  winds  to  fight 
against  this  church  :  this,  their  stand- 
ing miracle,  is  the  one  so  often  carved, 
and  painted  by  Murillo  and  others: 
and,  due  proportions  considered,  these 
yoimg  ladies  must  have  been  at  least 
500  ft.  high,  and  a  tolerable  match  for 
the  father  of  all  lies.  The  Boyal  Aca- 
demy of  Seville,  however,  published  in 
1795  (!)  a  learned  dissertation  to  prove 
the  authenticity  of  this  miracle.  (! !) 
No  wonder,  therefore,  in  July,  1843, 
whenEspartero  bombarded  Seville,  that 
the  people  believed  that  the  Giralda  was 
still  encompassed  by  invisible  angels, 
headed  by  these  Brobdignac  tutekrs, 
who  turned  aside  every  shot.  These 
ladies  were  the  daughters  of  a  potter  in 
Triana,  a  low  suburb,  in  which  coarse 
earthenware  is  still  made.  Morales 
has  written  their  biography  in  8vo., 
Perpinan,  1598  ;  and  Florez,  Esp.  Sag., 
ix.  108,  375,  gives  the  whole  legend. 
In  the  year  287  these  gentlewomen  in- 
sulted the  paso  of  Venus  Salambo,  and 
were  put  to  death.  Now-a-days  the  Vir- 
gen  de  los  Dolores  (Ceres  Ax^**»,  of  grief, 
as  lamenting  the  loss  of  her  cluld  Pro- 
serpine) has  superseded  that  idol ;  and 
were  any  of  the  modem  potteresses  of 
Triana,  or  tract-distributing  Protest- 
ant spinsters,  to  insult  the  sagrada 
imagen  of  the  Virgin  in  the  pasos  of 
the  Semana  Santa,  they  would  run  a 
better  chance  of  being  sacrificed  by 
the  mariolatrous  Sevillanos  than  made 

Of  the  other  Moorish  minaret  or 
mueddin  towers,  observe  those  of  San 
Marcos,  Santa  Marina,  Santa  Catalina> 
and  Omnium  Sanctorum.  That  of  San 
Pedro  has  been  modernized. 

Below  the  Giralda  is  the  Moorish 



Patio  de  los  Naranjos,  the  court  of 
orange  trees,  with  the  original  fountain, 
at  which  the  cleanly  Moslem  once 
"  performed "  what  polite  writers  call 
"  his  ablutions,"  so  hateful  to  the  ortho- 
dox Spaniard.  Only  two  sides  of  "  this 
court  of  the  house  of  the  Lord,"  tliis 
rtfAtv»f,  or  "grove"  remain.  Enter  it 
at  the  N.  by  the  rich  Puerta  del  Per- 
don,  which  was  modernized  in  1519 
by  Bartolom^  Lopez.  Observe  the 
Moorish  arch  and  original  bronze 
doors,  but  the  belfiy  is  modem.  The 
terra  cotta  statues  are  by  Miguel  Flo- 
rentin,  1519-22.  The  "Saviour  bear- 
ing his  Cross"  «>«*  by  Luis  de  Vargas, 
for  it  is  ruined  by  repainting.  This 
subject,  the  Via  Orucis,  the  Via  Do- 
lorosa of  the  Italians,  is  conmionly 
called  in  Spain  la  calle  de  Amargwra, 
the  street  of  bitterness,  from  the  agony 
endured  by  the  Bedeemer. 

"  The  path  of  $orrow,  and  that  path  alone 
Leads  to  the  place  where  sorrow  is  unknown." 

This  door  suffered  much,  Aug.  7, 1839. 
Entering  to  the  r.  is  the  sagrario,  or 
parish  church,  and  in  front  the  Gothic 
pile,  and  the  Giralda  rising  like  a  mast 
of  the  nave.  To  the  L  is  a  stone  pul- 
pit, where  San  Vicente  Ferrer,  and 
other  instigators  of  autos  de  fe,  have 
preached  (see  the  inscription).  In  the 
1.  comer  a  staircase  leads  to  the  chap- 
ter library.  La  Columbina,  so  called 
because  left  to  the  canons  and  book- 
worms by  Fernando,  the  son  of  Colum- 
bus. It  was  then,  perhaps,  ihe  finest 
in  Europe,  and  destined  by  him  to  be  a 
nucleus — a  future  Bodleian,  but  the 
chapter  grossly  neglected  their  trusts, 
although  largely  endowed.  About  60 
years  ago  the  tine€B  et  hlatta  were 
dusted  out,  and  what  they  had  not 
destroyed,  re-arranged.  It  still  contains 
about  18,000  volumes ;  among  them  in- 
quire for  a  damaged  MS.  of  the  foimder's 
travels,  and  for  those  books  which  con- 
tain notes  written  by  the  great  Columbus 
himself,  e.  g.  in  a  Tractatus  de  Imagine 
Mundi,  Petri  de  Aliaco,  his  cabin  com- 
panion during  his  eventful  voyage ;  also 
look  at  the  MS.  tract  drawn  up  by  him 
'^Hen  in  prison,  to  satisfy  the  Inqui- 

sition and  prove  that  his  discovery  of 
the  New  World  was  predicted  in  the 
Scriptures.  The  fine  set  of  the  works 
of  Handel  were  given  by  Lord  Wel- 
lesley,  whose  recreation  (w<M^hy  son 
of  Lord  Momington,  a  musical  sire) 
was  listening  to  the  high  mass  in 
the  cathedral.  Above  the  book-shelves 
are  hung  portraits  of  archbishops, 
and  the  pictures  themselves  mark  the 
rise  and  decline  of  church  power. 
The  older,  the  Tello,  Albomoz,  Luna, 
Toledo,  Fonseca,  and  Mendoza,  are 
men  of  master  mind,  who  bore  their 
great  commissions  in  their  looks ;  the 
latter,  in  their  blue  and  white  ribands 
and  periwigs,  are  mere  stall-fed  cour- 
tiers, or  boudoir-fi^quenting  Abb^s. 
The  "cretinised"  Bourbon  Cardinal 
Luis  is  the  climax  of  the  imbecile.  Thus 
the  church  has  degenerated  with  the 
state,  art,  and  country.  Observe  also  a 
portrait  of  Fr"'  Bonifaz,  a  physician,  by 
Al°'  Cano ;  and  a  San  Fernando  by 
Murillo,  not  very  fine.  Inquire  for  the 
sword  of  the  great  Count  Fernando 
Gronzalez,  and  used  by  tlie  hero  of 
Seville's  conquest,  Garci  Perez  de  Var- 
gas, in  cutting  Moorish  throats,  as  some 
verses  shown  with  it  detail ;  read  them. 
The  reader  of  Don  Quixote  and  Spanish 
ballads  will  of  course  remember  I>on 
Diego  el  Mcuihuca,  the  pounder,  so 
calledfrom hammering  down  the  Moors. 
This,  the  Oriental  title  of  Judas  Mac- 
cabffius,  was  also  given  to  Charles 
Martel.  By  this  hammer,  who  at  Tours 
crushed  the  crescent,  Europe  was  saved 
to  be  Christian  instead  of  Mahomedan ; 
and  types  of  the  chivalrous  and  of  in- 
dividual personal  prowess  are  dear  to 
Spaniards  and  Asiatics. 

On  the  staircase  observe  the  tomb  of 
Inigo  Mendoza,  1497 ;  and  in  the 
Cuarto  de  los  Subsidios,  a  Piet^  by 
Juan  Nuiiez,  one  of  the  earliest  of  Se- 
villian  painters:  opposite  the  Puerta 
del  Perdon,  in  the  Sala  de  la  Herman' 
dad  del  Santisimo,  is  a  "  Dispute  of  the 
Sacrament,"  by  Herrera  el  Mozo  (the 
hermoso,  "  the  beautiful  one "  of  Mr. 
Inglis ! )  ;  it  is  affected  and  indistinct. 
The  others  are  by  Arteaga  :  observe  a 
small  in&nt  Saviour,  by  Montanes. 




A  dark  gate,  where  a  horseshoe  of  the 
old  mosque  remains,  leads  into  the  in- 
terior ;  here  hangs  what  was  the  croco- 
dile, or  el  Lagarto  (whence  our  term 
alligator),  sent  to  Alonso  el  Sahio,  in 
1260,  from  the  Soltan  of  Egypt,  who 
requested  the  hand  of  his  da-ughter: 
the  Infanta  declined  a  suitor  whose 
first  present  scarcely  indicated  the 
affectionate.  Here  are  buried  some  of 
lo8  oonquistadoreSf  the  conquerors  of 
Seville,  e.  g.,  Pedro  del  Acero,  1265. 

Before  entering  the  cathedral,  walk 
round  the  outside,  which,  with  the  ad- 
joining buildings,  offers  a  most  interest- 
ing epitome  of  the  rise,  progress,  and 
decline  of  Spanish  church  architecture : 
here  are  specimens  of  every  style,  from 
the  Moorish  down  to  the  modem  and 
academical ;  commence  at  the  N.  side : 
observe  the  soHd  tc^ia,  Moorish  walls, 
the  square  buttresses,  the  bearded  or 
flame-fringed  battlements.  The  ele- 
vated steps  are  called  Las  Gfradcu,  the 
old  English  "grees,"  degrees.  The 
truncated  pillars  belonged  to  the 
mosque,  and,  previously^  to  Roman 
temples.  This  terrace  was  long  the 
exchange  of  Seville.  Here,  according 
to  Navagiero  (Viaggio  13),  the  mer- 
chants lounged,  tutto  U  giorno,  on  this 
il  piU  bel  ridutto  de  Seviglia;  so  the 
idlers  and  money-changers,  from  re- 
sorting to  the  cathedral  of  old  London, 
were  called  "  St.  Paul's  Walkers;" 

Those  who  wish  to  see  the  outside  of 
the  cathedral  before  examining  the  in^ 
side,  will  turn  to  the  E.,  to  the  Arch- 
hishop^s  Palace,  a  Churrigueresquepile, 
built  in  1697.  l^e  staircase  is  hand- 
some; the  curious  clerical  cell.  La  Par- 
ra,  in  which  peccant  priests  once  were 
imprisoned,  deserves  notioe :  otherwise 
the  interior  contains  little  worth  men- 
tion, being  meagrely  furnished.  Here 
Soult,  "Plunder-Master-General"  of 
the  French,  resided,  when  the  walls 
were  adorned  with  his  precious  collec- 
tion of  Spanish  pictures ;  fortimately 
he  could  not  "remove"  the  Giralda. 
It  was  on  the  plaza  opposite  that  the 
cloaked  patriot  Spanwrds  watched 
those  of  their  Afrancesado  countrymen 
who  frequented  ihs  foreigners^  ooimcils 

and  feasts,  and  destined  them  to  the 
knife-stab.  Some  French  officers  one 
day  were  admiring  the  Giralda,  when  a 
majo  repUed,  "^  con  todo  eso,  no  se 
hizo  en  Paris"  and  yet  it  was  not 
made  at  Paris ;  and  fortunately,  from 
its  size,  it  could  not  be  "conveyed" 
away  by  the  modem  Verres. 

Passing  onward  to  the  1.  rise  the 
Moorish  walls  of  the  Alcazar,  while  to 
the  rt.  is  the  semicircular  exterior  of 
the  chapel  of  San  Fernando,  adorned 
in  the  heraldic  Berruguete  style  of 
Charles  V.j  next  comes  the  Contaduria, 
or  chapter  counting-house,  pilastered 
in  the  plateresque  balustraded  taste, 
above  which  soars  the  sombre  Gothic. 
The  S.  entrance  of  the  transept  is  un- 
finished ;  in  front  is  the  noble  Lonja, 
caea  longa,  the  exchange,  the  long 
room.  This,  although  somewhat  low, 
is  a  fine  specimen  of  the  skill  of  Her* 
rera,  by  whom  it  was  designed.  For- 
merly, the  bill-brokers  and  gossipers 
desecrated  the  cathedral,  until  the 
Archbishop,  Christobal  de  Bojas,  in 
1572  (the  year  after  Gresham  had 
removed  our  money-changers  fr^m  St, 
Paul's  by  providing  them  with  the 
Boyal  Exchange  of  London),  petitioned 
PhiHp  II.  to  follow  this  example,  even 
of  heretics,  and  erect  a  suitable  casa 
de  contrataeion,  or  houise  of  contracts, 
for  the  growing  commerce  of  Seville. 
But  trusts  in  it  were  given  to  the  un* 
trusty,  and  regulations  frumed  which 
strangle  commerce,  in  order  to  favour 
the  smuggler  and  the  fraudul^it.  After 
infinite  difficulties  Juan  de  Herrera  con- 
cluded^he  edifice  in  13  years,  which  was 
opened  for  business  Aug,  14,  1598, 
Juan  de  Minjares  was  employed  in 
the  construction.  It  is  an  isolated 
quadrangle,  each  side  being  some 
200  ft.  wide  by  63  ft.  high  to  the  ante 
pecho.  The  stone  came  from  the  quar- 
ries of  Martellila,  near  Xerez.  The 
pilasters  and  windows  are  not  pleasing, 
but  the  Doric  and  Ionic  Patio  is  mag- 
nificent :  ascending  a  marble  staircase 
with  modem  jasper  ornaments  and  an 
altarito  of  bad  taste,  to  the  upper  floor, 
is  el  Archivo  de  las  Indias,  the  archives 

of  S.  America,  which  wore  arrang' 

T  a 



Sect.  II. 

here  by  Charles  III.  in  1784;  the 
necessary  alterations  hare  ruined  the 
proportions  of  the  design  of  Herrera. 
The  papers  were  brought  together  from 
the  archiyes  of  SimancaSf  and  put  in 
order  by  Lara  and  Cean  Bermudez ; 
ithey  are  stowed  away  in  handsome 
mahogany  Doric  bookcases,  in  docketed 
bundles,  above  30,000  in"  number,  which 
have  never  been  fully  investigated. 
Official  difficulties  have  been  thrown 
in  the  way  of  the  "barbarian"  eye, 
eager  to  pry  into  the  things  and  secrets 
of  Spain.  Observe  the  marble  pave- 
ment ;  the  inner  corridor  is  modem 
and  paltry :  the  portrait  of  Colimibus 
is  quite  as  apocryphal,  and  by  no  means 
/so  fine,  as  that  by  Parmigianino  at 
Naples.  In  an  end  room  are  some  vile 
portraits  of  the  ungainly  Spanish  sove- 
ireigns  since  Carlos  IIL  The  lower 
story  is  appropriated  to  el  consuladOf 
the  tribunal  of  commerce.  The  Lonja 
was  scarcely  begun  before  real  com- 
merce departed ;  in  the  Plaza  S*°.  To- 
mas,  just  beyond,  No,  15,  is  said  to  be 
the  barber's  shop  of  the  immortal 
Figaro ;  every  traveller  who  has  music 
in  his  soul  should  be  shaved  there,  and 
if  any  of  his  molars — muelas — are  ex- 
tracted, let  him  especially  take  car©  of 
them,  as  according  to  an  old  Spanish 
prejudice,  at  the  Besurrection,  all  souls 
who  in  the  flesh  have  lost  their  wise 
teeth,  las  de  Juicio,  will  come  to  earth 
to  hunt  for  them. 

The  W.  or  grand  fa9ade  of  the  Ca- 
thedral remained  incomplete  until 
1827,  when  the  modem  and  inferior 
work  was  commenced.  Few  Spanish 
works  of  any  kind  are  ever  completed 
chiefly  from  want  of  funds.  Again  a 
fear  of  the  evil  eye  induced  the  leaving 
a  little  something  wanting;  and  the 
clergy,  by  keeping  portions  unfinished, 
always  had  an  excuse  for  begging  con- 
tributions from  the  pious  rich :  observe 
over  the  side  doors  the  quaint  figures 
in  terra  cotta,  by  Lope  Marin,  1548 ; 
the  contrast  of  expression  in  the  severe 
faces  of  the  males,  and  the  smirking 
females,  is  remarkable. 

The  enormous   over-ornate  pile  to 
'^e  l.  is  the  SagrariOi  or  parish-church 

annexed  to  the  cathedral,  in  which 
many  of  the  archbishops  are  buried. 
This  was  commenced  by  Miguel  de  Zu- 
marraga  in  1618,  when  architecture 
was  on  the  decline,  but  not  finished 
until  1662.  The  interior  consists  of  a 
single  nave,  the  size  of  which  has  often 
rendered  doubtful  the  security  of  the 
building.  The  roof,  by  Borja,  is  in  bad 
taste,  as  are  some  jasper  altars  by  the 
notorious  ChurrigueresqueBarbas.  The 
Retahlo  raised  by  him  was  so  absurd 
that  the  chapter  at  last  took  it  down 
and  replaced  it  by  a  grand  Eeredos, 
which  came  from  the  Franciscan  con- 
vent, and  is  known  in  books  of  art,  as 
that  of  the  CapUla  de  los  Vizcainos. 
The  sculptured  Sa.  Veronica  and  San 
Clemente  are  by  Pedro  D.  Comejo ;  the 
Virgin  with  Christ,  St.  John,  and  the 
Magdalen,  are  by  Pedro  Boldan,  and 
very  fine,  although  their  efiect  has  been 
much  injured  by  vile  tinsel  crowns  and 
glories ;  by  the  same  sculptor  is  theba«so 
relievo  of  the  entrance  into  Jerusalem. 
The  door  leading  into  the  cathedral  and 
adorned  with  statues  and  Corinthian 
pillars  is  by  Joseph  de  Arce,  1657. 

The  Cathedral  itself  is  one  of  the 
largest  and  finest  in  Spain :  the  solemn 
and  grandiose  or  "  Orandeza"  is  its  dis- 
tinctive quality,  as  elegance  is  of  Leon, 
strength  of  Santiago,  and  wealth  was 
of  Toledo.  The  site  is  that  of  the  suc- 
cessive temples  of  Astarte,  Salambo, 
Mahomet,  and  Maria.  The  original 
mosque,  on  whose  peculiar  oblong 
quadrilateral  form  it  is  built,  was 
erected  by  Abu  Yusuf  Jacob-Al-Man- 
stir,  1163-1178,  and  remained  unin- 
jured imtU  1480,  when  it  was  pulled 
down,  and  this  cathedral  commenced, 
which  was  opened  for  divine  service 
in  1519.  The  chapter  in  their  first 
conference  determined  to  "construct 
a  church  such  and  so  good  that 
it  never  should  have  its  equal.  Let 
posterity,  when  it  admires  it  complete, 
say  that  those  who  dared  to  devise 
such  a  work  must  have  been  mad." 
There  was  method  in  such  madness. 

The  name  of  the  architect  is  not 
known.  His  was  no  Deo  erexit  Vol- 
taire vanity,  he  worked,  with  no  thought 




of  self,  for  the  sole  love  and  glory  of  Q-od. 
The  gigantic  expense  of  the  colossal 
cathedrals,  raised  in  days  of  poverty, 
contrasts  with  the  paltry  pew-pens 
contracted  for  in  this  age  of  capital ; 
and  how  different  are  the  benefactions! 
Now  the  gift  of  half  an  acre  from  one 
who  owns  half  a  county,  is  trumpeted 
forth  as  magnificent,  and  20^.  is  a  do- 
nation from  a  sovereign.  The  old 
Spaniards  trod  in  the  steps  of  the 
early  Komans,  and  reserved  their 
splendour  for  the  house  of  Q-od.  "  In 
suppliciis  Deorum  magnifici,  domi 
parci"  (Sail.  *B.  C  ix.).  The  sacred 
edifice  is  inside  and  outside  a  museum 
of  fine  art  .in  spite  of  foreign  and 
native  church  spoliations.  It  preserves 
the  Basilica  form  of  the  original  mosque, 
and  is  an  oblong  square,  some  431  ft. 
long  by  315  ft.  wide ;  it  has  7  aisles — 
the  two  lateral  are  railed  off  into 
chapels ;  the  centre  nave  is  magnifi- 
cent, the  height  amazing,  being  145  ft., 
while  the  cwthorio  or  transept  dome 
rises  171  ft. ;  the  offices  connected  with 
the  cathedral  and  chapter  are  built  out- 
side to  the  S. ;  t}ie  superb  pavement,  in 
black  and  white  chequered  marble,  was 
finished  in  1793,  and  cost  the  then 
enormous  sum  of  155,304  dollars. 

On  entering  the  cathedral,  at  the 
W.  end  of  the  centre  aisle,  lies  buried 
Pemando,  son  of  Colimibus,  or  Colony 
as  Spaniards  call  him,  and  one  who 
would  have  been  a  great  man  had  he 
been  son  of  a  less  great  fietther.  Observe 
the  quaint  caravels,  or  ships  of  the  na- 
vigator ;  how  small  their  size,  for  the 
mighty  journey  over  vasty  and  un- 
known seas !  No  Cunard  line  then  : 
and  the  motto  again  how  short,  but 
the  greatness  of  the  deed  suffices :  A 
CasHlla  y  a  Leon,  mundo  nuevo  did 
Colon;  read  also  the  touching  epitaph 
of  hia  son.  Many  carelees  writers 
describe  this  as  the  tomb  of  Columbus 
himself,  who  died  at  ValladoUd,  and 
whose  bones  at  last  rest  in  the  Havana, 
while  the  ever  inaccurate  Chateau- 
briand observes,  **  Christophe  Colomb, 
apr^s  avoir  decouvert  un  monde,  dort 
en  paix  h,  Seville,  dans  la  ChapeUe  des 
rois"  (Congr.  de  Ver.  45). 

Over  this  grave-stone,  during  the 
holy  week,  is  erected  the  monumento, 
an  enormous  wooden  temple  in  form 
of  a  Greek  cross,  in  which  the  host  is 
deposited.  It  was  designed  and  exe- 
cuted in  1544,  by  Antonio  Florentin, 
and  originally  consisted  only  of  three 
stories,  terminated  by  a  cross,  but  sub" 
sequent  additions  were  made  in  1624 
and  1688,  which  have  injured  the  effect,, 
and  rendered  the  whole  out  of  propor^ 
tion  for  the  cathedral,  being  some  130 
ft.  high.  However,  when  lighted  up 
during  the  night  of  Thursday  and  Gk)o4 
Friday,  after  the  host  is  enclosed  in 
the  silver  custodia,  the  effect  is  most 
marvellous,  and  there  are  few  things 
like  it  in  Spain  or  Italy. 

ThQ  cathedral,  is  lighted  by  93  win- 
dows; the  painted  ones  are  among 
the  finest  in  Spain:  the  earhest  are 
by  Mioer  Christobal  Aleman,  1504. 
Observe  the  "  Ascensions,"  the  "  Mag-> 
dalen,"  a  "  Lazarus,"  and  an  "  Entry 
into  Jerusalem,"  by  Amao  de  Flandres 
and  his  brother,  1525 ;  and  the  "  Ee- 
surrection,"  in  the  CapiUa  de  los  DonH 
ceUes,  by  Carlos  de  Bruges,  1558, 
These  artists  were  foreigners  and  Fle^ 
mings,  as  their  names  denote.  Ad- 
vancing up  the  aisle,  the  grandeur  of 
which  is  broken  up  by  the  coro,  observe 
its  trascoro,  a  rich  frontage  of  Doric 
work,  with  precious  marbles.  The 
picture  over  the  altar  is  extremely  an-» 
cient.  The  poor  "San  Fernando"  is 
by  Pacheco,  1633.  Two  doors  on  each 
side  lead  into  the  coros  the  4  has? 
reliefs  were  made  at  Ghenoa.  Above 
rise  the  enormous  organs :  the  palis^r 
does  of  pipes  and  cumbrous  ornaments 
are  churrigueresque  and  inappropriate, 
but  as  instruments  the  deep-swelling 
tones  are  magnificent ;  that  to  the  1., 
al  lado  de  la  JEpistola,  was  made  by 
Jorge  Bosch  in  1792 :  it  is  said  to  have 
5300  pipes  and  110  stops  more  than 
that  of  Haerlem. 

Before  entering  the  Coro  observe  its 
JRespaldos  and  the  cinque-cento  capill^ 
de  San  Agustin,  and  the  exquisite  Vir- 
gin carved  by  Juan  Martinez  Montanes, 
the  Phidias  of  SeviUe  (ob.  1640).  This 
sweet   and  dignified   model  was  th 



Sect.  II. 


favourite  of  his  great  pupil  AX°'  Cano. 
The  tasteless  chapter  have  disfigured 
her  gentle  serious  dignity  with  vile 
tinsel  gewgaws,  repugnant  alike  to  good 
taste  as  to  the  lowly  character  of  the 
Lord's  handmaid ;  but  the  spirit  of  real 
devotion,  as  well  as  that  of  superstitious 
idolatry,  is  quite  irrespective  of  fine 
art:  the  most  hideous  fetish  or  the 
gaudiest  doll  is  more  worshiped  than 
the  finest  M.  Angelo,  just  as  a  true 
rehgious  feeling  purifies  the  coarse  and 
elevates  the  low,  and  generates  a  devo- 
tion altogether  distinct  from  mundane 
or  critical  admiration. 

The  eoro  is  open  to  the  high  altar, 
and  is  railed  off  by  a  fine  reja^  the 
work  of  3ancho  Munoz,  1519.  The 
Silleria  del  Coro  was  carved  by  Nuno 
Sanchez,  1475,  Dancart,  1479,  and 
Guillen,  1648.  Of  the  117  stalls  ob- 
serve the  archiepiscopal  throne  in  the 
centre :  the  elegant  facistol  is  by  Bar- 
tolome  Morel,  1570.  In  the  ewtre  los 
coros  is  put  up  during  Easter  week 
the  exquisite  bronze  candlestick,  25 
feet  high,  called  El  Tenebrario,  and 
wrought,  in  1562,  by  the  same  Morel : 
when  the  miserere  is  sung  in  the  holy 
week,  it  is  hghted  with  thirteen  candles: 
twelve  are  put  out  one  after  another; 
indicating  that  the  apostles  deserted 
Christ;  one  alone  of  white  wax  re- 
mains burning,  and  is  a  symbol  of  the 
Virgin,  true  to  the  last.  At  Easter 
also,  the  Cirio  pasqual  or  "  fount- 
candle,"  which  is  equal  to  a  large 
marble  pillar,  24  feet  high,  and  weigh* 
ing  7  or  8  cwt.  of  wax,  is  placed  to  the 
1.  of  the  high  altar.  Before  ascending 
the  steps  to  it  observe  the  two  pulpits 
and  the  reja principal^  made  in  1518  by 
the  lay  Dominican  Fr°'  de  Salamanca : 
those  at  the  side  are  by  Sancho  Munoz, 
1518,  and  are  first-rate  specimens. 
The  Gothic  Retahlo  of  the  high  altar, 
divided  into  44  compartments,  is  un- 
equalled in  Spain  in  size  and  elaborate 
details ;  designed  in  1482  by  Dancart, 
it  was  finished  in  1550 :  it  is  said  to 
be  made  of  aleroe  (see  Cordova),  with 
hich  the  plain  of  Tablada,  near  Se- 
\  was  covered  in  the  time  of  the 
^  (Morgado,  96).     The  carvings 

represent  sacred  subjects  from  the  New 
and  Old  Testament  and  the  life  of  the 
Virgin.  The  Alfonsine  tables,  which 
are  usually  placed  on  the  altar,  contain 
the  relics  collected  by  Alonso  el  Sabio. 
The  silver  work  and  frY)ntage  of  the 
altar,  as  also  the  atrilesy  are  the  work 
of  Fr°*  Alfaro.  The  Seapaldo  del  altar, 
of  richest  Gothic,  is  by  Gonzalo  de 
B>ojas,  1522;  the  terra-cotta  figures 
are  by  Miguel  Florentine,  1523.  Here 
in  a  small  room  are  some  curious  pic- 
tures by  Alejo  Fernandez,  in  the  half- 
gilded  Byzantine  style.  They  deserve 
notice,  as  Fernandez  was  the  master  of 
Castillo,  whose  pupils  were  Cano  and 
MuriUo.  Here  hung  the  two  superb 
Murillos— the  "  Buth  of  the  Virgin" 
and  the  "  Bepose  in  Egypt,"  which  on 
M.  Soult's  arrival  were  concealed  by  the 
chapter ;  a  traitor  informed  him,  and 
he  sent  to  beg  them  as  a  present,  hint- 
ing that  if  reliised  he  woiild  take  them 
by  force  (Toreno,  xi.).  The  worthy 
Marshal  one-day  showing  CoL  Gurwood 
his  "  collection  "  at  Paris,  stopped  op- 
posite a  Murillo,  and  said,  "  I  very 
much  value  that  specimen,  as  it  saved 
the  hves  of  two  estimable  persons." 
An  aide-de-camp  whispered,  "  He 
threatened  to  have  both  shot  on 
the  spot  unless  they  gave  up  the 

Walking  round  the  lateral  chapels, 
and  beginning  at  the  door  of  the  Sa- 
grario,  is  that  de  los  Jacomes,  Observe 
a  Boelas,  retouched  by  one  Molina  and 
quite  spoilt.  In  the  next  chapel,  la 
de  la  Visitacion,  is  a  JEtetablo  painted 
by  Pedro  Marmolejo  de  Villegas,  bom 
at  Seville,  1520-1670,  and  an  imitator 
of  the  Florentine  school.  Observe  the 
portrait  of  Diego  de  Boldan,  who  gave 
this  Retahlo,  In  the  Ca.  de  N,S.  del 
Cofuuelo  is  a  "Holy  Family,"  the 
masterpiece  of  Alonso  Miguel  de  Tobar, 
the  best  perhaps  of  Murillo's  pupils, 
1678-1758.  Then,  passing  the  grand 
door,  is  the  precious  "Angel  de  la 
Guarda"  the  Genius  natale  Comesy  a 
guardian  angel  holding  a  sweet  child, 
by  Murillo :  next,  a  fine  "  Nativity,"  by 
Luis  de  Vargas,  who  may  be  called  the 
Pierino  del  Vaga  of  SeviUe,  1502-1569. 




In  Ca.  de  San  Laureano,  observe  the 
tutelar  saint  walking  without  his  head : 
in  these  miracles,  c'est  le  premier  pas 
qui  coHte.  Many  Spanish  female  saints 
spoke  after  decapitation — the  ruUng 
passion  strong  after  death.  So  of  old 
Philomela's  tongue  vibrated  after  it 
was  cut  off  (Met.  vi.  556).  So  says 
Lane  (*  Mod.  Egyp.'  i.  300),  a  Moslem 
santon  spoke  without  any  head  at  all. 
In  Dante's  ^Inferno,'  xxviii.  121,  a 
gentleman  converses  holding  his  own 
head  in  his  hand  like  a  lantern.  Ari- 
osto's  Orrilo  looks  after  his  own  head 
when  cut  off,  and  very  sensibly  puts 
it  on  again  as  if  it  had  been  his  hat ; 
and  Isabella,  of  the  same  romancer, 
miurmurs  out  after  death  the  name  of 
her  loved  Zurbino. 

In  the  next  chapel  of  Santa  Ana  is  a 
JRetahlo  of  the  date  1504,  with  very 
curious  costumes,  painted  with  all  the 
defects  of  Juan  Valdes  Leal,  1630- 
1691,  the  rival  and  foe  of  Murillo.  A 
door  now  leads  to  the  archives,  which 
are  very  perfect,  as  the  chapter  sent 
them  to  Cadiz,  and  they  thus  escaped 
being  made  into  cartridges  by  M.  Soult. 
Adjoining  is  the  Mayordomia,  N.B. 
Examine  the  splendid  choral  books. 
Betuming  ta  the  cathedral  in  the  Ca. 
San  Josef,  observe  a  "Nativity,"  by 
¥r°'  Antolinez,  ob.  1676  ;  and  a  mar- 
riage of  the  Virgin  by  Valdes  Leal; 
and  in  the  next,  a  statue  of  San  Her- 
menegildo,  by  Montanes ;  and  the 
magnificent  tomb  of  the  Archb.  Juan 
de  Cervantes,  ob.  1453,  the  work  of 
Lorenzo  de  Mercandante.  In  the  Sa- 
cristia  de  la  Antigua  are  a  few  paint- 
ings by  Antolinez,  el  Griego,  Zurbaran, 
Morales,  and  some  flower-pieces,  by 
Arellano,  1614-1776.  The  chapel  it- 
self is  one  of  the  Sancta  Sanctorum. 
Observe  the  marble  Retahlo;  the  silver 
railing,  with  the  words  "  Ave  Maria ;" 
and  the  ancient  picture  painted  in  the 
style  of  Cimabue,  but  more  probably 
Byzantine :  the  sacristan  will  swear 
that  it  is  by  St.  Luke,  and  that  it  re- 
mained even  in  the  Moorish  mosque, 
and  of  itself  miraculously  introduced 
San  Ferdinand  into  Seville,  opening  the 
gates  and  shutting  the  sentinel's  eyes  ; 

justly  therefore  a  quarto  volume  was 
written  on  this  Palladium  of  the  city 
by  Antonio  de  SoUs,  Sevilla,  1739.  The 
fine  plaferesque  tomb  of  the  "  great " 
Car  dinal  Mendoza,  erected  in  1509,  is 
by  Miguel  Florentinj  and,  opposite, 
that  of  Archb.  Luis  de  Salcedo,  a  feeble 
imitation,  in  1741.  The  frescoes  were 
painted  by  Domingo  Martinez.  The 
marble  statues  in  the  Ketablo  are  by 
Pedro  Duque  Comejo. 

Now  advance  into  the  transept,  and 
look  up  at  the  Grothic  balconies  of  the 
galleries.  The  mahogany  clock  is  in 
the  worst  French  and  modem  taste. 
To  the  rt.  of  the  Puerta  de  la  Lonja  is 
the  celebrated  "ia  Generacion'*  of 
Luis  de  Vargas.  The  breast  of  Eve 
was  covered  by  the  prudish  chapter. 
This  truly  Italian  picture,  and  the 
painter's  masterpiece,  is  also  called 
"ia  Oamha,*^  from  the  leg  of  Adam — 
ex  pede  Herculem — which  Mateo  Perez 
de  Alesio  is  said  to  have  said  was 
worth  more  than  all  his  colossal  "  Saint 
Christopher,"  painted  opposite  in  fresco 
in  1584,  and  which  is  32  ft.  high.  San 
ChrkBtobal — for  thus  he  is  half  Chris- 
tianised and  Punicised — was  a  Saracen 
ferryman— ^or^^or  ipse  Charon,  He 
is  painted  at  the  entrance  of  most 
Spanish  cathedrals,  of  colossal  size, 
that  all  may  see  hun,  because  all  who 
look  on  him  cannot  come  on  that  day 
to  an  evil  death.*  He  carries  the  infant 
Saviour,  who  holds  the  globe  in  his 
hand,  across  a  river.  This  Baal  is  the 
Coelifer  Atlas,  Christoferos.  Few  Me- 
licarios  in  Spain  are  without  one  of  his 
teeth,  of  which  he  must  have  had  more 
than  a  crocodile  and  larger  than  an 
elephant,  for  which  some  heretic  na- 
tm'alists  have  taken  or  mistaken  the 
molars.  In  the  Ca.  de  la  Santa  Cruz 
is  a  "Descent,"  by  Pedro  Fernandez 
de  Guadalupe,  1527.  Next  enter  the 
most  eleg&nt  Sacristia  de  las  Calices, 
designed  in  1530  by  Diego  de  Biano. 
Observe  the  Crucifix  by  Montanes,  the 
Tintoret-like  portrait  of  Contreras, 
painted  in  1541  by  L.  de  Vargas  j  and 
the  nun  Dorothea,  by  Murillo,  finished 

•  Christophori  Sancti  speciem  qiiicunque  tuet' 
Ist&  nempe  die  non  morte  malft  morietur. 



Sect.  II. 

in  1674;  a  "  Saviour,"  by  Boelas  ;  and 
a  One  "St.  Peter,"  by  Herrera  el 
Viejo.  The  patronesses,  Santas  Ru- 
fina  and  Justina,  were  painted  in  1817 
by  Goya:  the  fit  models  for  this  David- 
like abomination  were  two  notorious 
frail  ladies  of  Madrid  named  Bamona 
and  Sabina.  The  picture  was  meant 
for  a  chapel,  but  was  banished  by  the 
prudent  bishop  into  this  Sacristia. 
Thus  of  old  the  mistresses  of  painters 
and  great  men  were  the  models  of  the 
pictures  of  Venus ;  particularly  Flora, 
the  beloved  of  Pompey ;  and  Campaspe, 
the  beloved  of  Alexander;  while  Phryne 
was  "the  model  of  both  Apelles  and 
Praxiteles  (Athaen.  xiii.  591).  AreUius 
(Plin.  Nat.  Hist.  xxxv.  10)  was  re- 
markable for  painting  goddesses  from 
improper  models. 

The  architecture  of  this  Sacristia  is 
in  the  transition  style,  when  the  Gk>thic 
was  givmg  place  to  the  G-reeco-Bomano 
and  plateresque.  Here  lie  some  of  the 
Conquistadores  de  Sevilla.  Observe  the 
marble  tables  and  pavement.  In  the 
next  chapel  are  four  tombs  of  armed 
knights  and  ladies.  Enter  the  ante-sala 
of  the  Sacristia  mayor ;  observe  the 
trunk-Uke  roof  and  the  cardinal  virtues 
in  niches.  In  the  Sacristia,  observe 
the  plateresque  carved  door,  and  the 
armarios^  or  plate-chests,  by  Pedro 
Duque  Comejo,  1677-1757,  pupil  of 
Koldan.  The  Sacristia  may  or  ^  the  tri- 
umph of  the  rich  plateresque,  was  built 
by  Diego  de  Biano,  1530.  The  dresses 
of  the  clergy  are  kept  in  new  presses, 
made  in  1819  by  order '  of  a  barbarian 
Canon,  named  Santos,  who  destroyed 
the  glorious  old  ones  of  Guillen,  1548, 
a  few  of  whose  Michael  Angelesque 
panels  are  let  into  the  modem  wood- 
work. Observe  the  colossal  silver  Cus- 
todia,  finished  in  1587,  by  Juan  d' Arfe, 
the  Cellini  of  Spain.  This  masterpiece 
was  unfortunately  "  beautified  and  re- 
paired" in  1668,  by  Juan  de  Segura, 
during  the  Immaculate  Conception 
mania,  who  placed  the  Virgin  in  the 
position  of  the  original  figure  of  Faith. 
The  inscription  is  by  the  painter-author 
Pacheco.       Ajiother    Custodia^  which 

'ighed  above  a  cwt.  of  pure  gold,  was 

melted  for  a  royal  doriative  in  1796 — a 
mild  term  for  compulsory  church  ap- 
propriation and  confiscation :  observe 
especially  the  exquisite  Tenehrario,  and 
the  two  full-length  Murillos,  painted  in 
a  bold  style  in  1655 ;  that  represent- 
ing San  Leandro  was  the  portrait  of 
Alonso  de  Herrera,  Apuntador  del 
Coro,  and  that  of  San  Isidoro  of  Juan 
Lopez  Talavan.  The  "  Descent "  from 
the  cross,  over  the  altco*,  is  by  Pedro 
Campana,  who,  bom  at  Brussels  in 
1503,  and  a  pupil  perhaps  of  Michael 
Angelo,  was  one  of  the  first  to  intro- 
duce the  Italian  style ;  and  this,  painted 
in  1548,  and  considered  by  some  his 
finest  work,  became  the  marvel  and 
model  of  Seville,  because  new  in  style 
to  their  eyes :  now  it  seems  somewhat 
dark  and  hard ;  but  such,  when  it  was 
first  exhibited,  was  its  life-Hke  awful 
character,  that  Pacheco  (Arte  57)  was 
afraid  to  remain  after  dusk  alone ;  and 
before  it  Murillo  used  to  stand,  watch- 
ing, as  he  said,  until  those  holy  men 
should  have  finished  taking  down  the 
Saviour,  and  before  this  picture  he  de- 
sired to  be  buried ;  it  then  decorated 
the  altar  of  his  parish  church,  JJa 
Santa  Cruz.  Soult's  vandals  levelled 
that  Holy  Cross  down  to  the  dust,  and 
cast  out  the  ashes  of  MurUlo  to  the 
winds ;  they  then  broke  the  picture 
into  five  pieces,  which  was  left  so,  until 
the  English  drove  them  out  of  Seville ; 
then  the  chapter  employed  Joachin  Cor- 
tes, who  was  occupied  for  three  months 
in  the  restoration. 

Underneath  it  are  kept  the  usual 
assortment  of  authentic  bones  and 
relics,  bits  of  the  cross,  crown  of  thorns, 
the  Virgin's  shift,  &c. :  observe  the 
identical  keys  presented  to  St.  Ferdi- 
nand when  Seville  smrendered:  that 
given  by  the  Jews  is  of  iron  gilt,  and  • 
the  letters  on  the  wards  represent  "  Me- 
lech  hammelakim  giphthohh  Melek  kol- 
hstaretz  gabo," — the  King  of  kings  will 
open,  the  king  of  all  the  earth  will 
enter;  translated  by  Spaniards  Dios 
ahrira  y  rey  entrard;  the  other  key 
of  silver  gUt  was  given  by  Axataf,  and 
is  inscribed  in  Arabic,  "May  Allah 
render  eternal  the  dominion  of  Islam  in 




this  city ;"  these  indeed  are  real  reHcs. 
The  tesoro  or  treasury  hes  in  a  court  to 
the  rt.  It  has  been  sadly  thinned  by 
foreign  and  native  spoilers  ;  yet  there  is 
a  goodly  sideboard  of  church  plate  and 
some  very  fine  silver  oil  vases,  candle- 
sticks, &c. :  observe  the  tablets  called 
Las  AlfonsinaSf  studded  with  Marian 
reUcs,  and  a  fine  cross  made  in  15S0  by 
Fr°*  Merino  :  see  also  a  golden  incensct- 
rio,  and  a  cross  made  from  a  "nugget " 
of  the  new  world,  oflfered  by  Colimibus. 
The  Retdblo  of  the  Ca.  del  Mariscal 
contains  some  of  the  latest  and  finest 
works  of  Campana,  and  shows  how 
much  he  improved  after  seeing  the 
elegant  L.  de  Vargas.  Notice  also  an 
excellent  Purification  of  the  Virgin, 
and  some  portraits  of  the  founder's 
family.  In  the  Ante-CaMldo  are  some 
marble  pilasters,  statues,  and  medal- 
Uons  made  at  G^oa,  with  inscriptions 
by  Fr°'  Pacheco :  in  a  Uttle  court-yard 
is  an  inscribed  G-othic  stone  relating  to 
Bishop  Honoratus,  successor  to  San 
Isidoro,  A.D.  641. 

The  8ala  Capitular,  or  chapter- 
house, is  another  of  Biano's  exquisite 
plateresque  saloons,  and  easier  to  be 
described  with  the  pencil  than  pen, 
built  in  1530,  it  is  eUiptical,  50  ft.  long 
by  34  ft. :  observe  the  marble  pave- 
ment, worked  to  correspond  with  the 
elaborate  ceiUng.  The  beautiful  "  Con- 
cepcian"  is  by  Murillo;  "St.  Ferdi- 
nand "  is  by  Pacheco  j  the  "  Four  Vir- 
tues, with  Shields  and  Children,"  are 
by  Pablo  de  Cespedes,  the  learned 
painter-poet  of  "  Cordoba,"  1538, 1608, 
and  retouched  by  Murillo  in  1667. 
The  16  marble  medaUions  were  made 
at  Gtenoa ;  the  eight  ovals  between  the 
windows  are  painted  by  Murillo.  In  the 
Sala  Capitular  de  abajo  are  ftdl- length 
royal  portraits  from  Alonso  III.  down 
to  Charles  V.  Observe  the  cinque-cento 
cornice,  the  medaUions,  the  pavement 
with  the  No  Do  device  of  Seville.  Re- 
turning through  the  Ca.  del  Marisal,  to 
the  Contaduria  Mayor,  is  a  "  St.  Fer- 
dinand," by  Murillo,  a  "  Sacrifice  of 
Abraham,"  in  which  the  Isaac  is  evi- 
dently taken  from  one  of  the  sons  of 
the  Laocoon,  and  a  "  Bufina  and  Jus- 

tina,"  by  Pablo  de  Cespedes ;  here  are 
kept  the  chapter  accoimts. 

The  first  chapel  on  the  £.  end,  called 
de  la  "  Concepcion  grande^*  is  in  de- 
generate cinque-cento  :  here  lies  buried 
Oonzalo  Nufiez  de  Sepulveda,  who,  in 
1654,  richly  endowed  the  September 
"  Octave  "  in  honour  of  the  "  Immacu- 
late Concepcion."  The  ashes  of  the 
conquistadorea  of  Seville  were  carted 
out  to  make  room  for  this  benefactor. 
Observe  the  pictures  treating  of  that 
mystery ;  the  large  crucifix  has  been 
attributed  to  Alonso  Cano.  At  this 
Octave  and  at  Corpus,  the  Quiristers 
or  Seises  (formerly  they  were  six  in 
number)  dance  before  the  high  altar 
with  castanets  and  with  plumed  hats 
on  their  heads  :  dressed  as  pages  of  the 
time  of  Phihp  III.,  they  wear  red  and 
white  for  Corpus,  blue  and  white  for 
the  festivals  of  the  Virgin,  who,  bodily 
and  verily,  so  says  the  Sacristan,  ap- 
peared in  those  colours  to  Santa  Bri- 
gida.  These  dances  were  the  ancient 
EfitfjbsXttM,  the  grave-measured  minuet  i 
thus  David  praised  the  Lord  with  a 
song  and  the  dance.  These  must  not 
be  confoimded  with  the  Kd^^a|,  the  jig, 
and  those  jmotus  lonicos  oi  the  daugh- 
ter of  Herodias  ;  but  nothing  has  suf- 
fered more  degradation  than  the  dance. 

The  Capilla  Real  is  almost  a  diurch 
by  itself  with  its  regular  staff  of 
clergy.  Built  in  1541  by  Martin  de 
Gainza,  it  is  artistically  inferior  to  the 
saloons  of  Biano,  for  the  plateresque 
was  then  going  out  of  fashion ;  81  fk. 
long,  59  wide,  130  high,  it  is  entered  un- 
der a  lofty  arch.  The  statues  of  the 
apostles  and  evangehsts  were  sculp- 
tured by  Lorenzo  del  Vao  and  Campos 
in  1553,  from  designs  by  Campana. 
The  Reja  is  of  the  bad  period  of  Carlos 
III. :  here  are  the  tombs  of  Alonso  el 
Sabio  and  Queen  Beatrix,  and  medal- 
lions of  Garci  Perez  and  Diego  Perez 
de  Vargas.  The  Retahlo  by  Luis  Ortiz, 
1647,  is  in  vile  taste  :  over  the  altar  is 
placed  the  Virgen  de  los  Reyes,  a  mi- 
raculous image  given  to  St.  Ferdinand 
by  his  cousin  St.  Louis  of  France.  St. 
Ferdinand,  who  died  May  31,  1252- 
lies  before  it  stretched  out  in  a  si^ 



Sect.  II. 

and  glazed  Uma,  made  in  1729 :  the 
body  nearly  perfect,  is  displayed  on 
May  30,  Aug.  22,  Not.  23,  and  none 
should  fan  to  attend  the  most  striking 
military  mass,  when  troops  are  marched 
in  and  the  colours  lowered  to  the  con- 
queror of  Seville :  observe  the  original 
sepulchre  of  the  king,  on  which  the 
Urna  is  placed,  with  epitaphs  in  Latin 
and  Spanish  to  the  rt.,  and  in  Hebrew 
and  Arabic  to  the  1.,  with  orles 
of  castles  and  lions ;  the  epitaphs 
were  composed  by  his  son,  Alonso  el 
Sabio.  Florez  has  published  a  quarto 
explication  of  them,  Eloffios  del  So. 
Sey,  Mad.  1754.  The  Banner  of  Spain 
and  the  sword  of  St.  Ferdinand  are 
kept  in  this  chapel,  the  sword  saved 
from  Soult  by  a  chaplain,  used  to  be 
taken  out  on  all  grand  war  expedi- 
tions ;  and  on  his  saint's  day  it  is  ex- 
hibited, and  a  sermon,  el  de  la  espada, 
is  preached,  in  which  its  virtues  are 
expounded.  In  this  chapel  also  is 
buried  the  gentle  and  beautiful  Maria 
de  FadiUa,  the  mistress  of  Fedro  el 
Cruel,  and  the  Minister  Florida  Blanca. 

The  Retdblo  in  the  Ca.  de  San  Pe- 
drOj  in  the  Herrera  style,  contains  pic- 
tures by  Ft«-  Zurbaran,  1598-1662: 
observe  the  lock  of  the  grating  "  Cer- 
rojo  de  la  Reja^^  made  by  Cordero, 
but  this  comer  of  the  cathedral  is  too 
dark  to  see  anything  well ;  in  the  north 
transept  is  a  charming  "Na.  Sa.  de 
Belem,"  or  a  delicious  "Virgin  and 
Child,"  by  Alonso  Cano.  In  the  Ca. 
de  San  Francisco  is  the  "Assumption 
of  the  Tutelar,"  one  of  the  best  works 
of  the  prestimptuous  Herrera  el  Mozo. 

The  window,  painted  in  1556,  is  re- 
markable. In  the  Ca.  de  Santiago  is 
a  picture  of  that  patron  of  the  Spains, 
riding  over  Moors,  with  miraculous 
energy,  by  Juan  de  las  Boelas  (1558- 
1625).  The  painted  window,  the  "  Con- 
version of  St.  Faul,"  1560,  is  fuU 
of  the  richest  reds  and  blues;  the 
"  San  Lorenzo"  is  by  Valdes.  Observe 
the  tomb  of  Archb.  Vargas,  ob.  1362, 
era  1400;  and  in  the  next  chapel, 
that  of  Baltazar  del  Rio,  Bishop  of 
Scalas,  1518,  a  friend  of  Leo  X.  The 

\  is  Italian  work  ;  the  last  chapel 

contains  the  Pila  or  font,  with  the  Gi- 
ralda  windows,  painted  in  1685.  Here 
is  the  large  and  much-admired  paint- 
ing, the  "  San  Antonio  "  of  Mimllo  ; 
the  infant  Saviour  attended  by  cherubs 
visits  the  kneeling  monk ;  unfortu- 
nately, in  1833,  it  was  cruelly  re- 
touched, and  banado,  or  daubed  over, 
by  Gutierrez,  an  operation  we  saw  per- 
formed and  vainly  protested  against. 
This  once  noble  work  was  painted  in 
1656  in  Murillo*s  best  period.  Mons. 
Viardot  (Etudes,  429)  and  the  stupid 
verger  tell  an  idle  tale  that  "  Our 
Duke"  coveted  the  picture,  and  oflfered 
to  cover  this  gigantic  canvas  with 
ounces  of  gold,  but  that  the  chapter 
declined.  "L'Angleterre  a  gard^  son 
or,  et  Seville  le  chef-d'oeuvre  de  son 
pantre — ^gloire  h  Seville."  Supposing 
that  this  were  his  chef-d'oeuvre,  which 
it  is  not,  and  supposing  the  Duke 
oflTered  his  cash,  which  he  did  not, 
surely  English  gold  is  no  worse  than 
French  iron.  It  is,  however,  quite 
common  in  Spain,  when  the  value  of 
anything  is  wished  to  be  enhanced,  to 
say,  "  An  EngUshman  bid  so  and  so 
for  it."  This  at  least  is  a  compliment 
to  our  honesty ;  toe  do  not  rob,  but  are 
willing  to  pay  for  what  we  have  the 
taste  to  admire.  No  offer  of  cash  by 
M.  Soult  is  ever  cited,  he  foimd  steel 
and  steahng  cheaper.  This  picture 
disappointed  Wilkie,  and,  to  our  mind, 
has  always  been  overrated :  but  as  it  is 
the  fashion  to  praise  it,  the  cuckoo  note 
is  repeated. 

This  cathedral  should  be  visited  at 
different  times  of  the  day  and  evening, 
in  order  to  fully  estimate  the  artistical 
changes  and  effects  of  light  and  shade. 
The  interior  is  somewhat  dark,  but  it 
is  a  gorgeous  gloom,  inspiring  a  reli- 
gious sentim^it,  chastening,  not  chill- 
ing, solemn,  not  sad.  The  contrast 
with  all  out  of  doors  is  striking ;  and, 
after  the  glare,  heat,  noise,  and  crowds, 
the  still,  subdued,  cool  quiet  soothes 
body  and  soul.  The  sun,  about  two 
o'clock,  falls  on  the  Holy  Rood  over  the 
Setablhy  and  produces  a  splendid  effect. 
Th6  cathedral  is  always  thronged,  not 
only  by  the  devout,  but  by  idlers,  beg- 




gars,  imd  sinners.  The  sexes  are  not 
allowed  to  walk  about  or  talk  together ; 
the  ancient  SUentiaru,  in  the  form  of 
oeladoreSy  and  pe-rtiguerosy  beadles,  and 
vergers,  keep  guard,  and  papal  excom- 
munications are  suspended  in  ter- 
rorem;  nor  are  women  allowed  to 
enter  after  oracumes,  when  the  shades 
of  evening  come  on,  and  the  pretext  of 
"going  to  church"  reminds  the  scholar 
of  Ovid  (Art.  Am,  i.  8.  74,  and  iii. 
638),  who  teaches  women  to  make  the 
pretence  of  going  to  the  mass  of  Isis  an 
excuse  to  meet  their  lovers.  It  was 
not  prudent  even  to  ask  what  took 
place  before  her  Retdblo  (Am.  ii.  2, 
25).  Juvenal  (ii.  6, 487)  uses  the  strong 
expression,  Isiaces  Sacraria  JJancB ! 
And  .  the  cathedral  of  mariolatrous 
Seville  is  a  chosen  rendezvous  ;  lovers 
care  little  for  the  presence  of  the  Ima- 
genes  8agrada9 — they  are,  say  they,  Samr 
to8  muy  ccUladoSf  and  never  tell  tales. 

These  evils  are,  however,  easily 
avoided.  Not  so  another  nuisance, 
common  to  this  and  most  churches  in 
Spain,  the  beggar  tribe,  who,  like  mos- 
quitOB,  smell  the  blood  of  an  English- 
man ;  remember,  therefore,  the  specific 
phrase,  Perdona  Vmd.  por  JDios,  Her- 
mano  !  My  brother,  wiU  your  worship 
excuse  me,  for  Gk>d's  sake !  The  beggar 
bows — he  knows  that  all  further  appli- 
cation is  useless ;  the  effect  is  certain 
if  the  words  be  quietly  and  gravely 

Now  visit  the  Alcazar ;  but  first  ob- 
serve a  singular  Moorish  skew-arch, 
in  a  narrow  street  leading  to  the 
Puerta  de  Xerez,  which  proves  that 
the  Moors  knew  its  use  at  least  eight 
centuries  ago.  The  Alcazctr  is  entered 
by  two  gates,  either  bv  that  de  las  Ban- 
deraSy  where  the  colours  are  hoisted 
when  the  king  is  residing,  or  by  that 
de  la  Monteria^  from  whence  he  sallied 
forth  to  the  chace.  The  grand  portal 
is  apparently  Moorish,  yet  it  was  built 
by  Don  Pedro  the  Cruel,  the  great 
restorer  of  this  palace.  At  this  period 
the  elaborate  Oriental  decorations  of 
the  Alhambra  were  just  completed  by 
Yusuf  I.;  and  Pedro,  who  was  fre- 
quently on  the  best   terms  with  the 

Moors  of  Gbanada,  desirous  of  adopt-, 
ing  that  style,  employed  Moorish 
workmen.  Observe  the  delicate  ara- 
besques, the  pillar-divided  windows, 
ajimezeSy  and  the  carved  soffit.  The 
quaint  Gothic  inscription  almost  looks 
like  Cufic ;  it  runs  thus  j  "  El  muy 
alto,  y  muy  noble,  y  muy  poderoso, 
y  conquistador  Don  Pedro,  por  la 
gracia  de  Dios,  Bey  de  Castilla  y  de 
Leon,  mandd  facer  estos  alcazares  y 
estas  facadas  que  fiie  hecho  en  la  era 
mil  quatro  cientos  y  dos,"  that  is,  a.p. 

The  royal  residence — Alcasar — al- 
Kasr,  the  house  of  Csesar,  whose  nawe 
is  synonymous  with  majesty,  occupies 
the  site  of  that  of  the  Boman  prsetor ; 
it  was  rebuilt  in  the  10th  and  11th 
centuries,  by  Jalubi,  a  Toledan  archi- 
tect, for  Prince  Abdu-r-rahman  An- 
na'ssir  Lidin- Allah  [the  defender  of  the 
religion  of  Gk)d]. 

It  has  been  often  and  much  altered 
by  Ferdinand  and  Isabella,  and  Charles 
v.,  and  Frenchified  by  Philip  V.,  who 
subdivided  the  noble  soloons  with 
paltry  lath  and  plaster  tabique.  Don 
Pedro  began  by  repairing  the  whole  of 
the  western  side,  and  his  painted  ceil- 
ings still  remain,  as  the  badge  of  his 
Banda  evinces.  Isabella  erected  the 
pretty  chapel  up-stairs,  with  the  very 
interesting  Azulejo  ornaments.  Charl^ 
V.  was  here  married  to  Isabella  of  Por- 
tugal, and,  being  of  chiUy  habits,  put 
up  the  fire-places  in  the  second-floor 
to  the  E.  He  also  repaired  the  stucco 
lienzos  of  the  grand  patio.  Phihp  II. 
introduced  the  portraits  into  the  hall  of 
ambassadors ;  Philip  III.,  in  1610,  built 
the  armoury,  and  Philip  V.,  in  1733, 
raised  the  pillared  Apeadero :  here  he 
resided  in  morbid  seclusion  for  2  years, 
amusing  himself  with  religious  pen- 
ances and  fishing  in  his  pond.  The 
qficinas  over  the  baths  of  Padilla  were 
erected  by  Ferd.  VI.  This  Alcazar 
was  barbarously  whitewashed  in  1813, 
when  much  of  the  delicate  painting  and 
gilding  was  obliterated  j  considerable 
and  creditable  restorations  were  begun 
by  Arjona  in  1830,  and  carried  on  by 
the  Infemta  during  her  residence  here. 



Sect.  II. 

On  entering,  the  columns  in  the 
vestibule  are  Roman,  with  G-othic 
capitals:  these  belonged  to  the  original 
palace.  Don  Pedro  brought  from  Va- 
lencia many  other  pillars  taken  out  of 
the  royal  Aragonese  residence,  which  he 
destroyed.  The  grand  Pa^*o  is  superb, 
70  ft.  by  54.  It  was  modernised  in 
1569.  The  stucco-work  is  by  Fr°* 
Martinez.  Many  of  the  doors,  ceilings, 
and  Azulejos  are  the  genuine  Moorish 
ones;  the  oldest  portion  fronts  the 
garden.  Visit  the  pretty  ^«pjpe<  Patio 
de  las  MuTieca^j  and  the  adjoining  sa- 
loons, which  have  been  restored.  The 
hail  of  ambassadors  has  a  glorious 
Media  naranja  roof:  but  the  Spanish 
balconies  and  royal  portraits  mar  the 
Moorish  character ;  the  baboon  Bour- 
bon heads,  royal  Cretins,  are  both  an 
insult  and  injury.  Here  the  contempt- 
ible Seville  Junta  sat  until  they  ran 
after  Ocana.  In  the  next  room  it  is 
said  that  Don  Pedro  caused  his  brother, 
El  Maestre  de  Santiago^  whom  he  had 
invited  as  a  guest,  to  be  murdered. 
Another  anecdote  of  this  Richard  III. 
of  Spain  deserves  mention.  Abu  Said, 
el  Bey  Bermejo^  who  had  usurped  the 
throne  of  Ismael  II.  of  Ghranada,  fled 
to  Seville  from  the  rightful  heir,  imder 
promise  of  safe  conduct  from  Pedro, 
who  received,  feasted,  and  then  put  his 
guest  to  death,  in  order  to  seize  his 
treasure  in  jewels,  under  circumstances 
of  inhospitable  and  mocking  cruelty ; 
(see  his  Chronica,  ch.  6).  Gkiyangos 
found,  in  an  Arabic  MS.  in  the  British 
Museum,  a  contemporary  account  of 
the  event.  Among  the  gems  is  specified 
"  three  huge  rubies,"  big  as  a  pigeon's 
egg  —  Imevo  de  Paloma.  One  was  a 
Koh-i-noor,  to  which  Pedro  attached 
such  value  that  he  specified  it  in  his 
will,  as  the  "  Balax  of  the  Red  King." 
{Balaxi  is  a  Persian  word  for  G-ranate, 
and  is  taken,  says  Ducange,  from  the 
name  of  a  province,  Balacia.  The  old 
English  term,  as  used  by  Dugdale,  was 
Ballace.)  This  particular  gem  was 
given  by  Pedro  to  our  Black  Prince 
after  the  victory  at  Navarete.  This  is 
the  "fair  ruby,  great  like  a  racket- 
'^'^U,"  which  Queen  EUzabeth  showed 

to  Mary  of  Scots'  ambassador,  Mel- 
ville, and  which  the  canny  chiel  wanted 
her  to  give  to  his  mistress,  and  is  the 
identical  gem  which  now  adorns  the 
royal  crown  of  England  in  the  Tower. 

Fail  not  to  visit  the  truly  Arabian 
suite  of  rooms  fronting  the  garden,  and 
then  ascend  to  the  second  story,  mo- 
demised  by  Charles  V. :  walk  out  on 
the  terrace  over  the  garden :  visit  Isa- 
bella's chapel,  which  lies  to  the  N.W. ; 
it  is  very  smaU,  15  ft.  by  12,  but  is 
covered  with  cinque-cento  Azulejo,  is 
quite  Peruginesque,  and  perhaps  is 
the  finest  Christian  specimen  oi  this 
material  in  Spain.  They  were  painted 
in  1504  by  Niculoso  Francisco,  an  Ita- 
lian.    See  inscription  on  a  label  to  1. 

Pass  next  along  a  corridor  to  the 
Cuarto  del  Principe.  This  truly  Al- 
hambraio  room  is  placed  over  the  en- 
trance vestibule.  In  a  long  saloon 
down-stairs  were  kept,  or  rather  were 
neglected,  in  heaps  on  the  floors,  those 
antiquities  which  chance  discovered 
while  a  road  was  making  at  Italica, 
and  which  were  not  reburied,  from  the 
accident  of  the  Alcaide  Fr°*  de  Bruna 
being  a  man  of  taste.  The  Alcazar  was 
also  made  by  Soult  his  receiving-house 
general  of  stolen  goods.  When  he  fled 
from  Seville,  after  the  Duke's  defeat 
of  Marmont  at  Salamanca,  more  than 
1000  pictures  were  left  behind,  such 
was  his  hurry. 

Now  visit  the  cinque-cento  gardens, 
laid  out  by  Charles ;  they  are  among 
the  most  curious  in  Europe.  Observe 
the  tank  where  Philip  V.  fished,  and 
the  vaulted  Bancs  where  Maria  de 
Padilla,  mistress  of  Pedro  el  Cruel, 
bathed,  and  which  probably  were  ori- 
ginally prisons.  Maria  ruled  in  this 
Alcazar,  and  so  tamed  her  royal  beast 
that  the  vulgar  attributed  her  infiu- 
ence  over  Pedro  to  magic,  but  it  was 
nothing  but  the  natural  and  all-suffi- 
cient charms,  the  witchcraft  of  a  fair 
and  gentle  woman.  The  gardens  are 
those  of  a  Hesperus,  **  not  fabulous  ;" 
their  levels  vary,  and  the  plots  are 
divided  by  orange-clad  walls  ;  the 
balmy  air  is  perfumed  by  the  a^ahar  or 
blossom  and  by  the  golden  fruit.    The 




compartments  are  arranged  in  quaint 
patterns  cut  in  box  and  myrtles,  such 
as  the  eagles  and  coats  of  arms  of 
Charles  V.,  the  precise  work  of  the 
Sroman  Topiarius ;  and  such  were  the 
sunny  gardens  in  which  Martial's  Cadiz 
friend  Cano  loved  to  sit,  inter  tepentes 
buxus  (iii.  20,  12).  Beware  of  certain 
hidden  foimtains  in  the  walks,  with 
which  the  unwary  traveller  will  be 
sprinkled.  Visit  the  semi-Moorish  azu- 
^'o-adomed  Kiosk  in  the  under  gar- 
den ;  ascend  the  rustic  terrace  to  the  N. 
for  the  view. 

Among  the  most  remarkable  houses 
in  Seville  visit  the  Ccua  OLea^  14, 
Calle  JBotica  del  Affua.  It  is  a  perfect 
Moorish  specimen ;  the  Spanish  white- 
wash was  picked  off  the  stucco  by  an 
artist  named  Bejarano,  long  notorious 
for  repainting  and  ruining  old  pictures. 
After  that  this  house  fell  into  the 
hands  of  a  Frenchman,  one  M.  Do- 
minie, who  destroyed  the  rich  Arte- 
8<mado  ceiling,  and  put  up  a  modem 
flat  one !  and,  what  is  worse,  this 
fashion  became  the  rage  in  Seville,  and 
has  laid  low  many  a  rehc  of  this  class. 
Soult  had  turned  the  room  into  a  stable. 
In  the  adjoining  Calle  de  los  Abodes^ 
No.  27,  was  a  singular  vaulted  Moorish 
saloon,  recently  modernised  by  a  Ghoth. 
In  the  same  street,  Cctsa  Ca/rasa^  No.  9, 
is  a  superb  specimen  of  the  Arragonese 
plateresque,  erected  in  1526  by  canon 
J?inero  j  visit  it  without  fail,  for  the  me- 
dallions are  quite  Raphaelesque.  But 
whitewashing  with  the  fatal  Cal  de  Mo- 
ron, the  bane  of  Seville,  has  much  obhte- 
rated  the  delicate  outlines  of  this  once 
fairy  Patio,  Go  also  to  the  Calle  de  las 
DueiiaSj  a  most  Moorish  palace  of  the 
D.  of  Alba,  and  now,  alas !  fast  going  or 
gone  to  ruin  ;  here  Lord  Holland  lived. 
It  consisted  once  of  11  Patios,  with  9 
fountains,  and  more  than  100  marble 
pillars.  Walk  through  its  gardens  and 
the  forest  orange-trees  and  myrtles. 
On  the  Plaza  del  Duque  is  the  palace 
of  the  great  G-uzman  fisimily,  now  cut 
up  and  divided  into  many  minor  resi- 
dences. Here  is  the  Casino,  or  club. 
In  the  Caea  CantUlana,  Puerta  de 
Xerez,  Lord  Wellesley  resided.     The 

house  was  afterwards  made  a  diligence- 
inn,  and  then  a  wine-store.  How  are 
the  mighty  fallen  in  Spain,  men  and 
mansions ! 

The  family  house  of  the  Taberas, 
which  all  who  read  the  charming  drama 
of  Sancho  Ortiz  de  Boelaa  will  visit,  is 
in  the  Ce.  de  la-  Inquisicion  Vieja.  Her© 
is  still  shown  the  garden-door  by  which 
Sancho  el  Bravo  intended  to  carry  off 
the  beautiful  Estrella  de  Sevilla.  This 
house,  in  1833,  was  tenanted  by  a 
Frenchman,  who  converted  it  into  a 
dyeing-factory ;  and  when  we  were 
there  last,  he  was  meditating  trimming 
up  the  gardens  d  la  mode  de  Paris ; 
next  visit  the  Casa  de  Pilatos,  so  called 
because  said  to  be  built  in  imitation  of 
that  of  Pontius  Pilate  at  Jerusalem. 
The  black  cross  in  the  Patio  is  the 
point  from  whence  I/as  JEstaciones,  the 
stations  to  the  Cruz  del  Campo,  begin. 
Few  Spanish  cities  are  without  these 
stations,  which  generally  lead  to  the 
Calvario,  a  Gblgotha,  or  hill  with 
crosses  on  it,  and  erected  in  memorial 
of  the  crucifixion.  During  Passion 
Week  these  stations  are  visited;  at 
each  of  them  a  prater  is  said  allusive 
to  the  separate  sufferings  of  the  Sa- 
viour, which  are  carved,  painted,  or 
indicated  at  each.  This  palace  was 
built  in  1533,  by  the  great  nobleman 
of  the  day,  Fadiique  Enriquez  de  Ri- 
bera,  in  commemoration  of  his  having 
performed  the  pilgrimage  to  Jerusalem 
in  1519.  He  was  accompanied  by  the 
poet  Juan  de  Encina,  who  published 
their  tour,  IHhaffia,  Boma,  1521,  also 
at  Seville,  4to.,  1606,  and  reprinted  at 
Madrid,  fol.,  1748.  The  architecture 
proves  how  closely  the  Spaniards  of 
the  15th  century  imitated  the  Sara- 
cenic  forms,  and  the  influence  their 
sensual  civilization  obtained  over  the 
Gotho-Spaniard,  who  with  increasing 
power  began  to  appreciate  elegance 
and  luxury:  all  is  now  scandalously 
neglected.  The  saloons  of  state  are 
whitewashed,  and  turned  to  base  pur- 
poses ;  the  gardens  are  running  wild ; 
the  sculpture  is  tossed  about  as  in 
a  stonemason's  yard.  Observe  the 
GK>thic  balustrade  over  the  entranc 



Sect.  II. 

the  grand  Patio,  with  its  fountains 
and  injured  Koman  statues  of  Pallas, 
Ceres,  and  others.  The  Virgin's  chapel, 
with  a  copy  of  the  Servilleta  of  Mu- 
rillo,  is  adorned  in  the  most  gorgeous 
Saracenic-G-othic  style.  Ascend  the 
magnificent  staircase  to  the  chief  suite 
of  rooms.  Eyerything  that  stucco, 
carving,  Azulefo,  and  guding  could  do, 
was  done.  In  the  pleasant  garden,  visit 
the  grotto  of  Susanna,  and  ohserve 
marbles  and  sculpture,  given  to  Ferafiin 
de  Ribera  by  Pius  V.,  cast  like  rubbish 
amid  the  weeds.  A  selection  was  re- 
moved to  Madrid  by  a  Duke  de  Medina 
Celi,  to  whom  this  deserted  palace  now 

The  lovers  of  Prout-like  bits  must 
visit  the  Jew's  quarters.  Before  their 
expulsion  from  Seville  they  lived  in  a 
separate  "  Jewry,"  or  Ghetto,  La  Ju- 
deria,  which  resembled  IJa  Moreria, 
where  the  Moriscoes  dwelt,  and  is  a 
perfect  labyrinth  of  picturesque  lanes. 
In  the  Juderia  is  the  house  of  Barto- 
lome  Esteban  Murillo,  a  SeviUian  by 
birth,  and  the  head  of  the  Andalucian 
school,  for  Velazquez  more  properly 
belongs  to  Castile :  it  lies  close  to  the 
city  wall,  the  last  to  the  rt.  in  a  small 
plaza  at  the  end  of  the  Callejuela  del 
Agua^  or,  in  the  new-fangled  nomen- 
clature, at  the  end  of  the  Calle  de  Lope 
de  Mueda,  Plaza  de  Alfa/ro.  The 
parish  church,  La  Santa  Cruz,  in 
which  he  was  buried,  was  pulled  down 
under  Soult's  rule,  who  scattered  his 
bones.  Murillo  was  baptized  Jan.  1, 
1618,  in  the  Magdalena — that  church 
also  Soult  destroyed.  His  baptismal 
entry  has  escaped,  and  may  be  seen  at 
San  Pablo.  The  street  in  which  he 
was  bom  now  bears  his  name.  His 
tomb  consisted  of  a  plain  slab,  placed 
before  Campana's  picture  of  the  De- 
scent from  the  Cross  (see  p.  182), with  a 
skeleton  engraved  on  it,  and  the  motto, 
"  Vive  moriturus."  His  painting-room, 
nay,  living-room,  for  he  lived  to  paint, 
was  in  the  upper  floor,  and  is  stiU  as 
sunny  and  as  cheerful  as  his  works. 
There  he  died  April  3^1682.  In  the 
,rden  observe  the  fountain,  and  Ita- 
"n  frescoes,  compositions  of  fauns, 

mermaids,  and  women  with  musical 
instruments.  They  have  been  attri- 
buted by  some  to  Murillo,  which  they 
certainly  are  not,  and  by  others  to  L. 
de  Vargas,  which  is  more  probable. 
This  house  was  purchased  for  about 
1200^.  by  Canon  Cepero,  when  the 
Chapter,  foreseeing  the  coming  shadows 
of  state  appropriation,  sold  off  much  of 
their  disposable  property;  and,  indeed, 
Cepero,  subsequently  the  Dean,  a  man 
of  great  taste,  was  worthy  to  dwell  in 
this  house,  over  which  such  recollec- 
tions hover.  It  was  he  who  did  so 
much  to  rescue  art  at  Seville  during 
the  constitutional  outbreaks ;  and  if 
his  own  collection  contained  many  bad 
pictures,  their  quahty  was  no  fault  of 
his,  for  where  good  ones  are  not  to  be 
procured,  which  is  "the  great  fact" 
of  Seville,  there  bad  become  the  best. 

JSl  Corral  del  Conde,  Calle  Santiago, 
No.  14,  was  a  barrack  of  washerwomen. 
WTiat  a  scene  for  the  pallet!  what  cos- 
tume, balconies,  draperies,  colour,  atti- 
tude, grouping !  what  a  carrying  of 
vases  after  the  antique !  what  a  clatter 
of  female  tongues,  a  barking  of  dogs, 
a  squalling  of  children  —  all  living 
Munllos — assailed  the  invpertinente 
curioso!  Alas!  that  every  day  there 
is  less  washing. 

"For  plateresque  architecture,  the  best 
specimen  is  La  Casa  del  Ayuntamiento, 
the  corporation-house  on  the  great 
plaza,  built  in  1545-64  by  some  great 
unknown.  The  exterior  is  a  sflver- 
smith  chasing  in  stone- work :  observe 
the  staircase,  the  carved  doors,  and 
sala  grande  baja,  with  the  Spanish 
kings,  arranged  in  35  squares,  or  Lacn- 
nares,  on  the  ceiling.  Admirable  also 
is  the  inscription  on  Spanish  Justicia  ; 
the  very  sound  of  which,  so  perfect  in 
theory,  practically  implies  delay,  injus- 
tice, ruin,  and  death.  The  Audiencia, 
or  high  court  of  what  is  called  Justice 
in  Seville,  sits  in  the  opposite  comer 
of  the  Plaza,  and  is  presided  over  by 
a  Regente.  The  prison  close  by  is  a 
sad  scene,  and  is  called  by  the  Majos, 
either  el  colegio,  the  school  for  teaching 
rogues,  or  La  Posada  de  los  Franceses. 

The  different   quarters  into  which 




Seville  is  divided  are  virell  expressed  in 
these  verses : — 

«•  Desde  la  Catedral,  d  la  Magdalena, 
Se  almuerza,  se  come,  y  se  cena; 
j)esde  la  Magdalena,  d  San  Vicente, 
Se  come  golamenie ; 
Desde  San  Vicente,  d  la  Macarena, 
Ni  se  aimuerza,  ni  se  come,  ni  se  cefiui" 

The  once  wealthy  clergy  gathered 
like  yoimg  pehcans  under  the  wing  of 
the  mother  church.  The  best  houses 
were  near  the  cathedral,  iu  the  Calle  de 
l08  Abodes.  This  Abbot's  street  was 
theb  "close:"  here,  "their beUies with 
good  capons  Uned,"  the  dignitaries 
hredkfastedy  dined,  and  supped;  re- 
cently their  commons  have  been  much 
shortened.  In  tha  San  Vicente  Hved 
the  knights  and  nobles,  and  the  Calle 
de  Armas  was  the  aristocratic  street  of 
arms.  Here  the  hidalgos,  with  their 
wives  and  daughters,  ate  less  and 
dressed  more:  they  onlt/  dined;  they 
pinched  their  stomachs  to  deck  their 
backs:  but  the  most  ancient  unchanged 
Iberian  characteristic,  from  Athenseus 
to  Lazarillo  de  Tonnes,  has  been  ex- 
ternal show  and  internal  want.  The 
Macarena  now,  as  it  always  was,  is  the 
abode  of  ragged  poverty,  which  never 
could  or  can  for  a  certainty  reckon  on 
one  or  on  any  meal  a  day ;  but  they  and 
their  skins  and  jackets,  are  meat  and 
drink  to  all  lovers  of  the  picturesque. 

The  Calle  de  los  Abodes  should  be 
visited,  although  no  longer  so  redolent 
of  rich  ollas.  The  cathedral  staff  con- 
sisted of  an  archbishop,  an  auxiliary 
bishop,  11  (now  reduced  to  5)  dignita- 
ries, 40  (now  reduced  to  16)  canons, 
20  prebendaries,  20  minor  canons,  20 
vienteneros,  and  20  chaplains  of  the 
quire.  Their  emoluments  were  very 
great:  nearly  900  houses  in  Seville 
belonged  to  the  chapter,  besides  vast 
estates,  tithes,  and  corn-rents.  Men- 
dizabal,  in  1836,  appropriated  all  this 
to  the  State,  which  was  to  pay  the 
clergy  a  diminished  income,  which  it  has 
not  done.  Formerly  this  street  was  a 
rookery,  nor  were  the  nests  without 
progeny.  The  Pope  might  deny  his 
cler^  wives  and  children,  but  the  devil 
provided  them  with  housekeepers  and 

nephews.  The  former  ar^  called  amas, 
not  from  amare,  but  the  Sanscrit  a 
house:  so  Ducange  derives  the  syno- 
nym focaria  —  "  anciUa  quse  focum 
curat  clericorum ;  concubina."  In  the 
medieval  period  the  concubines  of  the 
celibate  clergy  were  almost  licensed,  as 
among  the  Moors.  The  mistress  was 
called  barragana,  from  the  Arabic 
words  bo/rra,  strange,  and  gana,  gam- 
dir,  a  connexion:  hence,  in  old  Spanish, 
natural  children  are  called  hijos  de 
ganancia,  which  has  nothing  to  do 
with  gain,  and  is  more  analogous  to 
the  "  strange  woman"  in  Judges  xi.  2; 
others,  and  probably  more  correctly, 
have  derived  the  word  from  the  Arabic 
JBarragan,  single,  unmarried;  which 
was  essential  to  secure  to  the  parties 
thus  cohabiting  without  marriage,  the 
sort  of  morganatic  status  allowed  by 
the  law.  Many  were  the  jests  as  re- 
gards the  children  bom  in  this  street : — 

**  Fnla  caMe  de  los  Abodes, 
Todos  han  Tios,  y  ningvms  PadreB." 

The  little  ones  called  their  father 
their  itncle,  and  he  called  them  his  ne- 

••  Los  Canonigos  Madre,  no  tierien  hyos ; 
Los  que  tienen  en  casa,  son  sobrinicos." 

The  wealth  and  comparative  luxury 
of  this  order  of  the  Spanish  clergy  of 
course  exposed  them  to  popular  envy, 
reform,  and  plunder ;  pious  innovators 
were  urged  by  the  auri  sacra  fames  of 
our  Henry  VIII. ;  and  certainly  the 
church  had  so  well  feathered  its  nest, 
that  Death  met  with  few  ruder  welcomes 
than  when  he  tapped  at  a  right  rev. 
and  venerable  dignitary's  door,  who  was 
contented  with  bis  sublunary  lot,  his 
pretty  house,  housekeepery  good  cook, 
good  income  paid  quarterly,  and  pair 
of  sleek  mules  ;  the  priestly  maxim, 
the  canon,  or  Begla  de  SanHago,  was 
thus  laid  down : — 

El  primero—es  amaar  d  Don  Dinero. 

El  segundo — es  amolar  d  todo  d  mundo. 

El  tercero—lmen  vaca  y  camero. 

El  cuarto—ayunar  despues  de  harto. 

El  quinto—buen  Uanco  y  tinto. 

Testos  cinoo  mamdamientos,  se  encierran  en 

Todopaarami,  y  nadapara  vos. 



The  first  ia— to  love  the  Lord  Money. 

The  second  is — to  g^rind  all  the  world. 

The  third  is— good  beef  and  mutton. 

The  fourth  is — to  fast  when  one  can  eat  no 

The  fifth  is — good  wine — white  and  red. 
And  these  five  commandments  may  be  summed 

up  in  two — 
Everything  for  me,  and  nothing  for  you. 

And  certainly,  when  the  religious  eeta- 
blishments  numbered  74,  and  the  gra- 
tuitous schools  only  1,  the  clerical  ele- 
ment might  be  said  to  preyail  oyer  the 
educational.  In  truth,  the  pomp  and 
power  of  the  full-blown  church  gave 
cause  to  many  complaints  and  calum- 
nies. It  was  accused  of  becoming  rich 
by  professing  poverty,  of  monopolising 
mundane  affairs  by  pretending  to  re- 
nounce them,  and  of  securing  to  it- 
self the  good  things  of  the  present 
world,  by  holding  out  to  others  hopes 
of  those  of  a  future  one. 

The  great  square  of  Seville  was  long 
called  de  San  Francisco^  £rom  the 
neighbouring  now  ruined  and  crum- 
bling convent.  Munllo  painted,  in 
1645,  for  its  small  cloister,  el  Chico, 
that  series  of  11  superb  pictures  which 
first  made  his  talents  known  in  Seville, 
after  his  return  from  Madrid.  All  these 
were  removed  by  force  of  arms  by  Soult, 
save  one,  which,  from  his  hurried  flight 
after  Salamanca,  he  left  behind  in  the 
Alcazar,  and  which  is  now  in  our  col- 
lection, purchased  and  paid  for. 

A  new  square  is  building  on  the 
convent's  site,  in  which  the  picturesque 
and  national  will  be  superseded  by 
the  comfortable,  civilised,  and  common- 
place. The  old  genuine  Plaza  remains, 
however,  still  the  heart  of  the  city — the 
forum,  the  place  of  gossip  and  of  exe- 
cutions, and  in  look  is  still  very  Moor- 
ish and  picturesque,  with  its  arcades 
and  balconies ;  under  the  former  are 
the  jewellers'  shops.  The  Calle  de 
Oenoa^  at  the  opposite  comer,  is  the 
Patemoster-row  of  Seville  as  regards 
booksellers*  shops,  and  of  the  Fasos,  a 
£gtvourite  spot  to  see  the  processions  of 
PasoSy  or  dressed  and  painted  images 
(see  p.  49)  during  the  Holy  Week. 
These  relics  of  pagan  mummeries  will 
Ytlease  the  antiquarian  more  than  the 

pious  and  the  Protestant;  the  utter 
want  of  all  devotional  sentiment  in  the 
natives,  who  come  only  to  see  the  show 
and  be  seen,  is  no  less  painfully  striking 
than  the  degradation  of  the  Deity  by 
these  tawdry  masquerading  spectacles. 
The  finest  pictures  in  Seville  are  in 
the  Cathedral,  La  Caridad,  the  Museo, 
and  the  University.  Xa  Caridad  is 
an  alms-house,  destined  for  some  80 
poor  old,  and  chiefly  bed-ridden,  men : 
it  lies  outside  the  walls,  near  the  river. 
This  hospital,  dedicated  to  St.  George, 
was  founded  in  1578,  for  the  decent 
interment  of  unburied  paupers,  and  of 
criminals,  whose  remains  previously 
were  left  to  rot  on  the  gibbets.  It  was 
rebuilt  in  1661  by  Miguel  de  Monara 
Vicentelo  de  Lara,  who,  when  young, 
was  in  profligacy  a  Don  Juan  of  Se- 
ville redivivus.  He  was  buried  in  the 
Capilla  mayor.  Bead  his  epitaph — 
cenizas  del  peor  hombre  que  hist  habido 
en  el  mundo :  and  also  consult  his  life 
and  death  by  Juan  de  Cardenas,  4to., 
Seville,  1679.  He  was  the  personal 
friend  and  patron  of  Munllo.  Observe 
the  colonnaded  Paiio,  On  entering 
the  church,  the  carved  and  painted 
Descent  from  the  Cross  over  the  high 
altdr  is  the  masterpiece  of  Pedro  Kol- 
don;  the  almost  startUng  reaUty  is 
marred  by  tinsel  dresses  and  architec- 
tural fritter.  Observe  under  the  coro 
the  «  Triumph  of  Time,"  and  a  "  Dead 
Prelate,"  by  J.  Valdes  Leal,  a  putrid 
picture,  which  Murillo  said  he  could 
not  look  at  without  holding  his  nose. 
Here  he  painted,  in  1660-74,  that  series 
of  grand  pictures,  of  which  Soult — 
hence  justly  called  by  Toreno  the  mo- 
dem Verres,  and  by  Mr.  Stirling  the 
Plunder-Marshall-General — carried  off 
5,  all  of  which  is  entirely  blinked  by 
Monsr.  Maison  in  liis  pilfered  Guide. 
But  the  Marshall  was  moderate  when 
compared  to  his  model,  Verres,  who  took 
27  pictures  from  the  Minerva  Medica 
alone  (CicinVer.iv.  55).  His  "Grace" 
bribed  Buonaparte  with  one,  the  Sa  Isa- 
bel; two  others,  the  "Abraham  wad  an- 
gels," and  the  "  Prodigal  Son,"  he  sold 
to  the  D.  of  Sutherland^  and  the  "  Heal- 
ing  the  Cripple"    to    Mr.  Tomline, 




at  fabulous  prices ;  the  fourth,  the 
"  Angel  and  St.  Peter,"  passed,  at  his 
final  sale,  in  1852,  to  Russia.  The 
large  amount  of  cash  that  that  sale  pro- 
duced offers  anotlier  proof  of  the  judg- 
ment with  which  Soult,  "that  weU- 
known  French  dealer,"  "collected." 
The  Spaniards  only  recently  filled  up 
the  blank  spaces ;  the  gaps  long  yawned 
like  graves :  hiatus  maxim^  deflendus. 

The  Murillos  now  in  the  Caridad 
are  an  "  Infant  Saviour"  on  panel,  and 
injured;  a  "St.  John,"  rich  and  brown; 
a  "  San  Juan  de  Dios,"  equal  to  Rem- 
brandt ;  the  Pan  y  Feces,  or  Loaves  and 
Fishes  ;  but  the  figure  of  Christ  feed- 
ing the  Five  Thousand,  which  ought  to 
be  the  principal,  is  here  subordinate : 
the  "  Moses  striking  the  Rock"  is  much 
finer;  this  is  indeed  a  representation 
of  the  Hagar-like  thirst  of  the  desert, 
and  is  justly  called  La  Sed :  the  figure 
of  Moses  is  poor,  and  wants  relief,  but 
the  parched  groups  are  excellent.  Both 
pictures  are  colossal,  and  painted  in  a 
sketchy  manner,  calculated  for  the 
height  and  distance  of  their  position 
from  the  spectator,  which,  however,  is 
inconveniently  high  and  distant;  but 
here  they  still  hang,  like  rich  oranges  on 
the  bough  where  they  originallybudded. 

At  Seville,  as  elsewhere,  those  good 
pictures  that  M.  Soult  did  not  "remove" 
by  iron,  the  EngUsh  have  carried  off 
by  gold,  and  little  now  remains  but  un- 
mitigated rubbish,  to  which  fine  names 
are  all  given,  caveat  Emptor ;  here  all 
the  geese  are  swans — all  are  Murillos, 
all  by  Velazquez,  and  so  forth ;  but  it 
is  sheer  loss  of  time  to  visit  these 
refuges  of  the  destitute  and  worthless ; 
and  our  collectors  cannot  be  too  ear- 
nestly cautioned  against  making  pur- 
chases, and  picking  up  an  original  for 
an  old  song.  Among  the  least  bad 
may  be  mentioned  the  collections  of 
Dean  Cepero,  who  lives  in  Murillo*s 
house,  and  that  of  Don  Aniceto  Bravo, 
ISo.  40,  Calle  de  los  Catalanes,  which 
contains  700  and  more  "warranted 
originals,"  and  the  collections  of  Se- 
fi^ores  Garcia  and  Saenz,  The  once 
really  genuine  and  precious  galleries  of 
Don  Julian  Williams,  Canon  Maestre, 

and  the  Conde  de  Mejorada,  have  had 
all  the  plums  picked  out. 

Since  the  dissolution  of  the  convents, 
many  pictures,  and  some  neglected 
antiquities,  have  been  collected  in  the 
Merced,  which  is  now  the  provincial 
Museum.  This  noble  ediifice  was 
founded  in  1249  by  St.  Ferdinand. 
The  Patio  and  Axulejos  are  of  the  time 
of  Charles  V.  Before  the  invasion 
even,  it  was  fuU  of  fine  paintings  ; 
but  a  French  agent  had  previously, 
in  the  guise  of  a  traveller,  noted  the 
contents ;  and  the  same  individual,  so 
the  prior  informed  us,  reappeared  with 
the  army,  and  laughed  at  the  deceived 
monk,  when  he  demanded  them  by 
the  list  drawn  up  on  his  former  visit. 
That  respectable  character  Nero  was 
the  first  who  devised  sending  commis- 
sioners to  pillage  art,  altars.  &c.  (Tac. 
An.  XV.  45). 

At  Seville,  Bartolome  Esteban  Mu- 
rillo  is  to  be  seen  in  all  his  glory,  and 
a  giant,  like  AntsBus,  on  his  native  soil. 
His  finest  pictures,  painted  for  the 
Capuchinos,  were  sent  off,  in  1810,  to 
Cadiz,  and  thus  escaped.  Murillo,  bom 
at  Seville,  and  baptized  Jan.  1,  1618, 
where  he  died,  April  3,  1682,  was  the 
painter  of  female  and  infantine  grace,  as 
Velazquez  was  of  more  masculine  and 
intellectual  subjects.  Both  were  true 
alike  in  form  and  colour  to  Spanish 
natiu^ — both  were  genuine,  national, 
and  idiosyncratic.  Murillo  had  three 
styles:  the  Frio,  his  earliest,  being 
based  on  Ribera  and  Caravaggio,  was 
dark,  with  a  decided  outline.  Of  these 
were  the  pictures  in  San  Francisco. 
His  second  manner  was  his  Calido,  or 
warm,  when  his  colouring  was  im- 
proved, while  his  drawing  was  still 
well  defined  and  marked.  His  third 
style  was  the  Vaporoso,  or  misty, 
vaporous,  and  blending.  This  he 
adopted  partly  because  Herrera  el 
Mozo  had  made  it  the  Bsishion,  and 
partly  because,  being  stinted  for  time 
from  the  increased  orders,  he  could 
not  finish  so  highly.  Thus,  like  Turner 
and  Wilkie,  to  get  more  quickly  over 
his  work,  he  sacrificed  a  somewhat  of 
his  previous  conscientious  drawing. 



Sect.  II. 

The  Museo  of  Seville,  which  is  by 
far  the  first  provincial  one  in  Spain, 
is,  as  most  other  things  there,  the 
creation  of  accident  and  individuals ; 
nor  does  it  contain  a  single  specimen 
of  Velazquez,  the  greatest  painter  of 
Spain,  and  in  this  his  native  ci^.  In 
1836  the  Canon  Manuel  Lope  Cepero, 
now  the  dean,  a  gentleman  of  real  taste 
and  high  honour,  managed  at  the  sup- 
pression of  the  convents,  when  appro- 
priation and  Vandalism  were  the  order 
of  the  day,  to  get  the  best  pictures 
removed  to  the  Cathedral,  a  sanc- 
tuary where  they  were  saved  from  the 
spoilers;  the  authorities,  who  cared 
for  none  of  these  things,  affording  no 
other  assistance  than  that  of  galley^ 
slaves,  to  do  the  mere  porters*  work ! 
In  1838  Senor  Bejarano  managed  by 
a  private  subscription  to  move  them 
into  their  present  situation.  Mean- 
while, as  nothing  in  Spain  is  ever  com- 
plete, here  in  Seville  we  sigh  for  fine 
specimens  of  Velazquez,  Luis  de  Vargas, 
and  even  Alonso  Cano ;  nevertheless 
it  is  the  best  place  in  the  wliole  Penin- 
sula to  study  the  masters  of  this  school, 
many  of  whose  names  and  works  have 
scarcely  even  been  heard  of  in  Eng- 
land, such  as  the  Folancos,  Valdez 
Leal,  Varela,  Vasquez,  &c.  A  meagre 
catalogue  of  this  Museo  was  published 
in  1850  by  one  wAlvarez. 

At  the  entrance  is  the  elaborate  iron 
Cruz,  which  stood  formerly  in  the  Cer- 
rageriai  and  is  the  work  of  Sebastian 
Conde,  1692.  The  other  antique  sculp- 
ture scattered  about  in  most  admired 
disorder,  is  second-rate.  The  fine  Sille- 
ria  del  Coro  by  P.  D.  Comejo,  from 
the  Ca/rtuja,  is  placed  in  a  room  below, 
as  also  the  carvings  by  Montanes. 
Among  the  finest  pictures  observe  No. 
1,  the  Apotheosis  of  Thomas  Aquinas, 
the  master-piece  of  Francisco  Zurba- 
ran,  and  painted  in  1625,  for  the  Co- 
legio  de  Santo  Tomas;  ^^  Removed"  to 
Paris  by  Soult,  it  was  recovered  by 
Wellington  at  Waterloo ;  the  Head  of 
St.  Thomas  is  the  portrait  of  a  Don 
Agustin  de  Ecobar ;  the  drapery,  vel- 
vet, armour,  &c.,  offer  a  blaze  of  splen- 

->ur  combined  with  much  more  stuff 

and  substance  than  in  the  ornamental 
brocades  of  P.  Veronese ;  Zurbaran  is 
called  the  Spanish  Carravaggio,  but  he 
is  much  more  Titianesque,  more  ele- 
vated in  mind  and  manner.  Among 
the  other  Zurbarans  observe,  "  San 
Henrique  de  Sufon"  and  No.  10 
"  San  Luis  Bertran,"  and  the  "  Padre 
Etemo ;"  also.  No.  150,  a  Saviour  in 
violet  as  a  youth  plaiting  a  crown  of 
thorns  j  also  the  three  first-rate  pic- 
tures fipom  the  Cartuja — "  San  Bruno 
before  Urban  II.,"  "  the  Virgin  pro- 
tecting the  Monks,"  and  No.  137 
"San  Hugo  in  the  Refectory;"  al- 
though unfortunately  injured  by  over 
cleaning,  they  are  magnificent.  No 
one  ever  painted  fleecy-hosiery  Car- 
thusian monks  like  Zurbaran ;  he  was, 
however,  apt  to  draw  too  much  fi*om 
lay  figures,  which  gives  a  hard  outline, 
no  throbbing  Ufe  heaves  under  his  re- 
gular folds.  The  studier  of  style  will 
notice  the  peculiar  pinky  tone  of  this 
master,  especially  in  female  cheeks : 
they  seem  fed  on  roses,  as  was  said  of 
Parrhasius  and  Baroccio;  but  the 
prevalent  use  of  rouge  at  that  time  in- 
fluenced his  eye,  as  it  did  that  of 
Velazquez.  No.  19,  Sn.  Pedro  No- 
lascoy  is  by  Fr***  Pacheco,  the  feeble 
master  and  father-in-law  of  Velazquez. 
By  the  presumptuous  and  conceited 
Herrera  el  Mozo  is  No.  13,  Santa 
Anna  and  the  Virgin. 

Of  Juan  de  Castillo,  MuriUo's  mas- 
ter, observe  the  series  of  5  from  the 
Monte  Sion,  especially  the  "Annun- 
ciation," "  Visitation,"  "  Nativity  and 
Adoration,  and  Coronation  of  the  Vir- 
gin." In  No.  136  the  "  San  Andres  " 
of  Boelas,  a  child  is  almost  equal  to 
some  by  Correggio,  as  a  warrior  is  to 
one  by  Titian.  Of  Herrera  el  Viejo, 
the  bold  dashing  master  of  Velazquez, 
who  lost  his  scholars  with  his  temper, 
observe  the  San  Hermenegildo,  to 
which  the  artist  owed  his  safe  deli- 
verance ;  guilty  of  a  forgery,  he  had 
fled  to  ail  asylum,  where  he  painted 
this  picture.  Philip  IV.,  who  saw  it 
in  1624,  inquired  for  the  author,  and 
pardoned  him,  observing  that  such 
talents  ought  never  to  be  abused.   His 

Andcducia,       route  7. — Seville — pictures  by  murillo. 


San  Basilio  is  bold  and  Ribera-like : 
observe  tlie  kneeling  bishop  and  the 
handling  of  the  drapery,  for  in  it  is 
the  germ  of  Velazquez.  The  pictures 
of  iVutet,  a  Calvario,  Christ  on  a  Cross, 
Descent,  and  a  Virgin,,  which  came  from 
Las  Bubas;  as  well  as  those  of  the  pre- 
sumptuous Juan  Valdes,  from  San  0e- 
ronimo,  are  second-rate ;  observe,  how- 
ever, the  CalvariOf  and  those  relating  to 
San  Jerome,  which  are  painted  with  a 
most  Spanish  defiance  of  time,  place,  and 
costume.  Notice  especially  the  terra 
cotta, "  St.  Jerome"  of  Pietro  Torrigiano, 
which  was  long  in  the  Buena  Vista  con- 
vent. Tliis  great  Italian,  born  at  Flo- 
rence about  1470,  and  known  in  his- 
tory for  breaking  his  co-pupU  Michael 
Angelo's  nose,  was  sent  to  Spain  by  his 
patron.  Pope  wAlexander  VI.,  a  Borgia 
and  a  Spamard.  He  came  to  G-ranada  in 
the  hopes  of  executing  the  Sepulchre  of 
Ferdinand  and  Isabella;  rejected  be- 
cause a  foreigner, he  turned  to  England, 
and  wrought  that  of  Henry  VII.  in 
Westminster  Abbey.  Torrigiano  re- 
turned to  Spain,  where  he  modelled  a 
Virgin,  of  which  the  exquisite  Xo^  mano 
a  la  tetay  in  the  Seville  plaster-shops,  is 
a  cast.  He  died — oh !  blot  to  Seville — 
tortured  in  the  vaults  of  the  Inquisition, 
nominally  because  of  suspected  faith, 
but  really  a  victim  of  artistical  jealousy 
and  Espanolismo.  But  so  Bernard  Pa- 
lissy,  the  Luca  de  la  Bobbia  of  France, 
perished  in  1589,  consigned  to  a  dun- 
geon by  bigoted  persecutors. 

Near  this  "  St.  Jerome  "  is  a  Santo 
Domingo,  from  Portaceli,  by  Montanes. 
The  anatomical  and  feir  nudity  of  the 
Italian  contrasts  with  the  brown  draped 
work  of  the  Spaniard.  Observe  also  a 
crucifix  and  a  St.  Dominick  by  the  same 
sculptor,  and  a  crucifix  by  Matias  Vaz- 
quez de  Leca,  1614 ;  from  the  Cartuja 
convent,  the  four  repainted  Virtues, 
and  the  Silleria  del  Coro,  Notice  also 
No.  114,  a  "  Last  Supper,"  and  a 
"Christ,"  by  the  learned  Pablo  de 
Cespedes ;  a  Battle  of  Clavijo,  by  Juan 
de  Varela;  a  portrait  of  Ferd.  VII., 
by  Q-oya ;  and  No.  380,  the  celebrated 
Last  Judgment,  by  Martin  de  Vos, 
from  San  Agustin,  whose  female  nudi- 


ties  were  so  long  a  stumbling-block  to 
the  priests,  who  could  not  say  mass 
quietly  before  them.  Pacheco  {Arte 
de  IHnt.,  201),  states  the  case  of  a 
venerable  prelate  who  was  so  troubled 
by  the  deshabille  of  a  condemned  gen- 
tlewoman, that  he  pronounced  exposure 
to  a  hurricane  in  the  storm- vexed  Ber- 
mudas— he  had  been  a  sailor  in  his 
youth — to  be  infinitely  less  perilous. 

The  Murillos  are  placed  in  the  Sala 
de  Murillo,  like  gems  set  in  a  diadem. 
The  finest  came   from   the  Capuchin 
convent,  for  which  they  were  painted 
at  his  best  period.    Although  the  pre- 
sent light  is  better  than  that  of  their 
original  positions,  yet  they  lose  some- 
thing by  the  change,  as  Murillo,  in  de- 
signing them,  calculated  each  exactly 
for  its  locaHty,  and  painted  up  to  the 
actual  light  and  point  of  view ;    and 
we  moreover  much  miss  the  Capuchino 
cicerone,  who  seemed  to  have  stepped 
out  of  one  of  the  pictures  to  tell  us 
where  Murillo  went  for  a  model,  and 
how  true  was  his  portrait ;  the  Santo 
Tomas  de  Villamteva,  No.  155,   was 
called  by  the  painter  su  cuadro,  his  own 
picture.  The  beggars  are  beyon  d  price ; 
the  smallest  is  worth  a  wUdemess  of 
best  dressed  lords  and  ladies  of  the  bed- 
chamber; none  could  represent  them 
and    Franciscans    like    Murillo,   and 
simply  because  he  painted  them  the 
most,  and  drew  only  what    he  saw 
actually  in  the  Maca/rena  and  at  every 
convent  gate,  as  all  who  remember  the 
genus  monasticum  will  admit.   His  was 
a  faithfrd  transcript  of  Spanish  men- 
dicant  and  monastic  nature,  neither 
more  nor  less.    No.  154,  the  Sam  Felix 
de  CantaliciOy  is  the  perfection  of  the 
vaporoso:  the  delicate  young  flesh  of 
the  child,  the  Corregiesque  morbidezza, 
contrasts  with  the  greys  of  the  aged 
saint.      This,   say  the    Spaniards,   is 
painted  con  leche  y  aamgre,  or  with 
milk  and  blood.    No.  156,  the  Santas 
Justa  y  Mufina,  is  in  his  calido  style, 
forcible,  and  yet  tender.     "The  Na- 
tivity;" No.  152  "The  Adoration  of 
Shepherds;"   San  Leandro   and  San 
Buenaventura  —  observe  the  peeping 
boy  like  Correggio,  not  that  Murillo 




ever  studied  from  him,  be  looked  rather 
to  the  children  as  painted  by  Koelas. 
Observe  the  San  Jose;  San  Juan  con  el 
Cordero  and  No.  165, "  The  Virgin  and 
Child,"  called  La  ServUleta,  because 
said  to  have  been  painted  on  a  dinner- 
napkin  ;  the  child  almost  struggles  out 
of  its  mother's  arms,  and  out  of  the 
picture^frame.  What  a  creative  power, 
what  a  coiner  was  our  Murillo,  who 
could  convert  into  a  bank-note  a  napkin, 
in  which  most  Spaniards  bury  theu*  pe- 
tit talent !    No.  161,  "  St.  Francis  em- 
bracing the  Crucified  Saviour :"  here  is 
seen  Murillo's  great  power  of  drawing. 
Observe,  also,  "  The  Virgin  and  Angels 
with  the  Dead  Christ,"  and  «  The  An- 
nunciation."    No.  157,  the  San  Anto- 
nio, is  a  finer  picture  than  that  in  the 
cathedral;    observe    i\^e   monk's    ex- 
pression looking  on  the  child  that  is 
seated  on  his  book.     Also  No.  162, 
San  Felix,  half-length.  All  these  came 
from  the  Capuchinos.     There  is  also 
an    early .  Murillo,    a    "  Virgin    and 
Child,"  from  San  Jose,  and  two  of  San 
Agustin.     The  rest  of  the  collection, 
some  hundred  pictures,  are  by  different 
artists,   and    of   different   degrees   of 
merit.      The  above  selected  are  the 
pearls  of  greatest  price.    And  last,  not 
least,  observe  No.  151,  La  Concepcion 
by  Murillo,  once  a  gem  of  the  Capu- 
chin convent.    No.  1  is  another  and 
larger  of  this  popular  Seville  subject, 
but  not  so  fine  :  MuriUo,  from  his  ex* 
ceUence  in  painting  this   "mystery," 
was  called  el  jpintor  de  las  concepciones. 
The  crovming  and  protecting  mys- 
tery of  Spam  is  the  dogma  that  the 
Virgin  was  bom  free  from  all  taint  of 
original  sin.     This  is  so  peculiar  and 
national,  occurs  so  frequently  in  church, 
chapel,  and  gallery,  and  has  occupied 
so  many  pens,  pencils,  and  chisels,  that 
some  explanation  is  absolutely  neces- 
sary in  any    *  Handbook  for  Spain.' 
The  assertion  that    she  was  exempt 
from  original  sin — which  by  deifying 
the   Womcmy  denies  the  humanity  of 
the  Saviour,  a  dogma  which,  in  1854 ! 
is  the  panacea  of  Pio  Nono — was  due 
to  a  heretic,  Felagius,  while  the  ortho- 
dox St.  Augustine  taught  the  reverse 

(de  N.  et  G-.  36;  contra  Jul.  v.  15, 
vi.  22).  The  dispute  of  this  Imma- 
culate Conception  waxed  warm  in 
the  13  th  century,  but  the  Soman 
clergy  took  little  interest  in  a  mere 
question  of  casuistry.  The  Council  of 
Trent  blinked  the  question,  wishing  to 
decide  nothing  (see  Sarpi  Sistoria,  p. 
188,  ed.  1629).  Not  so  the  Spaniard, 
whose  worship  of  an  Astarte  is  almost 
sexual:  accordingly,  when  it  was  re- 
vived in  1613,  a  Dominican  monk 
having  contended  that  the  Deipara  was 
liable  to  the  pains  and  penalties  of 
original  sin,  their  rival  mendicants  the 
Franciscans  affirmed  that  she  was  ex- 
empt. Those  of  Seville  took  the  lead  so 
violently  that,  before  the  Dominicans 
were  silenced  by  the  Pope,  the  whole 
population  assembled  in  churches,  and 
sallying  forth  with  an  emblematical 
picture  of  the  sinless  Mary,  set  upon  a 
sort  of  standard  surmounted  by  a  cross, 
paraded  the  city  in  different  directions, 
singing  praises  to  the  Immaculate  Con- 
ception, and  repeating  aloud  the  hymns 
of  her  rosa/ry.  These  processions  long 
constituted  one  of  the  peculiar  usages  of 
Seville ;  and,  although  confined  to  the 
lower  classes,  assumed  that  character- 
istic importance  and  overbearing  spirit 
which,  as  among  the  Moslems,  is  at- 
tached to  religious  associations  in  Spain. 
Wherever  one  of  these  processions  pre- 
sents itself  to  the  public,  it  takes  up 
the  street  from  side  to  side,  stopping 
the  passengers  and  expecting  them  to 
stand  uncovered  in  all  kinds  of  wea- 
ther till  the  standard  is  gone  by.  These 
banners  are  called  Sin  Pecados,  that  is, 
"  sinless,"  from  the  theological  opinion 
in  support  of  which  they  were  raised. 

They  take  place  during  the  holy 
week  and  the  winter  season,  and  are 
very  picturesque.  At  nightfall  the  long 
lines  of  men,  women,  and  children,  two 
and  two,  are  seen  twinkling  through 
the  narrow  streets,  which  are  illumi« 
nated  from  the  balconies  of  the  houses. 
Their  hymns  are  precisely  the  old,  Noc- 
tumis,  Hecate,  triviis  ulidata  per  urbes ; 
and  there  is  something  striking  in  the 
melody  of  the  chant  of  distant  voices 
heard  as  it  approaches :  the  procession^ 

Andalucia,     route  7. — Seville — ^immaculate  coiircEPTiON. 


is  headed  by  devotees,  who  carry  riclily 
chased  lamps, /<awo^*,  on  staves.  The 
parish  priest  follows,  bearing  the  glit- 
tering banner  of  gold  and  velvet,  the 
Sin  Pecado,  on  which  the  Virgin  is 
embroidered;  as  soon  as  the  cortege 
passes  by,  the  candles  in  the  balconies 
are  put  out :  thus,  while  all  before  is 
one  glare  of  light,  all  behind  is  dark, 
and  it  seems  as  if  the  banner  of  the 
Virgin  cast  glory  and  effulgence  before 
her,  Uke  the  fire-pillar  which  preceded 
the  Israelites  in  the  desert.  The  scholar 
may  compare  all  this  with  the  accounts 
of  the  "  Omnipotentis  Dese  foecundum 
simulacrum ; "  the  lamps,  songs,  ante- 
cantamentay  and  processions  of  the 
Pompa  of  Isis  described  by  Apuleius, 
*  Met.'  xi.  243,  et  seq.  The  air  of  the 
music  varies  in  different  parishes :  the 
words  are  JDios  te  salve  Maria,  llena 
eres  de  ffracia,  el  Senor  es  conti^o,  hen- 
dita  tu  eres  entre  todas  las  mugereSy  y 
bendito  es  eljruto  de  tu  vientre  ;  Jesus  ! 
Sta.  Maria,  Madre  de  Dios,  ruega 
Senora  por  nosotros  pecadores  dhora  y 
en  la  hora  de  nuestra  muerte. 

The  Spanish  government,  under 
Charles  III.,  showed  the  greatest  eager- 
ness to  have  the  sinless  purity  of  the 
Virgin  Mary  added  by  the  Pope  to  the 
articles  of  the  Boman  Cathohc  Mth. 
The  court  of  Bome,  however,  with  the 
cautious  spirit  which  has  at  all  times 
guided  its  spiritual  politics,  endea- 
voured to  keep  clear  from  a  stretch  of 
authority,  which  even  some  of  its  own 
divines  would  be  ready  to  question; 
but  splitting,  as  it  were,  the  difference 
with  theological  precision,  the  censures 
of  the  church  were  levelled  against 
such  as  should  have  the  boldness  to 
assert  that  the  Virgin  Mary  had  derived 
any  taint  fit)m  her  ancestress  Eve ;  next, 
having  personified  the  Immaculate  Con- 
ception, it  was  declared'  that  the  Spa- 
nish dominions  in  Europe  and  America 
were  under  the  protecting  influence  of 
that  mysterious  event :  the  declaration, 
on  the  22nd  October,  1617,  diffused 
joy  over  all  Spain.  Seville  went  reli- 
giously mad.  Zuniga  and  Valderama 
enter  into  all  the  details  of  the  bull- 
fights which  were*  celebrated  on  the 

occasion.  Charles  IIJ.  afterwards  in- 
stituted an  order,  to  which  he  gave  his 
name  "  Carlos  Tercero,"  under  the 
emblem  of  the  Immaculate  Concep- 
tion— a  woman  dressed  in  white  and 
blue ;  and  a  law  was  enacted  requiring 
a  declaration  upon  oath  of  a  firm  belief 
in  the  Immaculate  Conception  from 
every  individual  previous  to  his  taking 
any  degree  at  the  universities,  or  being 
admitted  into  any  of  the  corporations, 
civil  and  religious,  which  abound  in 
Spain.  This  oath  was  administered 
even  to  mechanics  upon  their  being 
made  free  of  a  guild.  At  Seville  a  col- 
lege, Las  Becas,  was  founded  solely  to 
instruct  youth  in  the  defence  of  this 
mystery.  AU  the  facts  and  opinions, 
both  pro  and  con,  are  collected  by  the 
Franciscan  Pedro  Alva  y  Astorga,  im- 
der  the  title  "Funiculi  nodi  indisso- 
lubiles  de  conceptu  mentis  et  ventris  :" 
Brussels,  1661.  The  author  left  18 
more  volumes  on  this  subject,  which 
still  remain  unpublished  (see  Antonio, 
*  Bib.  Nov.'  ii.  168).  The  arguments 
may  be  summed  up  in  three  words, 
decuit,  potuit,  fecit.  The  miracle  was 
becoming  the  occasion,  it  was  in  the 
power  of  the  Almighty  to  work  it,  and 
he  didr 

Formerly  no  one  entered  a  house 
or  company  without  giving  the  watch* 
word  of  Seville,  Ave  Maria  purisima, 
to  which  the  inmates  responded  by  the 
countersign  sin  pecado  concebida :  now 
the  first  portion  is  generally  the  indica- 
tion of  a  visit  from  a  mendicant. 

Seville  having  taken  the  lead  in  the 
dispute,  as  became  the  capital  of  ultra- 
mariolatrous  Andalucia,  Im  tierra  de 
la  Santisma,  it  is  natural  that  some 
of  the  most  perfect  conceptions  of 
Murillo  and  Alonso  Cano  should  have 
been  devoted  to  the  embodying  this 
incorporeal  mystery;  and  never  has 
dignified  composure  and  innocence  of 
mind,  unruffled  by  human  guilt  or  pas- 
sion, pure  unsexual  unconsciousness  of 
sin  or  shame,  heavenly  beatitude  past 
utterance,  or  the  unconquerable  ma- 
jesty and  "hidden  strength  of  chas- 
tity," been  more  exquisitdy  portrayed. 
She  appears  in  a  state  of  extatic  bea- 

K  2 



titude,  and  borne  aloft  in  a  golden 
sther  to  hearen,  to  which  point  her 
beauteous  eyes  are  turned,  by  a  group 
of  angels,  which  none  could  paint  or 
colour  like  Murilloj  who  seems  to  haye 
studied  in  heaven  those  little  cherubs 
of  which  that  kingdom  is  made.  The 
retiring  virgin  loveliness  of  the  blessed 
Mary  seems  to  have  stolen  so  gently,  so 
silently  on  her,  that  she  is  unaware  of 
her  own  power  and  fascination.  The 
Inquisition  required  the  Virgin  to  be 
painted  as  about  fifteen  years  old,  very 
beautiful,  with  those  regulieur  features 
which  the  Greek  artists  selected  to 
express  the  perfect  passionless  serenity 
of  the  immortal  gods,  devoid  of  human 
frailties,  and  the  type  of  "  the  unpol- 
luted temple  of  the  mind  j"  that  her 
attitude  should  be — 
*'  Her  graceful  anna  in  meekness  bending 
Across  her  gently  budding  breast ;" — 

that  she  should  be  clad  in  a  spotless 
^be  of  blue  and  white,  because  she 
appeared  in  those  colours  to  Beatriz 
de  Silva.  She  should  bruise  with  her 
heel  the  serpent's  head;  thus  tram- 
pling on  the  author  of  original  sin. 
She  should  stand  on  the  moon  in  a 
crescent  shape ;  thus  combining  at 
once  the  symbol  of  Pagan  and  Moslem, 
the  crescent  of  Isis,  of  Diana,  and  of 
the  Turk.  The  horns  should  be  placed 
downwards,  because  in  £Eict  the  moon 
is  always  solid,  although  it  appears  to 
us,  from  the  sim  getting  between  it  and 
the  earth,  to  be  occasionally  a  crescent. 
The  moon  is  introduced  because  the 
*'  Woman^  clothed  with  the  sun,  and  the 
moon  under  her  feet,  and  upon  her 
head  a  crown  of  twelve  stars  "  (Rev. 
xii.  1)  is  held  at  Rome  to  signify  "  the 
Virgin,"  while  Protestants  interpret 
the  "Woman"  as  an  image  only  of 
the  Christian  or  spiritual  Church. 
Meantime  these  stars  should  never  be 
omitted.  The  body  of  the  Virgin 
should  float  in  an  atmosphere  of  light, 
derived  from  herself.  The  cordon  of 
San  Francisco,  sacred  as  the  2iennaa/r 
cord  of  the  Brahmins,  should  encircle 
the  whole,  because  it  is  the  badge  of 
that  order  which  defended  her  imma- 
culate conception.  The  subject  is  often 

surrounded  with  smaller  pictures,  which 
represent  those  different  attributes 
and  manifold  perfections  of  the  Virgin, 
which  are  celebrated  in  her  Hymn 
and  Litany.  Murillo's  unapproach- 
able pre-eminence  in  representing  this 
charmins  subject  procured  for  him  the 
name  oi  el  pintor  de  la  Concepcion, 
The  draperies  of  the  Virgin  must  be 
very  long,  and  her  feet  never  shown ; 
and  this  forms  one  guide  to  distinguish 
Spanish  from  Italian  pictures  of  this 

The  mystery  of  the  incarnation  is 
shadowed  out  in  the  annorial  bearings 
of  the  Vu^n,  the  vase  with  Uly^ 
brancheSf  jarro  eon  a^ucenas,  which  is 
t'O  be  seen  sculptured  in  Spanish  ca- 
thedrals, most  of  which  are  dedicated 
to  her,  and  not  to  the  Father  or  Son. 
In  the  middle  ages  an  idea  was  preva- 
lent that  any  female  who  ate  the  lily 
would  become  pregnant :  Lucina  sine 
concubitu.  See  some  remarks  of  ours 
in  the  *  Quan  Rev.*  cxxiii.  130. 

Tlie  Umversity  of  Seville  was  origin- 
ally a  convent  erected  by  the  Jesuits  in 
1565-79,after  designs  of  Herrera,and  in 
their  peculiar  worldly  pomp,  which  con- 
trasted with  the  gloomy  piles  of  the  more 
ascetic  orders.  When  Charles  III.  ex- 
pelled them  in  1767,  it  was  assigned,  by 
the  praiseworthy  efforts  of  Olavide,  to 
purposes  of  education.  Thearrangement 
in  the  church  of  the  subsequent  frieze, 
cornice,  and  architraves  is  obiection- 
able,  when  compared  with  the  original 
Doric*  Recently  many  churriguer- 
esque  altars  and  absurd  ornaments 
have  been  removed.  It  may  be  called 
the  second  Musewn  of  Seville,  and  the 
founder  was  the  same  worthy  Cepero. 
A  tolerable  hbrary  has  been  formed 
from  those  of  the  suppressed  convents, 
and  the  system  of  education  has  been 
modernist  and  improved  since  1846. 

Although  the  position  of  the  Coro 
Alto  of  the  chapel  spoils  the  general 
effect,  the  raised  altar  mayoTy  with 
it  s  tabernacle  by  Matias,  1604,  is  noble. 
The  superb  Corinthian  Betahlo  de- 
signed by  Alonso  Matias,  in  1606, 
contains  three  grand  paintings  by 
Roelas — a  Holy  Family,  with  Jesuits ; 




a^atmty;  and  an  Adoration.  Koone 
ever  painted  the  sleek  and  oily  grimal- 
kin Jesuit  like  E>oelas.  Observe  an  An- 
nunciation by  Pacheoo ;  a-  St.  John 
the  Evangelist,  and  a  St.  John  the  Bap- 
tist, by  Alonso  Cano.  The  statues  of 
St.  Peter  and  St.  Paul  are  by  Mon-^ 
taues.  Observe  the  smaller  picture  by 
Boelas,  and  particularly  the  Infant 
Saviour.  Al  lado  del  JSvangelio  are 
the  bronze  monuments  of  Francisco 
Duarte  and  his  wife  Catalina,  ob.  1554  ; 
both  were  brought  in  1840  from  the 
Convento  de  la  Victoria  de  Triana. 

The  Betahlos  of  the  chapels  of  Con- 
cepcion  and  Las  Meliquias  deserve  no- 
tice :  in  the  latter  are  pictures  in  the 
manner  of  Pacheco.  Observe  the  two 
images  made,  to  be  dressed,  imagenes 
de  vestwy  of  Francisco  de  Borja  and  San 
Ignacio,  vnrought  in  1610  by  Mon- 
taHes ;  the  latter  was  coloured  by 
Francisco  Pacheco,  and  probably  is 
the  best  portrait  of  the  founder  of  the 
order  of  Jesuits  that  exists ;  also  by 
him  a  crucifix  and  a  fine  Concepcion ; 
and  some  pictures,  by  Cano,  of  the 
lives  of  San  Cosm^  San  Damian,  a 
Saviour,  and  a  Holy  Father.  Among 
the  monumental  curiosities  removed 
from  Santiago  de  Sspada,  a  church 
which  Soult  turned  into  a  stable,  ob- 
serve, first,  the  founder's  tomb,  Lo- 
renio  Suarez  de  Figueroa,  with  his 
favourite  dog  Amadis  at  his  feet ;  and 
next  the  sepulchre  of  the  learned  Be- 
nito Arias  Montano,  ob,  1598:  these 
w^ere  brought  also  from  the  Santiago, 
and  properly  placed  here  as  an  ex- 
ample to  young  students ;  remark  the 
costume.  In  an  apartment  recently 
fitted  up  are  4  heads  of  Latin  fathers 
by  Alonso  Cano,  2  pictures  by  Boelas, 
and  a  good  Zarbaran. 

On  the  suppression  of  the  Cartuja 
convent,  the  burial«place  of  the  Bibera 
family.  Canon  Cepero  induced  their 
representative,  the  Duke  of  Medina 
Oeli,  to  remove  the  fine  sepulchres  of 
his  ancestors  :  that  of  Pedro  Fnriquez, 
ob.  1492,  was  sculptured  at  Genoa  by 
Antonio  Charona  in  1606.  The  Virgin 
and  Child  is  much  admired,  as  also 
the  weeping  genius,  called  La  Tea, 

from  the  reversed  torch ;  its  con^panion 
was  taken  to  Madrid.  The  armed 
ef&gy  is  somewhat  heavy.  Observe 
the  statues  of  Diego  G-omez  de  Bibera, 
ob.  1434,  and  his  wife  Beatriz  Puertor  ^ 
Carrero,  ob.  1548.  Among  others  of 
this  warlike  family,  most  of  •  whom 
spent  their  lives  in  combating  the 
Moor,  are  Perafan  de  Bibera,  ob. 
1455,  and  another  of  the  same  name, 
ob.  1423,  aged  105 ;  perhaps  the  finest 
is  that  of  Dona  Catalina,  ob.  1505, 
which  was  made  for  her  son  Fadrique, 
in  Genoa,  1519,  by  Pace  G«zini.  It 
was  mutilated  by  the  French,  by  whom 
the  splendid  bronze  of  this  Fadrique 
was  destroyed,  when  Soult  converted 
the  Cartuja  into  a  barrack  :  one  largp 
flat  monumental  engraved  brass  only 
escaped  —the  effigy  of  his  nephew  Fa- 
drique^  ob.  1571,  viceroy  of  Naples, 
where  it  is  conjectured  that  it  was  ex- 
ecuted. For  further  details  consult 
Una  Visita  d  la  Universidad.  A.  M. 
de  Cisneros  y  Lanura,  Seville,  1853. 

Seville,  in  good  old  times,  contained 
more  than  140  churches,  filled  with 
objects  of  piety,  art,  and  value ;  many 
were  plundered  and  pulled  down  by 
Soult' 8  sappers,  and  others  since  the 
suppression  of  monasteries  have  shared 
a  similar  fate.  These  establishments 
were  well  endowed,  and  afforded  a  fesr 
tival  and  spectacle  of  some  kind  ov 
other  for  almost  eveiy  day  in  the  year, 
and,  in  fact,  monopolized  the  time  and 
relaxation  of  the  people.  There  are 
three  kinds  of  reUgious  days  or  festi- 
vals :  the  first  are  called  Mestas  de  prer- 
ceptOy  on  which  no  sort  of  work  may. 
be  done ;  the  second  are  Mestas  de. 
concefo,  which  might  and  ought  to  be 
held  sacred  also ;  the  third  are  Fiedas 
de  medio  trab(0Oy  half  holidays,  when 
work  is  permitted  on  condition  of  hav- 
ing first  heard  a  mass ;  the  scholar 
may  compare  the  ancient  Dies  Festi — 
et  Profesti  (see  Macrob.  Sat.  i.  16 ; 
Virg.  Georg.  i.  268).  M.  Soult  arrested 
all  this  prodigious  and  pious  idhng : 
first,  by  sapping  the  religious  principle 
of  belief ;  secondly,  by  knocking  down 
the  buildings,  and  seizing  the  fiinds  by 
which  thehoUday  shows  were  supported^ 



Sect.  II. 

Among  the  most  interesting  old 
churches  which  survive,  the  ecclesiolo- 
gist  may  still  visit  San  Lorenzo  :  here  is 
a  "Concepcion"  by  F.  Pacheco,  1624 ; 
an  "  Annunciation"  by  Pedro  de  Yille- 
gas  Marmolejo,  who  lies  buried  here, 
with  an  epitaph  vmtten  by  Arias  Mon- 
tano.  Here  also  is  buried  the  prolific 
priest  Juan  Bustamente,ob.  1678,  setat. 
125  ;  this  true  Fad/re  was  father  of  42 
legitimate  and  9  natural  children.  In 
the  Retahlo  are  4  medallions  and  a  San 
Lorenzo,  by  Montanes,  by  whom  also  is 
NueHro  Senor  de  gran  Poder^  a  superb 
graven  image. 

In  the  Colegioy  or  ancient  university, 
de  Maese  Rodrigo,  so  called  from  the 
founder,  Eodrigo  Fernandez  de  San-, 
taella,  1505,  are  or  were  some  injured 
pictures  by  Zurbaran.  The  portrait  of 
the  founder,  by  Zurbaran,  has  been  en- 
tirely repainted  by  Bejarano.  Readers 
of  Cervantes  should  look  at  the  Mar- 
morillos,  mentioned  in  the  Sinconete 
y  Cortadillo* 

San  Clemente  contains  a  splendid 
alerce  roof,  and  a  plateresque  high 
altar  by  Montanes,  and  a  portrait  of 
St.  Ferdinand  by  Valdes,and  2  pictures 
of  him  by  Pacheco :  the  AzuUfos  are 
curious,  and  of  the  date  1588.  Observe 
the  grand  and  powerful  St.  John  the 
Baptist,  carved  by  Jaspar  Nunez  Del- 
gado,  and  painted  by  Pacheco. 

San  Miguel  is  very  ancient;  the 
statue  of  the  tutelar  is  either  by  Rol- 
dan  or  his  daughter ;  observe  the  pil- 
lars and  capitals,  and  the  Christ,  by 
Montanes,  bearing  his  cross  ;  it  is  one 
of  his  finest  works,  and  is  called  SI 
Padre  Jesus  de  la  Pasion,  It  has  an 
especial  cofradia  for  its  worship  and 
custody.  The  pici;ures  called  "Ra- 
phael and  Vandyke  "  are  bad  copies. 

The  magnificent  ch.  of  the  convent 
of  St.  Pablo  has  been  recently  appro- 
priated to  the  parish :  it  contains 
paintings  by  Arteaga,  and  frescoes  by 
Lucas  Valdes,  and  some  fine  Pasos. 

In  San  Andres  is  a  "  Concepcion  " 
by  Montanes,  with  many  small  pic- 
tures by  Villegas. 

In  S(m  Alberto  is  a  Via  Crucis,  said 
to  be  by  Cano,  and  several  Pachecos } 

the  glorious  JRetahlo,  by  Roldan,  was 
pulled  down  by  the  French  and  sold 
as  wood  for  firmg,  when  Soult  turned 
the  ch.  into  a  cartridge-manufactory. 

The  tower  of  San  Pedro  is  Moorish  j 
observe  the  artesonado  roof  and  the  fine 
Retahlo :  the  pictiu^s  by  Campana 
have  been  repainted.  The  "  Delivery 
of  St.  Pet^"  is  by  Roelas. 

San  Juan  de  la  Palma  was  a  Moor- 
ish mosque  dedicated  to  the  Baptist ; 
the  Arabic  inscription  at  the  entrance 
records  that  "this  great  temple  was 
rebuilt  in  1080  by  Axataf."  The  cross 
occupies  the  site  of  the  palm,  under 
which  the  dead  were  buried.  One  of 
the  corpses,  in  1537,  hearing  a  rich 
Jew  say  that  the  mother  of  Ood  was 
not  a  Virgin,  rose  from  his  grave  and 
denounced  him  to  the  Inquisition,  who 
burnt  the  sceptic  and  confiscated  his 
property.  Inside  is  a  "  Crucifixion" 
by  Campana,  early  and  hard,  and  an 
infant  Christ  by  Montanes. 

In  San  Isidoro  is  "  M  Fransito,^*  or 
the  death  of  the  tutelar  saint,  the 
masterpiece  of  Roelas,  a  very  great 
master,  although  much  less  known 
and  appreciated  than  he  deserves: 
observe  the  gray  heads,  the  Correg- 
giesque  flesh  tints,  so  much  studied  by 
JVIuriUo,  and  the  admirable  composi- 
tion. The  lower  portion  is  the  finest, 
and  the  heads  are  evidently  portraits. 
Here  also  are  an  indifferent  *^  St.  An- 
thony "  and  "  St.  Paul,"  by  Campana, 
both  repainted,  and  some  pictures  by 
Valdes :  the  SI  Cireneo  is  carved  by 
Bernardo  Ghijon. 

In  Santa  Maria  la  Planca,  a  syna- 
gogue down  to  1391,  are  some  granite 
columns,  thought  to  be  Roman.  Soult 
plundered  it  of  the  5  Murillos,  leaving 
only  by  him  a  "  Last  Supper,"  in  his 
JHo  style.  Here  is  a  "  Dead  Christ," 
by  L.  de  Vargas ;  very  fine  and  Flo- 
rentine, but  cruelly  injured  and  neg- 

The  Colegiata  San  Salnador  con- 
tinued in  its  original  mosque  form 
down  to  1669,  when  it  was  rebuilt  in 
the  worst  Churriguerismo,  and  after- 
wards still  more  disfigured  by  Cayetano 
Acosta,  by  whom  is  the  abominable 

Andalucia.         route  7. — Seville — plaza  del  duque. 


Transfiguration;  the  image  of  San 
Cristobal  is  by  Montanes,  those  of  Sa. 
Bufina  and  Sa.  Justa  are  by  F.  D. 
Comejo.  The  Fatio  was  the  original 
Moorish  court :  here  is  a  miraculous 
crucifix,  JSl  Crista  de  los  Desamparor 
dos,  where  countless  pictures  and 
"  votive  tablets  "  are  hung  up  by  those 
relieved  by  its  miracles,  as  in  the  days 
of  Horace  and  TibuUus.  The  sick  come 
here  for  cure,  and  suspend  legs,  arms, 
and  models  of  the  parts  benefited,  made 
of  wax,  which  become  the  fee  of  the 
priest ;  and  from  the  number  it  would 
seem  that  he  has  more  practice,  and 
effects  more  cures,  than  the  regular 
Sangrados ;  but  it  must  be  remembered 
that  those  who  are  not  cured  but  die, 
make  no  signs. 

Sam  Vicente  was  founded  in  300. 
Here,  in  421,  Gunderic,  entering  to 
plunder,  was  repulsed  by  fiends.  Here 
San  Isidoro  died,  a.d.  636 :  the  affect- 
ing account,  by  Bedenipto,  an  eye- 
witness, is  printed  in  the  i^sp,  Sagr* 
ix.  402.  Outside  is  painted  the  tutelar 
with  his  fanuliar  crow  holding  a  pitch? 
fork  in  his  mouth:  a  rudder  would 
have  been  more  appropriate  (see  p. 
130).  But  these  attendant  birds  are 
an  old  story — Juno  had  a  cuckoo  on 
her  sceptre  (Paus.  ii.  17.  4),  Jupiter 
preferred  an  eagle,  Esculapius  a  cock. 
Inside  is  a  painting  of  Christ  by  Mo- 
rales, and  some  large  pictures  by  Fran- 
cisco de  Varela. 

In  San  Julian  is  a  fr^co  of  St. 
Christopher  by  Juan  Semctis  de  Castro, 
1484 ;  it  was  barbarously  repainted  in 
1828.  Under  some  shutters  to  the  L 
is  a  "Holy  Family"  by  him,  which 
has  escaped  better,  and  is  one  of  the 
oldest  paintings  in  Seville:  the  kneeling 
figure  is  one  of  the  Tous  Monsalvez 
family,  who  were  buried  here,  and  to 
whom  the  Virgin  appeared  on  a  broom- 
bush  ;  hence  she  is  called  de  la  Iniesta. 
Observe  the  Bey'as,  made  of  votive 
chains  of  captives  deUvered  by  her  in- 
terference. Catenam  ex  voto  Laribus 
— so  the  Phialeans  offered  their  chains 
to  their  goddess  (Paus.  i.  68).  There 
is  a  curious  old  folio  on  her  legend. 
The  **  Concepcion"  at  the  altar  is,  some  , 

say,  by  Cano.  The  plateresque  Setahlo 
has  a  fine  painting  of  Santa  Lucia,  the 
patroness  of  eyes  (lux,  light).  In  the 
church  of  this  Santa  Lucia,  once  a 
mosque,  is  a  "  Martyrdom  of  the  Pa? 
troness,"  by  Eoelas,  and  a  sweet  Con- 
ception, attributed  to  Cano. 

San  JEsteban,  once  a  Mosarabic 
church,  contains  specimens  by  Zur? 
baran,  and  a  fine  "  Christ  bearing  the 
Cross,"  by  Montanes. 

The  tower  of  San  Marcos  may  be 
ascended,  as  Cervantes  often  did,  to  see 
the  house  near  it  of  his  beloved  Isabella. 

In  San  Martin  is  a  "Descent  from 
the  Cross,"  ascribed  to  Cano;  but  it 
is  a  Roman  painting,  and  inscribed 
"Jo,  Guy.  Homo.  f.  ano  1608;"  ob- 
serve the  chapel  of  Juan  Sanchez  Q-alr 
lego,  bmlt  in  1500,  and  repaired  in 
1614.  In  the  Metablo  are  some  early 
paintings  by  Herrera  el  Viejo, 

The  admirers  of  Boelas  should  visit 
La  Academia,  where  is  a  "Concep- 
cion "  by  him  equal  to  Guido. 

H".B.  Several  pictures  by  Roelas  exist 
at  Olivares,  4  L.  N.W.  of  Seville,  and 
a  pleasant  ride.  He  was  canon  of  that 
church.  There  he  painted,  in  1624,  a 
"  Birth  of  Christ,"  now  much  injured  ; 
an  "  Adoration,"  an  "  Annunciation," 
a  "Marriage  of  the  Virgin,"  the 
"  Death  of  St.  Joseph ;"  but  although 
his  last,  they  are  not  his  best  works. 
Here  he  died,  April  23,  1625. 

The  Calle  de  la  Siisrpe,  the  Bond? 
street  of  Seville,  leads  to  the  Plaza 
del  Duque,  where  the  great  Dukes  of 
Medina  Sidonia  had  their  palace.  This 
central  square  i»  planted,  and  forms 
the  fashionable  nocturnal  promenade 
during  the  summer  months,  and  which 
is  truly  southron  and  striking.  It  is  a 
miniature  Vauxhall,  minus  the  price  of 
admission  or  the  lamps ;  but  the  dusk 
is  all  the  better  for  those  who,  like  glow- 
worms, need  no  other  light  but  their 
bright  eyeSjwhich  never  sparkle  brighter 
than  by  night,  and  it  has  not  yet  been 
settled  whether  the  fair  sex  of  Seville 
blushes  or  not  in  the  dark :  certain  it 
is,  that  the  moon,  which  cannot  ripen 
grapes,  here  ripens  love,  and  in  these 
torrid  climes  the  rays  of  the  cold  chaste 



Sect.  II. 

orb  of  Dian  are  considered  more  dan- 
gerous than  the  tahardillo  or  coup  de 
soleil ;  "  mcu  quema  la  Luna,  que  el 
Sol"  the  moon  sets  more  on  fire  than 
the  sun,  so  propinquity  is  doubly  ha- 
zardous, since  the  Spanish  man  is 
peculiarly  combustible,  Jire  itself  ac- 
cording to  the  proverb,  and  the  woman 
being  towy  the  smallest  puff  of  the  evil 
one  creates  an  awful  conflagration. 

*'  El  hombre  etfuego^  la  muger  atopa, 
Viene  el  diatHo  y  sopla," 

Continuing  from  this  pla^a,  walk  by 
the  ch.  of  San  Vicente  to  the  Alameda 
Viejaf  the  ancient  but  liow  deserted 
walk  of  Seville,  The  water  of  the  foun- 
tain here,  del  Arzobispo,  is  excellent, 
and  the  best  in  Seville.  Look  at  the 
Boman  pillars  and  statues  (see  p.  172). 
Here  reside  the  horse-dealers  and 
jockeys,  and  cattle-dealing  continually 
goes  on. 

June  is  the  great  month  for  Veladas, 
vigils,  and  wakes,  nocturnal  obser- 
vances kept  on  the  eve  preceding  the 
holy  day :  the  chief  is  that  on  the  24th, 
St.  John's  day,  and  is  celebrated  on 
this  old  Alameda,  and  is  proverbially 
merry : — 

**  Lade  San  Juam  en  Sevilla 
Et  alegre  d  nuiraviUa." 

This  St.  John's,  our  midsimimer  eve,  is 
or  was  devoutly  dedicated  to  flirtation 
by  both  sexes,  who  go  or  ought  to  go  out 
at  daybreak  to  gather  vorvain,  eoger  la 
verbena,  which  represents  in  Spain  the 
magical  fern-seed  of  our  forefathers. 
Bonfires  are  lighted,  in  sign  of  rejoicings 
— ^like  the  hon-feu  of  our  Q-uy  Fauxes — 
over  and  through  which  the  lower 
classes  leap ;  all  this  is  the  exact  manner 
by  which  the  ancients  celebrated  the 
entranoe  of  the  sim  into  the  summer 
solstice.  The  fires  of  Cybele  were  kin- 
dled at  midnight.  The  jumping  over 
them  was  not  njerely  a  feat  of  activity, 
but  of  meritorious  devotion  (Ovid. 
Fast  iv.  727)  : 

"  Certe    ego    transilii    positas    ter   ordine 


This  custom  of  passing  through  the 
fire  of  Baal  or  Moloch  was  expressly 
bidden  in  the  year  680,  at  the  5th 

council  of  Constantinople,  to  which  the 
younger  classes  of  Sevillians  are  as 
scandalously  inattentive  as  the  Irish 
at  their  similar  Baal-tinn^.  But  civi- 
lisation is  sapping  creeds  and  practices 
in  Spain. 

To  the  left  of  the  foimtain  is  a 
barrack  of  tattered  invalids,  which  once 
was  a  convent  of  Jesuits,  and  when 
that  order  was  suppre&ed  was  given 
up  to  the  Inquisition.  The  edifice,  ra- 
ther cheerful  than  forbidding,  partakes 
more  of  the  attraction  of  its  first  pro- 
prietors  than  of  the  horror  of  its  second. 
Dismantled  by  the  populace,  it  contains 
no  record  of  its  dungeons,  and  tor- 
ture-rooms ;  but,  &st  hastening  to 
ruin,  is  in  all  respects  a  fit  abode  for  its 

Turning  to  the  rt.  is  La  Feria,  where 
a  fair  is  held  every  Thursday,  which, 
all  should  visit ;  it  is  the  precise  Soock 
e  juma  of  Cairo ;  the  street  leads  to  the 
Plaza  de  la  Fncamacion — ^now  the 
market  place,  to  construct  which  the 
French  pulled  down  a  convent  dedi- 
cated to  the  Incarnation.  Here  the 
naturalist  will  study  the  fish,  flesh, 
fruits,  and  fowls ;  the  fish  and  game 
are  excellent,  as  is  also  the  pork,  when 
fattened  by  the  autumnal  acorn,  the< 
bellota.  Instinct  teaches  these  feree 
natursB  to  fatten  themselves  on  the 
good  things  which  a  bountiful  nature 
provides.  Those  meats  which  require 
artificial  care,  and  the  attention  of  man» 
are  very  far  infoior.  Observe  the  pur- 
chases made,  the  two-ounce  "joints  " 
of  meat  or  carrion,  for  the  poverty- 
stricken  olla,  parsimonious  as  in  the 
time  of  Justin  (xliv.  2).  It  must  be 
remembered,  that  in  this  burning  clime 
less  animal  food,  which  generates  calo- 
ric, is  necessary  than  in  the  cold  north. 
Notwithstanding,  the  Spanish  proverb 
considers  the  man  who  dines  in  Se- 
viQe  as  especially  favoured  by  heaven, 
'^  A  quien  Dios  quiere  hien,  en  Sevilla 
le  da  de  comer"  few  of  our  English 
readers  will  think  so. 

In  the  Calle  del  Candilejo  is  a  bust 
of  Don  Pedro,  placed,  it  is  said,  in 
memorial  of  his  having  here  stabbed  a 
man.     The  JBey  JugHciero  quartered 




himself  in  effigy  onlt/.  His  and  Lord 
Byron's  "jfriend,"  Don  Juan,  was  a 
Sevillian  majo,  and  a  true  hidalgo. 
The  family  name  was  Tenorio.  He 
lived  in  a  house  now  belonging  to  the 
nuns  of  San  Leand/rOy  in  which  there 
is  Bome  good  carving,  although  the 
French  did  infinite  mischief  there. 
(For  his  real  pedigree,  see  our  paper  in 
the  *Quar.  Rev.'  cxvii.  82;  consult 
also  the  Burlador  de  Sevilla  or  Convi- 
dado  de  Piedra,  by  Tirso  de  MoUna, 
with  Ochoa's  preface  in  the  Tesoro 
del  Teatro  JEspanol.  Paris,  1838; 
vol.  iv.  74)  ;  the  Tenorios  had  a  chapel 
in  the  Franciscan  convent,  where  the 
murdered  Oomendador  was  buried,  and 
to  which  Don  Jua/n  fled,  when  the 
monks  killed  him,  and  trumped  up  the 
story  of  his  Devil-death:  the  chapel 
and  the  gtaiue  were  destroyed  when 
the  convent  was  burnt. 

Do  not  fail  to  look  at  the  extraor- 
dinary Azulejo  portal  of  Santa  Paula, 
of  the  time  of  the  Catholic  kings ;  the 
carvings  in  the  chapel  are  by  Cano. 
The  EVench  carried  off  all  the  pictures. 
Here  are  sepulchres  of  Juan,  constable 
of  Portugal,  and  Isabel  his  wife,  the 

The  foundling  hospital,  or  I/a  Cuna, 
the  cradle,  as  it  is  called  in  Spain,  is  in 
the  Calle  de  la  Ouna ;  a  marble  tablet  is 
thus  inscribed,  near  an  aperture  left  for 
charitable  donations  : — "  Quoniam  pa- 
ter meus  et  mater  mea  deliquerunt 
me  Dominus  autem  assumpsit"  (Ps. 
xxvii.  10).  A  wicket  door,  el  tomo, 
is  pierced  in  the  wall,  which  opens  on 
being  tapped,  to  receive  the  sinless 
children  of  sin,  whom  a  nurse  sits  up 
at  night  to  take  in.  This,  formerly  little 
better  than  a  charnel-house,  and  where 
sinless  childrenof  sinandinnocentswere 
massacred  (see  *  Gatherings,'  p.  223),  has 
been  taken  in  charge  by  some  benevolent 
ladies,  assisted  by  Sisters  of  Charity, 
and,  although  the  shadow  of  death 
still  hovers  over  this  so-called  cradle 
of  life,  is  better  conducted :  the  inade- 
quate funds  are  much  increased,  a  duty 
of  a  real  being  levied  for  its  support  on 
Gvetjfanega  of  com  sold  in  the  market. 

Seville   is    surroimded  with    seven 

suburbs ;  the  circuit  of  the  Moorish 
walls,  about  a  league,  with  its  gates  and 
towers,  once  numbering  166,  contains 
many  objects  of  first-rate  interest.  We 
shall  commence  going  out  from  the 
Calle  de  lasAmuM,  by  the  PuertaBeal, 
the  Royal  Ghkte,  through  which  St. 
Ferdinand  entered  in  triumph.  It  was 
called  by  the  Moors  Ooles,  which  the 
SeviUians,  who  run  wild  about  Hercules, 
consider  to  be  a  corruption  from  that 
name :  it  is  simply  the  gate  of  Ghtle9,  a 
Moorish  suburb  (Conde,  iii.  35).  The 
present  gate  is  built  in  the  Roman  style, 
and  is  disproportionate  to  the  site. 
Emerging  from  a  dip  to  the  rt.  is  the 
Colegio  de  Merced,  or  San  Laureano, 
which  was  pillaged  and  desecrated  by 
Soult's  troops,  and  made  a  prison  for 
galley-Blaves  by  the  Spaniards ;  behind 
it  are  the  ruins  of  the  hoi^se  of  Fer- 
nando, son  of  the  great  Columbus. 
The  suburb  is  called  Las  Sumeros, 
supposed  to  have  been  the  site  of  the 
Roman  naval  arsenal.  Here  were  the 
tunnels  and  Moorish  dock-yard,  and 
residence  of  fishermen,  It  is  now 
tenanted  by  gipsies,  the  Zincali;  Seville 
in  their  Romany  is  called  XTlilla  and 
Safacoro,  and  the  Guadalquiver,  Len 
Baro,  or  the  Gh»at  River.  Zev^a  is 
their  darling  city,  where  so  much  is 
congenial  to  their  habits.  Here  always 
resides  some  old  hag  who  will  get  up  a 
Jkncion,  or  gipsy  dance  (see  *  Gather- 
ings,' p.  327).  Herewillbe  seen  the  dark- 
eyed  callees — q^'os  con  granfuego  y  in' 
tendon — and  their  lovers,  armed  with 
ahears,  para  monrabar.  Here  lives  the 
true  blood,  the  errate,  who  abhor  the 
rest  of  mankind,  the  husnS.  Sorrow's 
accurate  vocabulary  is  the  key  to  the 
gitonesque  heart,  for  according  to  him 
they  have  hearts  and  souls.  As  the 
existence  of  this  work  of  the  Gil  Bias 
of  gipsies  is  unknown  to  them,  they 
will  be  disarmed  when  they  find  the 
stranger  speaking  their  own  tongue ; 
thus  those  who  have  a  wish  to  see  the 
fancy  and  majo  life  at  Seville,  which  is 
much  the  fashion  among  maiiy  of  the 
yoimg  nobles,  will  possess  la  cle  du 
caveau,  and  singular  advantages.  Our 
younger  Britons  must  be  cautious,  fc 




Sect.  II. 

as  Cervantes  says,  "  These  gipsies  are 
I  ut  a  good-for-nothing  people,  and  only 
bom  to  pick  and  steal ;"  they  are  "  fish- 
hooks of  purses,"  as  Solorqano  has  it. 
The  pretty  gipsy  lasses  are  popular; 
they  traffic  on  sure  wants ;  they  pro- 
phesy money  to  Spanish  men,  and  hus- 
bands to  Spanish  women ;  and  in  spite 
of  their  cheating  words,  a  little  will 
stick  with  listeners  who  readily  believe 
what  they  vehemently  wish. 

Turning  to  the  rt.,  between  the  river 
banks  and  the  walls,  is  the  Patin  de  las 
Damas,  a  raised  rampart  and  planted 
walk,  made  in  1773.  The  city  on  this 
side  is  much  exposed  to  inundations. 
Opposite  in  its  orange-groves  is  Mr. 
Pickman*s  pottery — once  the  celebrated 
Cartuja  convent ;  beyond  rise  the  towers 
of  ItaUca  and  the  purple  hills  of  the 
Sierra  Morena, 

Passing  the  gate  of  San  Juan  is  La 
Sarqueta,  or  the  ferry-boat.  In  the 
ChozaSy  opposite,  true  ichthyophiles  go, 
like  herons  on  the  bank,  to  eat  the  shad, 
Savalo,  the  Moorish  Shebbel.  Los  Hue- 
vos  and  Savalo  asado  are  the  correct 
thing,  but  this  rich  fish  is  unwholesome 
in  summer.  Here  also  1^1  Sollo,  the 
sturgeon,  is  caught,  one  of  which  the 
cathedral  chapter  used  to  send  totheroyal 
table,  reservingthe  many  others  for  their 
own.  The  walls  now  turn  to  the  rt.  Half 
a  mile  outside  is  the  once  noble  convent 
of  St.  Jerome,  called,  from  its  pleasant 
views.  La  Buena  Fista.  The  fine  church 
was  used  for  the  furnaces  of  a  bottle 
manufactory ;  that  has  bxurst  since,  and 
become  bankrupt,  but  the  smoke  black- 
ening the  sacred  pile  has  left  the  mark 
of  the  beast ;  it  had  previously  been 
turned  into  a  school,  which  also  failed. 
The  JPatio,  in  Doric  and  Ionic  worthy 
of  Herrera,  was  designed  by  two  monks, 
Bartolome  de  Calzadilla  and  Felipe  de 
Moron,  in  1603.  Observe  the  spacious 
red  marble  staircase,  and  the  rich  plas- 
ter pendentives  to  the  ceilings  in  the 
first  floor  leading  to  the  mirador. 
Here  Axataf  took  his  last  feirewell  of 
Seville,  when  St.  Ferdinand  entered. 
Betuming  by  gardens  hedged  with  aloes 
and  tall  whispering  canes,  is  San  La- 
the Leper  Hospital  foimded  in 

1284 :  the  term^a/o,  leper,  the  Hebrew 
chaphaph,  was  one  of  the  5  actionable 
defamatory  words  of  Spanish  law. 
Observe  the  terra  cotta  ornaments  on 
the  Doric  facade.  The  interior  is 
miserable,  as  the  funds  of  this  true 
Lazar-house  were  either  appropriated 
by  the  government  or  converted  by  the 
trustees  chiefly  to  their  own  use.  There 
are  generally  some  twenty  patients. 
Here  will  be  seen  cases  of  elephantiasis, 
the  hideous  swelled  leg,  a  disease  com- 
mon in  Barbary  and  not  rare  in  Anda- 
lucia,  and  which  is  extended  by  the 
charity-imploring  patient  in  the  way  of 
the  passenger,  whose  eye  is  startled  and 
pained  by  what  at  first  seems  a  huge 
cankered  boa-constrictor.  These  hos- 
pitals were  always  placed  outside  the 
cities  :  thus  for  this  purpose  our  St. 
James's  Palace  was  built  j  so,  among 
the  Jews,  "  lepers  were  put  out  of  the 
camp"  (Numb.  v.  2).  The  plague- 
stricken  were  compelled  to  dwell  alone 
(Lev.  xiii.  46).  The  word  Lepero^  at 
Mexico,  is  equivalent  to  "  beggar."  He , 
is  the  LazzaroTte  of  Naples,  that  Para- 
dise of  idlers. 

A  Moorish  causeway,  raised  in  order 
to  be  a  dam  against  inundations,  leads 
to  L/a  MacarefM,  the  huge  La  Sangre 
Hospital  rising  to  the  rt. ;  this  is  the 
suburb  of  the  poor  and  ■  agricultural 
labourers.  The  tattered  and  parti- 
coloured denizens  of  all  ages  and  sexes, 
the  children  often  stark  naked,  vUus  du 
climat  as  in  Barbary,  and  like  bronze 
Cupids,  cluster  outside  their  hovels  in 
the  sun.  Their  carts,  implements,  and 
animals  are  all  pictures  ;  observe  the 
primitive  carts,  true  jplaustray  netted 
with  esparto,  and  the  patient  resigned 
oxen  with  lustrous  eye,  so  scriptural 
and  sculptural,  and  mark  the  flower* 
adorned  frontales  between  the  horns  ; 
everything  falls  into  a  painter's  group, 
a  tableau  vivant,  and  particularly  as 
regards  that  Entomological  Society 
which  forms  by  far  the  most  numerous 
and  national  of  Spanish  naturalists ; 
they  pursue  certain  "  small  deer,"  caza 
menor,  for  which  a  regular  battue  is 
always  going  on  in  the  thick  preserves 
of  the  women's  hair«    Here  Murillo 




came  for  subject  and  colour ;  here  are 
the  rich  yellows  and  browns  in  which 
he  revelled ;  here  are  beggars,  imps,  and 
urchins,  squaJlid  and  squalling,  who, 
with  their  parents,  when  simply  tran- 

recently  somewhat  improved  in  that 
respect,  and  much  boasted  of  here. 

Retiurning  to  the  city  walls,  observe 
la  Barhaca/nay  the  Barbican,  Arabic^ 
Sab-el'canay  the  gate  of  the  moat,  or 

scribed  by  his  faithful  hand,  seem  to  enclosure.    The  circumvallation  all  the 

walk  out  of  the  frames,  for  their  life  and 
reality  carries  every  spectator  away. 

Continuing  the  walk,  turn  1.  to  the 
enormous  Hospital  de  la  Sangre,  or  de 
las  dnco  Llagas^  the  5  bleeding  wounds 
of  our  Saviour,  which  are  sculptured 
like  bunches  of  grapes.    Blood  is  an 
ominous  name  for  this  house  of  San- 
gradOf  whose  lancet,  like  the  Spanish 
knife,  gives  little  quarter  j  neither  does 
this  low  quarter,  exposed  to  inunda- 
tions and  consequent  fevers,  seem  well 
chosen  as  a  site  for  a  hospital.     This 
edifice  was  erected  in  1546  by  Martin 
de  Ghkinza  and  Heman  Buiz.    The  in- 
tention of  the  foundress,  OataUna  de 
Bibera,  was  more  perfect  than  the  per- 
formance of  her  successors  ;  after  her 
death  the  funds  were  misapplied,  only 
a  fourth -part  of  the  plan  was  finished, 
and  the  building  remains,  and  may  re- 
main, unfinish^,    although    a   pious 
person,  nsasiediAnduezay  has  left  legacies 
for  the  purpose. 

The  S.  and  principal  facade,  600  ft. 
long,  presents  a   noble    architectural 
appearance  of  the  classical  Ionic  and 
Doric  style.    The  portal  is  one  of  the 
good  architectural  bits  in  Seville.    The 
interior  Patio  is  striking;  the  hand- 
some chapel  occupies  the  centre  j  on 
the  front  are  sculptured  medallions  of 
Faith,  Hope,  and  Charity,  by  Pedro 
Machuca ;  the  chapel  is  a  Latin  cross, 
with  Ionic  piUars  ;  the  Metablo  of  the 
high  altar  was  designed  by  Maeda  in 
1600,   and  gilt  by  Alonso   Vazquez, 
whose  pictures  in  it  have  suffered  from 
neglect  and  repainting.     Observe  the 
"  Crucifixion,"  with  the  "  Magdalen," 
and  eight  Virgins,  by  Zurbaran,  of  no 
great  merit.     Invalid  pictures,  at  all 
events,  were  not  restored  in  this  hos- 
pital, as  many  were  used  as  floor-cloths. 
The   interior    management  of  this 
hospital,  now  the   principal    one    of 
Seville,  is  hardly  yet  a  thing  of  which 
Medical  Spain  can  be  proud,  although 

way  to  the  gate  of  Osario — so  called 
because  leading  to  the  Moorish  burial- 
groimd — and  admiralty  preserved,  is 
built  of  tapia,  with  square  towers  and 
battlements,  or  almenasj  which  girdle 
SeviQe  with  a  lace-like  fringe.     Near 
the  Cordova  gate,   and  opposite  the 
hermitage  of  San  SiermenegildOf  where 
Herrera  el  Viejo  was  imprisoned,  is  the 
Capuchin  convent  of  Santas  Jn^fij^a 
and  JSttfinay  built  on  the  spot  where 
the  lions  would  not  eat  these  ladies 
patronesses  of  Seville.      The  church 
was  long  adorned  by  the  Murillos  now 
in  the  Museo ;  and  rich  was  the  treat 
in  our  day  to  see  them  all  hanging  as 
placed  by  the  painter  himself^  with  the 
bearded  Co'pttchinos  for  ciceronis,  who 
might  have  sat  for  the  original  monks, 
and  who  looked  as  if  they  stepped  from 
the  fran^es,   of  pictures,  which  they 
thus  realised.    Near  the  Puerta  del  Sol, 
the  most  E.  gate,  are  JLos  Trinitarios 
JDescalzos,  the  site  of  the  palace  of  Dio- 
genianus,  where  the  above-mentioned 
Santas  Justina  and  Bufina  were  put  to 
death.     This  fine  convent  was  pillaged 
and  desecrated  by  Soult's  troops.  Pass- 
ing the  long  fantastic  salitres^  the  saltr 
petre  manufactory,  now  abandoned  and 
going  to  ruin,  the  scene  becomes  more 
Hvely  at  the  gate  of  Garmona.     To  the 
1.  is  San  Agustin^  once  full  of  Murillos ; 
M.  Soult,  having  carried  oflF  the  best, 
gutted  the  convent,  and  destroyed  the 
magnificent  sepulchres  of  the  Ponce  de 
Leon  family,  and  rifled  the  graves : 
the  tombs  were  restored  in  1818  by  the 
Coimtess-Duchess  of  Osuna,  and  an 
indignsmt  record  placed  of  these  out- 
rages against  the  dead.    Next,  this  con- 
vent was  made  a  den  of  thieves,  a  prison 
for  galley-slaves,  and  is  now  become  a 
matting   manufactory,  not  worth   in- 
specting.   This  side  of  Seville  suffered 
somewhat  from  the  bombardment  in 
July,  1843. 

The  long  lines  of  the  aqueduct,  Lof 



Sect.  II. 

Cauos  de  Carmona^  now  run  pictu-  i 
resquely  up  to  the  Humilladero  or  Cruz 
del  Catrvpo.  It  was  to  this  spot  in  i 
April  that  all  the  world  used  to  go,  to  i 
behold  the  Majos  return  from  the  Feria  , 
de  Mairena^  before  it  was  shorn  of  its  ' 
glory.  The  next  gate  is  la  Carney  so 
called  because  leading  to  the  shambles. 
To  the  1.  is  the  suburb  San  Bernardo, 
which  must  be  visited ;  the  mounds  of 
earth  are  composed  of  the  collected 
heaps  of  Seville  dust-holes  ;  a  planted 
walk  leads  to  the  Fundiciony  the  low, 
large  artiUery-fcundry  erected  by 
Charles  III.,  who  employed  one  Ma- 
ritz,  a  Swiss,  to  cast  his  cannon ;  once 
one  of  the  finest  in  Europe,  now  it  is  one 
of  the  very  worst :  power  of  motion  is 
obtained  by  mules  or  rude  maquiTuis  de 
aan^re,  engines  of  blood,  not  steam,  and 
murderous  is  the  waste  of  animal  la- 
bour. Sonlt  reorganised  this  establish- 
ment. Here  wer^  cast,  by  a  Catalan, 
those  mortars,  i,  la  Yilloatrois,  with 
which  Victor  did  not  take  Cadiz,  while 
one  of  them  was  taken  and  now  orna- 
ments St.  James's  Park.  Soult,  before 
he  fled,  ordered  as  a  parting  legacy  the 
foundry  to  be  blown  up,  but  the  mine 
accidentally  failed,  llie  furnaces  were 
then  filled  with  iron,  and  with  those 
cannon  which  he  could  not  remove ; 
but  the  amalgamated  masses  were  sub- 
sequently got  out  by  the  Spaniards, 
and  remain  as  evidence  of  his  culinary 
talents.  The  relic  is  called  la  torta 
Fra/ncesa,  or  French  omelette ;  a  flint 
was  also  plac^  in  the  wheel  of  a  pow- 
der-miU,  which,  when  set  in  motion, 
struck  against  a  steel;  and  by  this 
cowardly  contrivance,  Colonel  Duncan 
and  other  men  were  blown  to  atoms. 
(Condor's  *  Spain,*  ii.  14.)  The  splen- 
did cinque-cento  artillery,  cast  in  Italy 
at  a  time  when  form  and  grace  were 
breathed  even  over  instruments  of 
death,  were  "  removed  "  by  Angoul^me 
in  1828.  The  Bourbon  was  the  ally  of 
Ferdinand  VII, ;  Soult  was,  at  least, 
his  enemy  f 

In  this  suburb  was  the  celebrated 

Forta  Celt  (CobU),  founded  in  1450; 

here  was  printed  the  Bula  de  Cruzada, 

i*«»  called  because  granted  by  Innocent 

III.,  to  keep  the  Spanish  crusaders  in 
fighting  condition,  by  letting  them  eat 
meat  rations  in  Lent  whenthey  could 
get  them.  This,  the  bull,  la  JBula,  is 
announced  with  grand  ceremony  every 
January,  when  a  new  one  is  taken  out, 
like  a  game  certificate,  by  all  who  wish 
to  sport  with  flesh  and  fowl  with  a  safe 
conscience ;  and  by  the  paternal  kind- 
ness of  the  Pope,  instead  of  paying 
3Z.  Ids.  6d.,  for  the  small  sum  oidos 
realesy  6e2.,  a  man,  woman,  or  child 
may  obtain  this  benefit  of  clergy  and 
cookery :  but  woe  awaits  the  uncertifi- 
cated poacher — ^treadmills  for  life  are 
a  fSarce — ^perdition  catches  his  soul,  the 
last  sacraments  are  denied  to  him  on 
his  deathbed ;  the  first  question  asked 
by  the  priest  is  not  if  he  repents  of  his 
sins,  but  whether  he  has  his  bida ;  and 
in  all  notices  of  indulgences,  &c.,  8e  ha 
de  tener  la  hula  is  appended.  The  bull 
acts  on  all  fleshly,  but  sinful  comforts, 
Uke  soda  on  indigestion :  it  neutralizes 
everything  except  heresy.  The  contract 
in  1846  was  for  10,000  reams  of  paper 
to  print  them  on  at  Toledo,  and  the  sale 
produced  about  200,000^. ;  the  breaking 
one  fiEMt  during  Lent  used  to  inspire 
more  horror  than  breaking  any  two 
commandments ;  it  is  said  that  Span- 
iards now  fa»t  lessr— but  still  the 
staunch  and  starving  are  disgusted  at 
Protestant  appetites  in  eating  meat 
breakfasts  during  Lent.  It  sometimes 
disarms  them  by  saying  "Tengo  mi 
hula  para  todo."  M.  Soult  robbed 
the  till,  burnt  the  printing-presses,  and 
converted  everythmg  into  a  ruin  (see 
*  Ghitherings,*p.  243,  and  *  Compendio  de 
las  tres  Gracias  de  la  Santa  Cruzada, 
Fr°.  Alonso  Perez  de  Lara,  Mad.  1610). 
The  Farroquia  de  San  Bernardo 
contains  a  superb  "  Last  Judgment," 
by  the  dashing  Herrera  el  Viejo ;  a 
"Last  Supper,"  in  the  Sacristia,  by 
Varela,  1622;  and  a  statue  of  the 
"  Tutelar,"  by  Montaues,  and  others  by 
Koldan.  Here  also  is  the  matadero, 
the  slaughter-house,  and  close  by  Fer- 
dinand VII.  founded  his  tauromachian 
imiversity.  These  localities  are  fre- 
quented by  the  Seville  fancy,  whose 
&vourite  and  classical  dishes  of  a  bot\ 




of  tripe,  caUos  y  mewudos^  are  here  eaten 
in  perfection.  See  Pliny,  *  N.  H.,'  viii. 
51,  as  to  the  merits  of  the  Callum. 
N.B.  Drink  manzanilla  wine  with  these 
peppery  condiments ;  they  are  highly 
proYocatiye,  and,  like  hunger,  la  Salaa 
de  San  Bernardo,  are  appropriately 
cooked  in  the  parish  of  this  tuteleu* 
of  Spanish  appetite.  The  sunny  flats 
under  the  old  Moorish  walls,  which 
extend  between  the  gates  of  Ca,rmona 
and  La  Came,  are  the  haunts  of  idlers, 
Barateros,  and  gamesters.  The  lower 
classes  of  Spaniards  are  constantly 
gambling  at  cards :  groups  are  to  be 
seen  playing  all  day  long  for  wine, 
love,  or  coppers,  in  the  sun,  or  under 
their  vine-trellisesj  capital  groupings 
uid  studies  for  artists.  There  is  gene- 
rally some  welloknown  cock  of  the  walk, 
a  bully,  or  ffuapo,  who  will  come  up  and 
lay  his  hand  on  the  cards,  and  say,  **  No 
one  shall  play  here  but  with  mine" — 
aqui  no  se  juega  tino  con  mis  barajas. 
If  the  gamblers  are  cowed,  they  giye 
him  dos  cuartos,  a  halfpenny  each.  If, 
however,  one  of  the  challenged  be  a 
spirited  fellow,  he  defies  him.  Aqui 
no  se  cobra  el  barato  aino  con  un  punal 
de  Albacete — "  You  get  no  change  here 
except  out  of  an  Albacete  knife,"  If 
the  aefiance  be  accepted,  vamos  alia  is 
the  answer — "  Let's  go  to  it."  There  is 
an  end  then  of  the  cards :  all  flock  to  the 
more  interesting  ecartS,  Instances  have 
occurred,  where  Greek  meets  Greek,  of 
their  tying  the  two  advanced  feet  tor 
gether,  and  yet  remaining  fencing  with 
knife  and  cloak  for  a  quarter  of  an 
hour  before  the  blow  be  dealt.  The 
knife  is  held  firmly,  the  thumb  is 
pressed  straight  on  the  blade,  and  cal- 
culated either  for  the  cut  or  thrust, 
to  chip  bread  and  kill  men. 

The  term  Barato  strictly  means  the 
present  which  is  given  to  waiters  who 
bring  a  new  pack  of  cards.  The  origin 
is  Arabic,  Baara,  "  a  voluntary  gift ;" 
in  the  corruption  of  the  Baratero,  it 
has  become  an  involuntary  one ;  now 
the  term  resembles  the  Greek  fia^a^^ag, 
homo  perditus,  whence  the  Boman 
Balatrones,  the  miners  of  markets, 
Barathrumque  MacelU;  our  legal  term 

Barratry  is  derived  from  the  medieval 
Barrateria,  which  Ducange  very  pro- 
perly interprets  as  "  cheating,  foul 
play."  Sancho*s  sham  government  was 
oiBarateria;  Baratar,  in  old  Spanish, 
meant  to  exchange  unfairly,  to  thimble- 
rig,  to  sell  anything  under  its  real 
value,  whence  the  epithet  barato,  cheap. 
The  Baratero  is  quite  a  thing  of  Spain, 
where  personal  prowess  is  cherished. 
There  is  a  Baratero  in  every  raiment, 
ship,  prison,  and  even  among  galley- 
slaves.  For  the  Spanish  knife,  its  use 
and  abuse,  see  A^acete. 

The  open  space  beyond  the  Came, 
and  caU^  el  lUstro,  presents  a  no  less 
national  scene  ou  the  Sabado  Santo, 
which  may  be  considered  a  holiday 
equivalent  to  our  Easter  Monday. 
There  and  then  the  Paschal  lambs  are 
sold,  or  cofderos  de  Bascua,  as  Easter 
is  termed  in  Spanish.  The  bleating 
animals  are  confined  in  pens  of  netted 
rope- work  ;  on  every  side  the  work  of 
slaughter  is  going  on ;  gipsies  erect 
temporary  shambles  on  this  occasion  ; 
groups  of  children  are  everywhere 
leading  away  pet  lambs,  which  are  de- 
corated with  ribbons  and  flowers.  The 
amateur  will  see  in  them  and  in  their 
attitudes  the  Uving  originals  from  which 
Murillo  faithfully  copied  his  St.  Johns 
and  the  infemt  Saviour,  el  divino  Pastor, 
This  buying  and  selling  continues  from 
the  Saturday  until  the  end  of  Monday. 

The  huge  mounds  of  rubbish  oppo- 
site are  composed  of  the  accumulated 
dungholes  of  Seville,  and  under  them 
are  buried  those  who  have  died  of 
plagues,  which  these  Immondezzaios  are 
enough  to  render  endemic ;  they  were 
allowed  to  accumulate,  while  the  clergy 
managed  to  suppress  theatres  to  pre- 
vent recurrence  of  plague,  a  punishment 
from  heaven. 

Returning  to  the  walls  are  the  ca- 
valry barracks,  in  which  men,  horses,  and 
saddles  are  occasionally  wanting.  Now 
the  Alcazar  towers  above  the  battle- 
mented  girdle  of  walls  to  the  rt.  The 
classical  gate,  San  Fernando,  was  built 
in  1760 ;  here  it  was  that  the  Virgin 
miraeulously  introduced  St.  Ferdinand 
into  Seyille  during  the  siege. 



To  the  L  is  the  Fabrica  de  Tabacos, 
where  tobacco  is  made  into  snuff  and 
cigars.  The  edifice  has  28  interior 
patios,  and  the  enormous  space  covers 
a  quadrangle  of  662  feet  by  524.  It 
was  finished  in  yile  taste  in  1757  affcer 
plans  of  one  Yandembeer,  a  fantastic 
Dutchman.  It  is  guarded  by  a  moat, 
not  destined  to  prevent  men  getting  in, 
but  cigars  being  smuggled  out.  This 
national  manufactory  may  be  said  to 
be  the  only  genuine  and  flourishing  one 
in  Spain :  it  was  fortified  in  1836 
against  the  Carhsts,  but  the  fyhting 
ended  in  smoke. 

There  are  sometimes  as  many  as  4000 
persons  employed  in   making  cigars, 
and  principally  female :  on  an  average 
2  millions  of  pounds  are  made  in  a  year. 
A  good  workw6man  can  do  in  a  day 
from  ten  to  twelve  bundles,  atados,  each 
of  which  contains  50  cigars  ;  but  their 
tongues  are  busier  than  their  fingers, 
and  more  mischief  is  made  than  cigars. 
Pew  of   them  are  good-looking,    yet 
these  cigarreras  are  among  the  lions  of 
Seville,  and,  like  the  grisettes  of  Paris, 
form  a  class  of  themselves.    They  are 
reputed  to  be  more  impertinent  than 
chaste :  they  used  to  wear  a  particular 
mantilla  de  tira,  which  was  always 
crossed  over  the  face  and  bosom,  allow- 
ing the  upper  part  only  of  most  roguish- 
looking  features  to  peep  out.     In  the 
under-floor  a  fine  rappee  snuff  is  made, 
called  tahaco  de  fraile :  it  is  coloured 
with  red  ahna^ra,  an  earth  brought 
from  the  neighbourhood  of  Cartagena. 
These  "pungent  grains   of  titillating 
dust "   closely  resemble  the  fia-vourite 
mixture  of  the  Moors,  and  one  comes 
out  powdered  as  with  rhubarb,  and 
sneezing  lustily.    The  use  of  tobacco, 
now  so  universal  among  aU  classes  in 
Spain,  was  formerly  confined  to  this 
snuff,  the   sole  solace  of   a    celibate 
clergy.    The  Due  de  St.  Simon  (xix. 
125)  mentions,  in  1721,  that  the  Conde 

although  a  mania  rages  in  Spain  just 
now,  of  encouraging  native  talent,  and 
Spaniards  are  striving  to  do  badly  and 
dearly  what  elsewhere  can  be   done 
better  and  cheaper.    Essentially  agri- 
cultural, and  makers  of  nothing  well 
except  paper  cigars,  with  mistaken  in- 
dustry they  neutralize   the   gifts    of 
Providence,    and    neglect   their   soil, 
which  produces  ea^  and  excellent  raw 
produce,  to  force  cotton-spinning,  iron 
founderies,  manufactories,  &c.  Thus  the 
tall  British  chimney  rises  on  the  ruins 
of  the  Castilian  convent  belfry.  The  iron 
and  engine  work,  of  Senorknaplate, 
in  the  suppressed  San  Antonio,  beat 
Birmingham  in  the  eyes  of  the  Boeti- 
cans ;  but  when  it  is  added  that  there 
is  no  bank  at  Seville,  the  Manchester 
school  will  understand  the  petty,  pal- 
tiy,   passive  retail  commerce  of  this 
marvel  city  of  Spain. 

On  the  flat  plain  outside  the  walls, 
called  El  Prado  de  San  Sebastia»y  was 
the  Q^efnaderOf  or  the  burning-place 
of  the  Inquisition,  where  the  last  act  of 
the  religious  tragedy  of  the  auto  defe 
was  left,  with  the  odium,  to  be  per- 
formed by  the  civil  power.  The  spot 
of  fire  is  marked  by  the  foundations  of 
a  square  platform  on  which  the  faggots 
were  piled.  Here,  about  1781,  a  heata, 
or  female  saint,  was  burnt,  for  taking 
upon  herself  the  hen  and  heretical  office 
of  hatching  eggs.  Townsend,  however, 
(ii.  342),  says  that  she  was  very  be- 
witching, and  had  a  successful  mono- 
mania for  seducing  clergymen. 

Elderly  Spaniards  are  still  very  shy 
of  talking  about  the  Quemadero ;  sons 
of  burnt  fathers,  they  dread  the  fire. 
Con  el  Rey  y  la  InqvisuAon^  chiton ! 
chiton!  Hush!  hush!  say  they,  with 
finger  on  lip,  hke  the  image  of  Silence, 
with  King  and  Inquisition.  As  the 
heavy  swell  of  the  Atlantic  remains 
aft«r  the  hurricane  is  past,  so  distrust 
and  scared  apprehension  form  part  of 

de  Lemos  passed  his  time  in  amoking   the     uncommunicative     Spaniard    in 

to  dissipate  his  grief  for  having  joined 

the  party  of  the  Archduke  Charles — 

"  chose  fort  extraordinaire  en  Espagne^ 

■*-^  <m  ne  prend  du  tabac  que  par  lenez." 

is  at  least  a  national  Faibrica, 

deaUng  with  Spaniard.  "How  silent 
you  are,"  said  the  Empress  of  Russia  to 
Euler.  "  Madam,"  repUed  he, "  I  have 
lived  in  a  country  where  men  who 
speak  are  hanged.      The  burnings  of 




tonid  Spain  would  have  better  suited 
the  temperature  of  chilly  Siberia. 

The  effects  are,  howeyer,  the  same, 
and  this  engine  of  mystery  hung  oyer 
the  nation  like  the  sword  of  Damocles ; 
inyisible  spies,  more  terrible  than 
armed  men,  omnipresent,  omniscient, 
omnipotent,  aimed  at  eyery  attribute 
of  the  Almighty,  saye  his  justice  and 
mercy.  It  arrested  the  circulation  of 
life,  and  man's  heart  trembled  to  hear 
the  sounds  of  his  own  beating.  It 
brooded  like  a  nightmare  on  the  body 
and  breath  of  the  nation  ;  hence  their 
dwarfed  literature,  and  unsocial  isola- 
tion. The  dread  of  the  Inquisition, 
from  whence  no  secrets  were  hid,  locked 
up  the  Spanish  heart,  soured  the  sweet 
charities  of  life,  preyented  frank  and 
social  communication,  which  relieyes 
and  improyes.  Hospitality  became 
dangerous,  when  confidence  might 
open  the  mind,  and  wine  giye  utter- 
ance to  long-hidden  thought.  Such 
was  the  fear-engendered  silence  under 
Koman  tyranny,  as  described  by  Tacitus 
(Agr.  ii.)  :  "  Adempto  per  inquisiiiones 
et  loquendi  et  audiendi  commercio, 
memoriam  quoque  ipsam  cum  yoce 
perdidissemus;  si  tam  m  nostr&  potes- 
tate  esset  obliyisci  quam  tacere." 

It  is  as  well,  the^ore,  here  as  else- 
where, to  ayoid  jesting  or  criticism  on 
this  matter ;  Con  el  ojo  y  la  fey  nunca 
me  burlarS.  Spaniards,  who,  like  Mos- 
lems, allow  themselyes  a  wide  latitude 
in  laughing  at  their  priests,  are  yery 
touchy  on  eyery  subject  connected  with 
their  creed ;  howeyer  enlightened  now- 
a-days,  it  is  a  remnant  of  the  loathing 
of  heresy  and  their  dread  of  a  tribunal 
which  they  think  sleepeth,  but  is  not 
dead,  scotched  rather  than  killed.  In 
the  changes  and  chances  of  Spain  it 
may  be  re-established,  and,  as  it  neyer 
forgets  or  forgiyes,  it  will  surely  re- 
yenge,  and  the  spirit  of  the  Inquisition 
is  still  aliye,  for  no  king,  cortes,  or 
constitution  eyer  permits  in  Spain  any 
approach  to  any  religious  toleration. 

The  Inquisition,  a  tribunal  of  bad 
faith,  bigotry,  confiscation,  blood,  and 
fire,  was  initiated  by  St.  Dominick, 
who  learnt  his  trade  under  Simon  de 

Montfort,  the  exterminator  of  the  Pro- 
testant Albigenses.  It  was  remodeled 
on  Moorish  principles,  the  garrote  and 
furnace  being  borrowed  from  the  bow- 
string and  fire  of  the  Moslem,  who 
burnt  the  bodies  of  the  infidels  to  pre- 
yent  the  aslies  from  becoming  relics 
(Beinaud,  *  Iny.  des  Sarasins,'  145). 

Spanish  cities  haye  contended  for 
the  honour  of  which  was  the  first  seat 
of  this  holy  tribunal,  once  the  great 
glory  and  boast  of  Spain,  and  else- 
where her  foul  disgrace.  This,  says 
Mariana  (xxy.  1),  was  the  secret  of 
her  inyincible  greatness,  since  "  the 
instant  the  holy  office  acquired  its  due 
power  and  authority,  a  new  light  shone 
oyer  the  land,  and,  by  diyine  fayour, 
the  forces  of  Spain  became  sufficient  to 
eradicate  and  beat  down  the  Moor." 

Seville  was  the  first  and  the  head- 
quarters of  these  bright  fires.  The 
great  claim  put  forth  in  1627  for  the 
beatification  of  St.  Ferdinand  was,  that 
he  had  carried  faggots  himself  to  bum 
heretics.  But  the  spirit  of  the  age  was 
then  fanatically  ferocious.  Thus  Philip 
le  Bel,  his  cousin,  and  son  of  St.  Louis, 
tortured  and  burnt  the  Templars 
by  a  slow  fire  near  his  royal  garden ; 
and  our  Heniy's  writ  de  heretico 
comburendo,  and  approyed  of  by  Coke 
(iii.  Inst.  5)  pro  salute  aninue — out  of 
regard  for  the  soul  of  the  burnt  man — 
was  only  abolished  by  Charles  II.  The 
holy  tribunal  was  first  fixedly  estab- 
lished at  Seyille  in  1481,  by  Sixtus  lY., 
at  the  petition  of  Ferdinand,  who  used 
it  as  an  engine  of  finance,  police,  and' 
reyenge.  He  assigned  to  it  the  Domi- 
nican conyent  of  St.  Paul,  and  when 
that  was  found  too  small  for  the  num- 
ber of  its  inmates,  gaye  it  the  citadel  of 
Triana.  "  This  tribunal,  judge,  jury,  and 
executioner  of  its  yictim,  was  too  truly 
a  thing  of  Spainnot  to  root  and  flourish 
in  a  congenial  soil.  Lay  pride  allied 
itself  to  8uch  a  religion,  the  grandees 
held  office  both  from  bigotry,  loye  of 
new  titles,  and  self  security,  by  becom- 
ing members  of  the  dreaded  system. 
Tomas  de  Torquemada  was  the  first 
high-priest  who  carried  out,  to  use 
Bossuet's  mild  phrase,  "  the  holy  so- 



Sect.  II. 

verity  of  the  church  of  Borne  which 
will  not  tolerate  error."  According 
to  the  hest  authorities,  from  1481  to 
1808,  the  Holy  Tribunal  of  Spain 
burnt  34,612  persons  alive,  18,048 
in  efiSgy,  and  imprisoned  288,109 — 
but  these  vast  numbers  are  questionable 
— the  goods  and  chattels  of  every  one 
of  them  being  first  duly  confiscated. 
In  addition  to  these  victims  it  entailed 
to  poor,  uncommercial,  indolent  Spain, 
the  expulsion  of  her  wealthy  Jews,  and 
her  most  industrious  agriculturists,  the 
Moors.  The  dangerous  engine,  when 
the  supply  of  victims  was  exhausted, 
recoiled  on  the  nation,  and  fitted  it  for 
that  yoke,  heavy  and  grievous,  under 
which  for  three  centuries  it  has  done 
penance ;  the  works  of  Llorente  have 
fully  revealed  the  secrets  of  priestcraft 
in  power.  The  best  account  of  .an 
Auto  de  Fe  ia  the  official  report  of  Jos^ 
del  Olmo,  4to.,  published  at  Madrid  in 

Near  the  Quemadero  is  San  Diego,  a 
suppressed  Jesuit  convent,  and  given 
in  1784  to  Mr.  "Wetherell,  who  was 
tempted  by  Spanish  promises  to  ex- 
change the  climate  of  Snow  Hill,  Hol- 
bom,  for  torrid  Andalucia.  Towns- 
hend  (ii.  325)  gives  the  details.  This 
intelligent  gentleman,  having  been  the 
first  to  establish  a  tannery  with  steam- 
machinery  in  Spain,  was  ruined  by  the 
bad  fedth  of  the  government,  which 
&iled  in  both  payments  and  promises. 
The  property  has  now  passed  by  a 
Spanish  trick  into  other  hands,  the 
court  of  appeal  having  been  induced  to 
allow  a  false  deed,  or  JSscriiura,  Mr. 
"Wetherell  lies  buried  in  his  garden, 
surroimded  by  those  of  his  countrymen 
who  have  died  in  Seville :  requiescant 
in  pace !  The  scene  of  a  coimtryman's 
grave  cut  ofi*  in  a  foreign  land  is  affect? 
ing,  and  doubly  so  to  those  who  have 
left  here  a  branch  of  themselves ;  pu|l 
out,  therefore,  the  nettle  which  has  no 
business  to  grow  here. — R.  F, 

On  the  other  side  of  the  plain  was  the 
great  city  cemetery  of  San  SehasUan, 
now  moved  N.  not  to  offend  the  In- 
fanta who  hved  near  it.     Into  this  Bo- 

•nist  Necropolis  no  heretic,  if  dead, 

is  allowed  to  enter;  nay,  the  ortho- 
dox canons  of  the  cathedral  have  a 
separate  quarter  from  the  laity.  Bu- 
rial out  of  towns — a  hygienic  neces- 
sity— was  vehemently  opposed  by  the 
Spanish  clergy,  who  lost  their  fees,  and 
assured  their  flocks  that  those  int€rred 
out  of  their  parish  churchyard,  would 
risk  the  neither  leetmg  in  thei/graTea, 
nor  rising  at  the  resurrection.  The  cata- 
comb system  is  here  adopted  :  a  niche 
is  granted  for  80  reals  for  6  or  7  years, 
and  the  term  can  be  renewed  {proroga' 
do)  by  a  new  payment.  A  large  grave 
or  ditch  is  opened  every  day,  into 
which  the  bodies  of  the  poor  are  cast 
like  dogs,  after  being  often  first  stripped 
by  the  sextons  even  of  their  rags. 

This  cemetery  should  be  visited  on 
the  last  night  of  October,  or  All  Hal- 
lowe'en, and  the  vigil  of  All  Saints' 
day ;  and  again  on  Nov.  2,  the  day  of 
All  Souls,  when  all  the  town  repairs 
there.  It  is  rather  a  fashionable  pro- 
menade than  a  reUgious  performance. 
The  spot  is  crowded  with  beggars,  who 
appeal  to  the  tender  recoDections  of 
one's  deceased  relations  and  friends. 
Outside,  a  busy  sale  of  nuts,  sweet- 
meats, and  cakes  take?  place,  and  a  crowd 
of  horses,  carriages,  and  noisy  children, 
all  vitality  and  mirth,  which  must  vex 
the  repose  of  the  blessed  souls  even 
in  purgatory  (see  'Gatherings,*  p.  250). 

Betuming  from  San  SehctsUan  to 
Seville,  the  change  from  death  at  the 
Puerta  de  Xerez  is  striking :  here  all 
is  life  and  flower,.  This  quarter,  once 
the  dunghill  of  the  city,  was  converted 
into  a  Paradise  by  Jose  Manuel  Ar- 
jona,  in  1830,  This,  the  last  Asistente 
of  Seville — ultimus  Bomanorum — ^was 
its  Augustus  r  to  him  are  owing  almost 
all  of  the  many  modem  improvements, 
paving,  lighting,  cleansing,  &c.  The' 
principal  walk  was  laid  out  by  him  in 
honour  of  Christina,  then  the  young 
bride  of  Eerdinaud  VII.  El  Salon 
is  a  raised  central  saloon,  with  stone 
seats  around.  In  the  afternoon  and 
evening  all  the  "rank  and  fiashion" 
assemble  to  promenade  here.  Beyond, 
along  the  bank  of  the  river,  are  JLag 
DeliciaSf  a  charming  ride  and  walk. 




Here  is  the  botanical  garden,  and  truly 
delicious  are  these  nocturnal  strolls. 
Night  in  the  south  is  beautiful  of  itself. 
The  sun  of  fire  is  set,  and  a  balmy 
breeze  fans  the  scorched  cheek :  now 
the  city  "which  sleeps  by  day  awakes  to 
life  and  Iotc,  and  bright  eyes  sparkle 
brighter  than  the  stars.  The  semi- 
obscure,  not  too  dark  for  them,  hides 
poverty  and  decay,  and  pleasant  it  is 
to  listen  to  the  distant  hum  of  the 
guitar,  and  think  that  a  whole  town  is 

At  the  land  side  of  the  walk  is  a 
huge  pile  of  churrigueresque,  long  the 
nautical  college  of  San  Tebno,  the  pa- 
tron of  Spanish  sailors,  who,  when  the 
storm  is  going  to  be  over,  appears  at 
the  mast-head  with  a  lambent  flame. 
It  was  founded  by  Fernando,  son  of 
Columbus,  and  built  in  1682,  by  Anto- 
nio Erodriguez.  Here  the  middies  were 
taught  navigation  in  a  room,  &om  a 
small  model  of  a  three-decker.  When 
the  nautical  college  was  removed  to 
Cadiz,  as  somewhett  a  sinecure,  the 
Spanish  fleet  being  a  myth,  the  Duke 
of  Montpensier  and  the  Infanta  bought 
the  building,  and  have  very  much  im- 
proved it,  inside  and  outside. 

The  Ptterta  de  Xerez^  said  to  be  built 
by  Hercules  {Hercules  meedifico,  p.  169) , 
was  at  all  events  rebuilt  by  the  infidel. 
Now  the  a^rroyo  Taga/rete  reappears. 
This  rivulet,  or  rather  Fleet-ditch, 
winds  round  the  E.  and  W,  sides  of 
Seville,  and  here  empties  itself  and  its 
impurities  into  the  GhMtdalquivir,  The 
filthy  contents  of  this  open  sewer  de- 
composing under  the  sun  breed  fever 
and  unhealthiness.  Any  real  board  of 
health  would  order  it  instantly  to  be 
covered  over.  The  Moorish  walls 
which  hang  over  this  stinking  Styx 
once  were  painted  in  fresco.  Up  to 
1821  they  connected  the  Alcazar  with 
the  outpost  river-guarding  tower,  called 
La  torre  del  Oro,  "  of  gold,"  to  dis- 
tinguish it  from  La  Torre  de  Plata, 
that  "  of  silver,"  which  lies  nearer  the 
mint.  These  fine  names  are  scarcely 
sterling,  both  being  built  of  Moorish 
tapia.  The  former  one,  most  absurdly 
ascribed  to  Julius  Ceesar,  was  raised 

by  the  Almohades,  who  called  it 
Borju  d-dahdby  "  the  tower  of  gold,'* 
because  their  treasure  was  kept  in  it; 
now  it  is  only  gilded  by  sunsets.  It 
was  used  by  Don  Pedro  el  Cruel,  as  a 
prison  for  his  enemies  and  his  mis- 
tresses. The  Spaniards  have  built  a 
sentry-box  on  the  top  of  this  Moorish 
tower,  where  their  red  and  yellow  flag 
occasionally  is  hoisted. 

Passing  on  is  the  Aduana  or  Custom- 
house, a  hotbed  of  queer  dealings,  which 
lies  between  the  Postigos  de  Ca/rhon  and 
del  Aoeite:  inside  are  some  pretty 
Prout-like  old  houses  for  the  artist. 

Close  by  are  "  the  Atarazanaa,"  the 
Dar»san*-ah,  or  house  of  construction 
of  the  Moors,  whence  the  G«noa  term 
darsena,  and  our  word  arsenal.  The 
present  establishment  was  founded  by 
Alonso  el  Sabio,  and  his  Grotho-Latin 
inscription  still  remains  imbedded  in 
the  wall  near  the  Caridad  hospital. 
Observe  the  blue  azule/os,  said  to  be 
from  designs  by  Murillo,  who  painted 
the  glorious  pictures  for  the  interior 
(see  p.  190),  This  modem  arsenal, 
which  generally  is  miserably  provided, 
is  never  worth  inspection :  it  is  not 
better  provided  with  instruments  for 
inflicting  death  than  the  wards  of 
La  Sangre  are  with  those  for  preserving 
life.  Misgoverned,  ill-fated  Spain, 
which,  in  her  saUtrose  table-lands,  has 
"  villainous  saltpetre  "  enough  to  blow 
up  the  world,  and  copper  enough  at 
Eio  Tinto  and  at  Berja  to  sheathe  the 
Pyrenees,  is  of  all  countries  the  worst 
provided  in  ammunition  and  artillery, 
whether  it  be  a  batterie  de  cuisine  or 
de  citadel. 

Adjoining  the  arsenal  is  the  quarter 
of  the  dealers  of  bacalao  or  salted  cod- 
fish. "You  may  nose  them  in  the 
lobby."  This  wkicle  long  formed  a 
most  important  item  in  national  food. 
The  numerous  religious  corporations, 
and  fast-days,  necessarily  required  this, 
for  fresh-water  fish  is  rare,  and  sea- 
fish  almost  unknown,  in  the  great  cen- 
tral parameras  of  the  Peninsula.  The 
shrivelled  dried-up  cod-fish  is  easily 
conveyed  on  muleback  into  uncarriage- 
able  recesses.    It  is  much  consumed, 



Sect.  II. 

mixed  with  rice,  still  all  along  the 
tierra  caliente,  or  warm  zone  of  Spain, 
Alicante  being  the  port  lor  the  S.  E., 
as  Seville  is  for  the  S.  portions :  ex- 
posed to  the  scorching  sun,  this  salt- 
fish  is  anything  but  sweet,  and  our 
readers  when  on  a  journey  are  "cau- 
tioned not  to  eat  it,  as  it  only  creates 
an  insatiable  thirst,  to  say  nothing  of 
the  unavailing  remorse  of  a  non-digest- 
ing stomach.  Leave  it  therefore  to 
the  dura  ilia  and  potent  solvents  of 
muleteer  gastric  juices.  At  all  events 
it  ought  to  be  put  many  hours  al 
remqjoy  to  soak  in  water,  which  takes 
out  the  salt  and  doftens  it.  The  Car- 
thaginians and  ancients  knew  this  so 
well  that  the  first  praise  of  a  good  cook 
was  Scit  muriatica  ut  maceret  (Plant. 
*Poen.*i.  2,  39). 

In  this  piscatose  comer  of  Seville, 
poverty  delights  to  feed  on  the  Ori- 
ental cold  cried  fish,  and  especially 
slices  of  large  flounders,  whiting,  and 
small  bits  of  bacalao  fried  in  yolk  of 
eggs,  called  familiarly  Soldaos  de 
Favia,  because  yellow  was  the  imiform 
of  that  regiment,  and  possibly  in  re- 
membrance of  the  deficient  commis- 
sariat of  the  victors  of  that  day.  The 
lower  classes  are  great  fish-eaters :  to 
this  the  fasts  of  their  church  and  their 
poverty  conduce.  They  seldom  boil 
it,  except  in  oil.  Their  principle  is, 
when  the  fish  has  once  left  its  native 
element,  it  ought  never  to  touch  it 
again.  Here,  as  in  the  East,  cold 
broiled  fish  is  almost  equivalent  to  meat 
(St.  Luke,  xxiv.  42). 

Next  observe  the  heraldic  gate,  del 
Arenal,  of  the  Strand,  and  a  sort  of 
Temple  Bar;  the  contiguous  streets 
have  long  been  inhabited  by  denizens 
of  indifferent  reputation;  here  the 
rogue  of  a  Ventero  in  Don  Quixote  was 
educated;  here  Cervantes  placed  the 
school  of  Monopodio,  who  in  his  Bin- 
conete  y  CortadiUo,  "  Hole-and-corner 
man  and  cut-purse,"  gave  the  idea 
of  Fagin  and  "artful  dodger"  to 
Dickens;  but  nothing  is  new  under 
the  sun,  not  even  thimble-rigging, 
^l^ri^o^a^a.  The  Open  space  in  tront 
^^  caUed  la  Carreteria^  because  here 

carts  and  carters  resort ;  and  also 
el  BaratiUoi^  the  "little  chepe,"  from 
being  a  rag-fair,  and  place  for  the  sale 
of  marine  stores  or  stolen  goods. 
Accordingly,  the  new  public  prison  is 
not  iU  placed  here,  on  the  site  of  the 
old  convent,  del  Pojmlo,  Near  this  is 
the  Plaza  de  Toros,  which  is  a  fine 
amphitheatre,  and  w^  hold  more  than 
12,000  spectators,  although  injured  by 
a  hurricane  in  1805  and  unrepaired, 
especially  on  the  cathedral  side,  which 
at  least  lets  in  the  Giralda  and  com- 
pletes the  picture,  when  the  setting 
sunrays  gild  the  Moorish  tower  as 
the  last  bull  dies,  and  the  populace — 
fex  nondum  lassata — unwillingly  retire. 
This  Plaza  is  under  the  superintendence 
of  the  Maestranza  of  Seville.  This 
equestrian  society  of  the  highest  rank 
was  formed  in  1526,  to  encourage  tour- 
naments and  the  spirit  of  chivalry 
then  wearing  out ;  now  the  chief  end 
is  the  wearing  a  scarlet  uniform. 

Tauromachian  travellers  will  remem- 
ber the  day  before  the  fight  to  ride  out 
to  Tablada  to  see  the  gaOadOy  or  what 
cattle  the  bulls  are,  and  go  early  the 
next  day  to  witness  the  encierro;  be 
sure  also  at  the  show  to  secure  a  boletiw 
de  somhra  in  a  balcon  depiedra,  i.  e. 
a  good  seat  in  the  shade. 

Leaving  the  Plaza,  we  now  approach 
el  Rio,  the  Biver  Strand,  where  a  petty 
traffic  id  carried  on  of  fruit,  mattings, 
and  goods  brought  up  in  barges;  so 
much  for  the  scanty  commerce  of  a 
city  thus  described  four  centuries  ago 
by  our  pilgrim  (Purchas,  ii.  1232)  : — 

-"  Civyle !  graand !  that  is  so  fre, 

A  paradise  it  is  to  behold, 
The  frutez  vines  and  spiceiy  thee  I  have  told 
Upon  the  haven  all  manner  of  merchandise, 
And  karekes  and  schippes  of  all  device." 

Here  the  hungry  tide-waiters  look  out 
for  bribes,  and  an  official  post-captain 
pompously  announces  the  arrival  of  a 
stray  smack.  A  rude  boat-bridge  here 
for  ages  stemmed  the  Guadalquivir, 
and  was  at  once  inconvenient  in  pas- 
sage and  expensive  in  repair :  formerly 
it  was  a  ferry,  until  Yusuf  abu  Yacub 
first  threw  across  some  barges  Oct.  11, 
1171,  by  which  the  city  was  provi- 




sioned  from  the  fertile  Ajarafe;  the 
destruction  of  this  communication  by 
St.  Ferdinand  led  to  the  enrrender  of 
Seville.  This  bridge  of  boats  has  been 
for  ages  a  source  of  profit  to  the  com- 
missioners, who  have  recdved  funds 
sufficient  to  have  built  one  of  marble : 
a  suspension  bridge  has  since  been 
erected,  and  was  inaugurated  in  June, 
1852,  and  blessed  by  the  priests.  The 
people  at  first  were  a&aid  to  cross  the 
heretical  bridge — ^a  pttenie  del  DiciblOy 
or  del  IngleSy  although  the  first  stone 
was  sanctified  by  the  Dean. 

Next  observe  el  Triunfo,  a  monu- 
ment common  in  Spaaish  towns,  and 
raised  in  honour  of  the  triumph  ob- 
tained by  the  advocates  of  the  Imma- 
culate Conception;  a  statue  of  the 
Virgin  and  local  tutelars  are  usually 
placed  on  the  erection ;  the  Doric  gate 
which  here  leads  into  the  town  is 
called  la  JPuerta  de  IHana,  because 
facing  that  suburb :  it  was  erected  in 
1588,  and  is  attributed  to  Herrera. 
The  upper  story  was  used  as  a  state 
prison — a  Newgate :  here  the  Conde 
del  Aguila,  the  MsDcenas  of  Seville, 
was  murdered  by  the  patriots,  urged 
on  by  the  Catiline  Tilli  (see  Schep.  i. 
269,  and  Doblado's  Letters,  p.  439). 
The  plain  beyond  was  formerly  el 
PemeOi  or  the  pig-market ;  during  the 
cholera,  in  1833,  the  unclean  animals 
were  removed  to  the  meadows  of  the 
virgin  patronesses  Justa  and  Bufina, 
behind  San  Agustin,  and  the  space 
made  into  an  esplanade :  now  re-enter- 
ing by  the  Puerta  Seal^  the  circuit  is 

Of  course  the  traveller  wiU  ride  out 
8ome  day  to  Alcald  de  Ghnadavra  (see 
p.  159). 

A  smaller  and  home  circuit  should 
also  be  made  on  the  rt.  bank  of  the 
Guadalquivir,  crossing  over  to  the 
suburb  Triana,  the  Moorish  Taray- 
anah,  a  name  supposed  to  be  a  cor^ 
ruption  from  Trajami,  Trajan  having 
been  bom  near  it,  at  Italica.  It  is  the 
Transtevere  of  Seville,  and  the  favourite 
residence  of  gipsies,  buU-fighters,  smug- 
glers, robbers,  and  other  picturesque 
rascals;   hence  it  is  much  frequented 

by  the  dficiony  by  fancy  men  and  Majos, 
who  love  low  company  :  this  is  the 
place  to  behold  a  funcion  de  gitanos, 
got  up  in  all  the  glory  of  Gaditanian 
dancing,  jaleos  y  aranasy  un  Jestejo  de 
genie  buena  con  muchissimo  mostagan. 
To  the  rt.,  on  crossing  the  bridge, 
are  some  remains  of  the  once  formi- 
dable Moorish  castle,  Which  was  made 
the  first  residence  of  the  Inquisition, 
the  cradle  of  that  fourth  Fury.  The 
Guadalquivir,  which  blushed  at  the 
fires  and  curdled  with  the  bloodshed. 


almost  swept  away  this  edifice  in  1626, 
as  if  indignant  at  the  crimes  committed 
on  its  bank.  The  tribunal  was  then 
moved  to  the  CaUe  San  MarcoSy  and 
afterwards  to  the  Alameda  Vieja.  The 
ruined  castle  was  afterwards  taken 
down,  and  the  site  converted  into  the 
present  market. 

The  parish  church,  Santa  Anna,  was 
built  by  Alonso  el  Sabio,  in  1276 :  the 
image  of  the  "  Mother  of  the  Virgin," 
in-  the  high  altar,  is  a  Virgen  aparecida, 
or  a  divinely  revealed  paJladium,  and 
is  brought  out  in  pubUc  calamities,  but 
as  a  matter  of  etiquette  it  never  crosses 
the  bridge,  which  would  be  going  out 
of  its  parochial  jurisdiction :  in  the 
Trascoro  is  a  curious  Virgin,  painted 
and  signed  by  Alejo  Fernandez ;  in  the 
plateresque  Setablo  are  many  fine 
Campanas,  especially  a  "  St.  George," 
which  has  much  of  a  Giorgione.  The 
statues  and  bas-reliefs  are  by  Pedro 
Delgado.  Visit  the  church  Nvsstra 
Setlora  del  O ;  many  females  are  here 
christened  with  tlus  vowel.  Great 
quantities  of  coarse  azulefo  and  loza, 
earthenware,  are  still  made  here  as  in 
the  days  of  Santas  Justa  and  Eufina. 
The  naranfales,  or  orange-gardens,  are 
worth  notice.  The  principal  street  is 
called  de  Costilla :  here  the  soap- 
makers  lived,  whence  our  term  CastUe 
soap.  (?)  There  is  a  local  history,  ^^Apa- 
rato  d€  Triana"  Justino  Matute,  Se- 
viUa,  1818. 

To  the  rt.,  a  short  walk  outside  Tri- 
ana,  and  on  the  bank  of  the  river,  is  the 
Cartuja  Convent,  dedicated  to  Nuestra 
Seiiora  de  laa  Ottevas,  and  begun  in 
1400  by  Arch.  B.  Mena ;  the  funds  left 



Sect.  IL 

by  him  were  seized  by  the  G-ovemment, 
always  needy  and  always  unprincipled. 
Finished  by  Pier  Afiui  de  Ribera,  it 
became  a  museum  of  piety,  painting, 
sculpture,  and  architecture,  imtil  el 
tiempo  de  los  Franceses,  when,  accord- 
ing to  Laborde,  iii.  263,  "  Le  Ml.  Soult 
en  fit  une  exceUewte  citadelle,  dont 
TEghse  devint  le  magasin ;  la  Biblio- 
th^ue  ne  valoit  rien ;  eUe  a  servi  pour 
fiaire  des  gargousses  "  (cartridges)  ;  un- 
like our  Essex  at  Cadiz  in  1596,  who 
ordered  the  fine  Osario  library  to  be  pre- 
served, and  gave  it  to  Sodley,and  many 
of  the  books  are  still  preserved  at  Oxford; 
the  silver  full-length  saints,  San  Bruno, 
&c.,  were  melted  by  Soult  into  francs. 
Sequestered  latterly,  and  sold,  the  con- 
vent has  been  turned  into  a  pottery  by 
Mr.  Pickman,  a  worthy  Englishman, 
who,  not  making  the  chapel  his  maga- 
zine, has  preserved  it  for  holy  purposes. 
Now  the  drones  are  expelled,  the  block 
of  the  convent  is  the  hive  of  busy  ce- 
ramic bees,  originally  swarmed  in  Eng- 
land. Mr.  Pickman,  a  foreigner,  warned 
by  Mr.  Weth»all's  fate,  took  into  part- 
nership certain  natives.  Observe  the 
fine  rose  window  in  the  facade,  and  the 
stones  recording  the  heights  of  firequent 
inundations ;  inquire  in  the  garden  for 
the  old  burial-ground,  where  foreigners 
now  rest,  and  the  G-othic  inscription  of 
the  age  of  Hermenegildo.  N.B.  Its 
oranges  are  dehcious. 

Following  the  banks  of  a  stream  we 
reach  the  miserable  village  of  Sa/nti 
Ponce,  a  corruption  from  the  name  of 
San  Geroncio,  its  Gothic  bishop,  or, 
according  to  others,  of  Santo  Fozo,  the 
"  holy  well : "  it  was  the  once  ancient 
Italica,  the  birthplace  of  the  Emperors 
Trajan,  Adrian,  and  Theodosius;  it 
was  founded  u.o.  547,  on  the  site  of  the 
Iberian  town  Sancios,  by  Scipio  Afri- 
canus,  and  destined  as  a  home  for  his 
veterans  (App.  "B.  H."  463).  It  was 
adorned  by  Adrian  with  sumptuous 
edifices.  The  citizens  petitioned  to 
become  a  Colonia,  that  is,  subject  to 
Borne,  instead  of  remaining  a  free 
Municipium  :  even  Adrian  was  sur- 
prised at  this  Andalucian  servility 
'Aul.  Oell.  xvi.  13).     Many  Spaniards 

assert  that  the  poet  Silius  Italicus  was 
bom  here ;  but  then  the  epithet  would 
have  been  ItaUcensis:  his  birth-place 
is  unknown  ;  probably  he  was  an 
Italian,  for  Martial,  his  friend,  never 
alludes  to  his  being  a  paisano,  or 
fellow-countryman.  From  his  admi- 
ration and  imitation  of  Yirgil  he  was 
called  his  ape.  To  the  Spanish  anti- 
quarian he  is  valuable  from  having  in- 
troduced so  many  curious  notices  in 
his  Fumca,  Pliny  J'.  (Ep.  iii.  7)  thus 
justly  describes  his  style :  Silius  scribe- 
bat  carmina  majore  curd  quam  ingenio. 

Italica  was  preserved  by-  the  (Joths, 
and  made  the  see  of  a  bishop  :  Leovi- 
gild,  in  584,  repaired  the  walls  when  he 
was  besieging  Seville,  then  the  strong- 
hold of  his  rebel  son  Hermenigildo. 
The  name  Italica  was  corrupted  by  the 
Moors  into  Talikah,  Talca ;  and  in  old 
deeds  the  fields  are  termed  los  compos 
de  Talca,  and  the  town  Semlla  laviep'a. 
The  ruin  of  Italica  dates  from  the  river 
having  changed  its  bed,  a  conmion  trick 
in  wayward  Spanish  and  Oriental 
streams.  Thus  Gour,  once  on  the 
Gkmges,  is  now  deserted.  The  Moors 
soon  abandoned  a  town  and  **  a  land 
which  the  rivers  had  spoiled,"  and 
selected  Seville  as  a  better  site;  and 
ever  since  the  remains  have  been  used 
as  a  quarry.  Consult  "  Bosquejo  de 
ItaUca,"  Justino  Matute,  Sevilla,  1827  ; 
and  for  the  medals,  Florez,  "  Med.,"  ii. 
477.  Of  these  many,  chiefly  copper  or 
small  silver  coins,  are  found  and  offered 
for  sale  to  foreigners  by  the  peasants, 
who,  with  a  view  of  recommending 
their  wares,  polish  them  bright,  and 
rub  off  the  precious  bloom,  the  patina 
and  Aerugo,  the  sacred  rust  of  twice  ten 
hundred  years. 

On  Dec.  12,  1799,  a  fine  mosaic 
pavement  was  discovered,  which  a  poor 
monk,  named  Jose  Mosooso,  to  his 
honour,  enclosed  with  a  wall,  in  order 
to  save  it  from  the  usual  fate  in  Spain. 
Didot,  in  1802,  published  for  Laborde 
a  splendid  foho,  with  engravings  and 
description.  The  traveller  will  find  a 
copy  in  the  cathedral  Ubrarv  in  the 
Patio  de  los  Naranjos,  at  Seville.  Now 
this  work  is  all  that  remains,  for  the 




soldiers  of  M.  Soult  converted  the 
enclosure  into  a  goat-pen. 

The  amphitheatre  lies  outside  the 
old  town.  On  the  way  ruins  peep  out 
amid  the  weeds  and  ohve-groves,  hke 
the  grey  bones  of  dead  giants.  The 
amphitneatre,  in  1774,  was  used  by  the 
corporation  of  Seville  for  river  dikes, 
and  for  making  the  road  to  Badajoz. 
See  the  details,  by  an  eye-witness, 
"  Viaje  Topograjico  desde  Ghranada  d 
lAshoa;'  duo.  1774,  p.  70.  The  form 
•is,  however,  yet  to  be  traced,  and  the 
broken  tiers  of  seats.  The  scene  is  sad 
and  lonely ;  read  in  it  by  all  means  the 
sweet  ode  by  Bioja.  A  few  gipsies 
usually  lurk  among  the  vaults.  The 
visitors  scramble  over  the  broken  seats 
of  once  easy  access,  frightening  the 
large  and  glittering  lizards  or  Laga/rtoa^ 
which  hurry  into  the  rustling  brambles. 
Behind,  in  a  small  vaUey,  a  limpid 
stream  still  trickles  from  a  font  and  still 
tempts  the  thirsty  traveller,  as  it  once 
did  the  mob  of  ItaUca  when  heated 
with  games  of  blood. 

The  rest  of  Italica  either  sleeps 
buried  under  the  earthy  or  has  been 
carried  away  by  builders.  To  the  west 
are  some  vaulted  brick  tanks,  called 
JLa  Casa  de  los  Banos,  They  were  the 
reservoirs  of  the  aqueduct  brought  by 
Adrian  from  TejcLday  7  L.  distant. 
Occasionally  partial  excavations  are 
made,  but  ill  is  done  by  fits  and  starts, 
and  on  no  regular  plan :  the  thing  is 
taken  up  and  put  down  by  accident 
and  caprice,  and  the  antiques  found  are 
usually  of  a  low  art.  The  site  was  pur- 
chased, in  1301,  by  Guzman  el  JBuenOy 
(see  p.  149,)  who  founded  the  castellated 
convent  San  Isidore  as  the  burial-place 
of  his  femily.  The  sacred  pile,  built 
like  those  in  Syria,  and  near  the  infidel, 
half  fortress  and  half  convent,  was 
gutted  and  ruined  by  Soult  on  his 
final  evacuation  of  Andalucia,  and  next 
was  made  a  prison  for  galley  slaves. 
The  chapel  is,  however,  preserved  for 
the  village  church.  Observe  the  sta- 
tues of  San  Isidoro  and  San  Jeronimo 
by  Montanes,and  the  effigies  of  Q-uzman 
and  his  wife,  who  he  buried  beneath, 
date  &om  1609.  The  tomb  was  opened 

in  1570,  and  the  body  of  the  good  man, 
according  to  Matute  (p.  156),  "  found 
almost  entire,  and  nine  feet  high ; " 
here  lies  also  Dona  Uraca  Osorio,  with 
her  maid  Leonora  Davalos  at  her  feet. 
She  was  burnt  alive  by  Pedro  the  Cruel 
for  rejecting  his  addresses.  A  portion 
of  her  chaste  body  was  exposed  by 
the  flam^  which  consumed  her  dress, 
whereupon  her  attendant,  faithful  in 
death,  rushed  into  the  fire,  and  died  in 
concealing  her  mistress. 

The  Feria  de  Santi  Fonce^  in  the 
beginning  of  October,  is  the  Q-reen- 
wich  fair  of  Seville,  and  all  the  rage 
just  now :  then  booths  are  erected  in 
the  ancient  bed  of  the  river,  which 
becomes  a  scene  of  Majeza  and  their 
Jaleos.  The  hohday  folk,  in  all  their 
Andaluoian  finery,  return  at  nightfeU 
in  Ca/rretas  filled  with  Qitanas  y  Cor- 
raleras,  while  los  mafos  y  los  de  la 
afidon  (fancy)  vtielven  d  caballo,  con 
sus  queriditas  en  anccts.  Crowds  of 
the  better  classes  come  or  used  to  come 
out  to  see  this  procession,  and  sit  on 
chairs  in  the  Calle  de  Costilla,  which 
resounds  with  requiebrosy  and  is  en- 
Hvened  with  exhibitions  of  small  horns 
made  of  harro,  the  type  of  the  Comtido 
paciente  of  Seville ;  the  civilization  of 
the  coat,  alas !  is  effacing  these  nation- 
alities ',  already  the  females  are  quitting 
their  charming  costume  for  bonnets  d 
la  Frangaise  and  Manchester  cottons  ; 
then  with  their  dark  faces,  white  gowns, 
and  gaudy  ribbons,  they  put  one  in 
mind  of  May-day  chimney-sweeps. 

The  traveller  may  return  from  Ita- 
lica to  Seville  by  a  diflerent  route, 
keeping  under  the  slopes  of  the  hills  : 
opposite  Seville,  on  the  summit  to  the 
rt.,  is  Castileja  de  la  Cuesta,  from. 
whence  the  view  is  fine  and  extensive. 
Here,  at  No.  66,  Calle  Beal,  hved 
Feman  Cortes,  and  died  Dec.  2,  1547, 
aged  63,  a  broken-hearted  victim,  like 
Ximeiiez,  Columbus,  G-onzalo  de  Cor- 
dova, and  others,  of  his  king's  and 
country's  ingratitude.  He  was  first 
buried  in  San  Isidoro  at  Itahca,  until 
his  bones,  hke  those  of  Columbus, 
after  infinite  movings  and  changings 
of  sepulture^  at  last  reached  Mexico^ 



Sect.  II. 

the  scene  of  his  glories  and  crimes 
during  life ;  not  however  doomed  to  rest 
even  there,  for  in  1823  the  local  patriots 
intended  to  disinter  \he  foreigner^  and 
scatter  his  dust  to  the  winds.  They 
were  anticipated  by  pious  fraud,  and 
the  illustrious  ashes  removed  to  a  new 
abode,  where,  if  the  secret  be  kept, 
they  may  at  last  find  rest. 

Keeping  the  hill  Chdboya  to  the  rt., 
we  reach  San  Juan  de  Alfa/rache^  Hisn- 
al-faraj,  "of  the  fissure  or  cleft;"  it 
was  the  Moorish  river  key  of  Seville, 
and  the  old  and  ruined  walls  still 
crown  the  heights.  This  was  the  site 
of  the  Sroman  Julia  Constantia,  the 
G-othic  Osset,  and  the  scene  of  infinite 
aqueous  miracles  during  the  Arian 
controversy :  a  font  yet  remains  in  the 
chapel.  Read  the  inscription  concern- 
ing the  self-replenishing  of  water  every 
Thursday  in  the  Semana  Santa ;  con- 
sult the  quarto  Sohre  la  milagrosa 
fuente,  by  tfosef  Santa  Maria,  Sev.  1630, 
and  the  Esp.  Sag.,  ix.  117.  Strabo, 
however  (iii.  261),  points  out  among 
the  marvels  of  Bsetica  certain  weUs  and 
fountains  which  ebbed  and  flowed  spon- 
taneously. Observe  the  Setahlo,  with 
pictures  by  CastUlo,  which  originally 
existed  in  the  San  Juan  de  la  Palma. 
The  panorama  of  Seville,  from  the 
convent  parapet,  is  charming.  On  the 
opposite  side  of  the  river  is  the  fine 
Naranjal  or  orange-grove  of  the  house 
of  Beck,  which  is  worth  riding  to. 
"  Seville,"  -says  Byron,  and  truly,  "  is 
a  pleasant  city,  famous  for  oranges  and 
women."  There  are  two  sorts  of  the 
former,  the  sweet  and  the  hitter  (Ara- 
bic^ Narang,  unde  Naranja),  of  which 
Scotch  marmalade  is  made  and  Dutch 
Cura9oa  flavoured.  The  trees  begin  to 
bear  finit  about  the  sixth  year  after 
they  are  planted,  and  the  quality  con- 
tinues to  improve  for  16  to  20  years, 
after  which  the  orange  degenerates, 
the  rind  gets  thick,  and  it  becomes 
unfit  for  the  foreign  market,  which 
always  takes  the  best.  The  trees  flower 
in  March,  and  perfume  the  air  of  Seville 
with  the  almost  sickening  odour  which 
retains  its  Arabic  name  Azahar  ;  from 
the  blossoms  sweetmeats  are  made,  and 

delicious  orange-flower  water;  buy  it 
at  Aquilar's,  Plaza  San  Vicente ;  nice 
sweetmeats  are  made  of  them  by  the 
nuns ;  to  eat  the  orange  in  perfection, 
it  should  not  be  gathered  until  the  new 
blossom  appears.  The  oranges  begin 
to  turn  yellow  in  October,  and  are 
then  picked,  as  they  never  increase  in 
size  after  changing  colour;  they  are 
wrapped  in  Catalan  paper,  and  packed 
in  chests,  which  contain  from  700  to 
1000  each,  and  may  be  worth  to  the 
exporter  from  25*.  to  30*.  They  ripen 
on  the  voyage,  but  the  rind  gets  tough, 
and  the  freshness  of  the  newly-gathered 
fruit  is  lost.  The  natives  are  very  fan- 
ciful about  eating  them :  they  do  not 
think  them  good  before  March,  and 
poison  if  eaten  after  sunset.  The 
vendors  in  the  street  cry  them  as  mas 
dulces  que  almibar,  sweeter  than  syrup, 
like  the  "Honey,  oh!  oranges  honey" 
of  the  Cairo  chapmen. 

Toma,  niila,  esa  naranja. 

Que  la  cogi  de  mi  huerta ; 
No  la  partas  con  navaja 

Que  estft  mi  corazon  deatro. 

The  village  below  the  hill  of  Alfa- 
rache,  being  exempt  from  the  odious 
Derecho  de  pu^rtas,  and  being  a  plea- 
sant walk,  is  frequented  on  hoHdays 
by  the  Sevilhans,  who  love  cheap  drink, 
&c.  Those  who  remember  what  pre- 
ceded the  birth  of  El  Picaro  G-uzman 
de  Alfarache — a  novel  so  well  trans- 
lated by  Le  Sage — may  rest  assured 
that  matters  are  not  much  changed. 
Gelves,  Gelduba,  Ues  lower  down  the 
river.  This  village  gives  the  title  of 
Count  to  the  descendants  of  Colum- 
bus :  the  fimuly  sepulchre  is  left  in 
disgraceful  neglect. 


The  oHves  and  oU  of  Bsetica  were 
celebrated  in  antiquity,  and  stiU  form 
a  staple  and  increasing  commodity  of 
Andalucia.  The  districts  between  Se- 
ville and  Alcaic,  and  in  the  Ajarafe, 
are  among  the  richest  in  Spain:  an 
exciursion  should  be  made  to  some 
large  Macienda  in  order  to  examine 
the  process  of  the  culture  and  the  ma* 
nufacture,  which  are  almost  identical 




with  thos«  described  by  Varro,  Colu- 
mella, and  Pliny.  Formerly  Seville 
was  surrounded  with  splendid  Hacien- 
daSy  which  combined  at  once  a  country- 
house,  a  village,  and  oil-manufactory : 
the  fiestas,  y  convites  de  campo,  kept 
here  by  the  wealthy  proprietors,  were 
celebrated  before  the  ruin  entailed  by 
Buonaparte's  invasion,  as  few  have  been 
able  to  restore  their  ravaged  esta- 
blishments. Whole  plantations  of 
olives  were  burnt  down  by  Soult'  s  troops, 
while  OUT  Duke  issued  strict  orders 
forbidding  this  ruinous  practice ;  mat- 
ters are,  however,  mending,  thanks  to 
the  great  exports  of  oil  to  England. 

San  JBartolom^,  a  farm  belonging  to 
the  Patema  family,  may  be  visited  as 
a  fine  specimen  of  a  first-rate  Haci- 
enda; it  contains  about  20,000  trees, 
each  of  which  will  yield  from  2  to  3 
bushels  of  olives ;  the  whole  produce 
averages  5000  arrobas  (of  25  lb.),  which 
vary  in  price  from  2  to  5  dollars.  The 
olive-tree,  however  classical,  is  very 
unpicturesque  ;  its  ashy  leaf  on  a  pol- 
larded trunk  reminds  one  of  a  second- 
rate  wHlow-tree,  while  it  affords  neither 
shade,  shelter,  nor  colour. 

GDhe  trees  are  usually  planted  in 
formal  rows :  a  branch  is  cut  from  the 
parent  in  January  ;  the  end  is  opened 
into  4  shts,  into  which  a  stone  is 
placed;  it  is  then  planted,  banked, 
and  watered  for  2  years,  and  as  it 
grows  is  pruned  into  4  or  5  upright 
branches:  they  begin  to  pay  the  ex- 
pense about  the  lOth  year,  but  do  not 
attain  their  prime  before  the  30th. 
The  best  soils  are  indicated  by  the 
wild-olive  (oleaster, acc6«cAe), on  which 
cuttings  are  grafted,  and  produce  the 
finest  crops  (VirgU,  G.  ii.  182).  The 
Spaniards  often  sow  com  in  their 
ohve  grounds,  contrary  to  the  rule  of 
Columella,  for  it  exhausts  the  soil, 
chupa  la  tierra. 

The  berry  is  picked  in  the  autumn, 
when  it  is  purple-coloured  and  shining, 
baccee  splendentis  divse  :  then  the  scene 
is  busy  and  picturesque ;  the  peasant, 
clad  in  sheep-skins,  is  up  in  the  trees 
like  a  satyr,  beating  off  the  fruit,  while 
his  children  pick  them  up,  and  his 

wife  and  sisters  drive  the  laden  donkeys 
to  the  mill.  The  ancients  never  heat 
the  trees  (Plin.  Nat.  Hist.  xv.  3).  The 
berries  are  emptied  into  a  vat,  SI 
trujal,  and  are  not  picked  and  sorted, 
as  Columella  (xii.  50)  enjoined.  The 
careless  Spaniard  is  rude  and  un- 
scientific in  this,  as  in  his  wine-making ; 
he  looks  to  quantity,  not  quality.  The 
berries  are  then  placed  on  a  circular 
hollowed  stone,  over  which  another  is 
moved  by  a  mule ;  the  crushed  mass, 
horwfOy  horvjOy  is  shovelled  on  to  roimd 
mats,  capuchos,  made  of  esparto,  and 
taken  to  the  press,  el  trujal,  which  is 
forced  down  by  a  very  long  and 
weighty  beam  (the  precise  Bi^fa,  Tra- 
petum,  iXeita  rfiUtov),  composed  of  6  or 
7  pine-trees,  like  a  ship's  bowsprit, 
over  which,  in  order  to  resist  the 
strain,  a  heavy  tower  of  masonry  is 
built ;  a  score  of  frails  of  the  horugo 
is  placed  under  the  screw,  moistened 
with  hot  water,  which  is  apt  to  make 
the  oil  rancid.  The  hquor  as  it 
flows  out  is  passed  into  a  reservoir 
below  ;  the  residuum  comes  forth 
like  a  damson-cheese,  and  is  used  for 
fuel  and  for  fattening  pigs;  the  oil 
as  it  rises  on  the  water  is  skimmed 
off,  and  poured  into  big-bellied  earthen 
jars,  tinajas,  and  then  removed  into 
still  larger,  which  are  sunk  into  the 
ground.  Qliese  amphoree,  made  chiefly 
at  Coria,  near  Seville,  recall  the  jars  of 
the  forty  thieves  ;  some  will  hold  from 
200  to  300  arrobas,  i.  e.  from  800  to 
1200  gallons. 

The  oil,  aceite  (Arabic^  azzait),  is 
strong  and  unctuous,  and  the  real  juice 
of  the  berry,  and  not  equal  perhaps  in 
delicacy  to  the  purer,  finer  produce  of 
Lucca,  but  the  Spaniards,  from  habit, 
think  the  Italian  oil  insipid.  The 
second-class  oils  are  coarse,  thick,  and 
green-coloured,  and  are  exported  for 
soap-making  or  used  for  lamps.  Can- 
dles are  rare  in  Spain,  where  the  an< 
cient  lamp,  el  velon  or  candil  (Arabic^ 
kandeel),  prevail,  and  are  exactly  such 
as  are  found  at  Pompeii ;  the  growers  of 
oil  petitioned  against  hghting  Spanish 
towns  with  gas,  "  lamps  being  prefer- 
able to  this  thing  of  the  foreigner."    A 



Sect.  IT. 

large  farm  ia  a  little  colony ;  the  la- 
bourers, fed  by  the  proprietor,  are 
allowed  bread,  garlic,  salt,  oil,  vin^ar, 
and  pimientos,  which  they  make  into 
migas  and  oriental  gazpacho  (Arabic^, 
soaked  bread),  without  which,  in  the 
burning  summers,  their  "  souls  would 
be  dried  away"  (Numb.  xi.  6).  Bread, 
oil,  and  water  was  a  lover's  gift  (Hosea 
ii.  5).  Xhe  oil  and  vinegar  are  kept 
in  cow-horns  ("  the  horn  of  oil,"  1  Sam. 
xyi.  13),  which  hang  at  their  cart  sides. 
This  daily  allowance,  'E.<rtw9m  *H^m«- 
T^a^iSt  ChcemXf  corresponds  minutely 
with  theusages  of  antiquity  as  described 
by  Cato  (B.  B.  56),  and  Stuckius 
(Antiq.  Conviv.  i.  22  ;  ed.  1695).  The 
use  of  oil  is  of  the  greatest  antiquity 
(Job  xxiv.  2)  :  it  supplies  the  want  of 
fikt  in  the  lean  meats  of  hot  climates. 

The  olive  forms  the  food  of  the 
poorer  classes.  GDhe  ancient  distinc- 
tions remain  unchanged.  The  first 
class,  SegicB,  MajorincBy  are  still  called 
las  Meynaa,  leu  Fadronas.  The  finest 
are  made  from  the  gordaly  wliich  only 
grows  in  a  circuit  of  5  L.  round 
Seville:  the  berry  is  gathered  before 
quite  ripe,  in  order  to  preserve  the 
green  colour :  it  is  pickled  for  6  days 
in  a  Salmuera^  or  brine,  made  of 
water,  salt,  thyme,  bay-laurel,  and 
garlic;  without  this,  the  olive  would 
putrefy,  as  it  throws  out  a  mould, 
nata.  The  middling,  or  second  classes, 
are  called  las  MedianaSf  also  las  Mo- 
radas,  from  their  purple  colour ;  these 
are  often  mixed  in  a  strong  pickle,  and 
then  are  called  Alihadas:  the  worst 
sort  are  the  Sebusco,  Recuses,  or  the 
refuse ;  these,  well  begarlicked  and  be- 
pickled,  form  a  staple  article  of  food 
for  the  poor.  The  olive  is  nutritious, 
but  heating;  the  better  classes  eat  them 
sparingly,  although  a  few  are  usually 
placed  in  saucers  at  their  dinners;  they 
have  none  of  the  ancient  luxury,  those 
Aselli  Corinthii,  or  silver  donkeys, 
laded  with  paiiriers  of  different  co- 
loured olives  (Petr.  Arb.  31 ;  Ovid, 
Met.  viii.  664). 

The  geologist  may  visit  Villanueva 
del  Mio,  7  L.  from  Seville,  and  examine 
♦he  coal  mines,  which,  long  neglected. 

are    now    worked    by    the    Reunion 

Route  8. — Seville  to  Rio  Tinto 

AlfD  AXMADElf. 


Venta  de  Pl^anosa      .     .     .  3i 

Algarrobo li 

Castillo  de  las  Gnardias    .     .  3 

RioTinto 6 

Aracena 6 

Fuentes  de  Leon    ....  5 

Segura  de  Leon 1 

Valencia 3 

Fuente  de  Cantos  ....  1 

Llerena 4 

Guadalcanal 4 

Fuente  Ovejuna     ....  6 

Velalcazar 5 

Almaden 6 

Santa  Eufemia 3 

Al  vlso  de  los  Pedroches  .     .  2 

Villanueva  del  Dnque.     .     .  2 

Villaharta  or  Villarta .     .     .  5 

Cordova 6 

This  is  a  riding  tour  of  bad  roads 
and  worse  accommodations;  attend, 
therefore,  to  the  provend;  and  get 
letters  of  introduction  to  the  superin- 
tendents of  the  mines.  The  distances 
must  be  taken  approximately,  as  they 
are  mountain  leagues.  The  botany  is 
highly  interesting,  and  game  abundant. 
A  doublcbarrel  gun  is  useful  in  more 
respects  than  one.  For  some  remarks 
on  mines  in  Spain  and  the  most  useful 
books,  see  Cartagena,  and  p.  839. 

Passing  through  Italica,  the  high 
road  to  Badajoz  is  continued  to  the 
Venta  de  Fajanosa,  4i  L. ;  then  a  rude 
track  turns  off  to  the  I.  over  a  waste  of 
cistus  and  aromatic  flowers  to  Algar- 
xoboy  1  L.,  a  small  hamlet,  where  bait. 
Hence  3  L.  over  a  similar  country  to  a 
mountain  village,  Castillo  de  las  QvamT' 
diasy  so  called  from  its  Moorish  watch- 
fort  :  here  we  slept.  5  L.,  over  a  lonely 
dehesa,  lead  next  day  to  Mio  TintOy 
where  there  is  a  decent  posada.  The 
red  naked  sieves  of  the  copper  moun- 
tain, I/a  Cabeza  Coloraday  with  clouds 
of  smoke  curhng  over  dark  pine- woods, 
announce  from  afar  these  celebrated 
mines.  The  immediate  approach  to 
the  hamlet  is  like  that  to  a  minor  in- 
fernal region;    the  road  is  made  of 




burnt  ashes  and  escoriaB,  the  walls  are 
composed  of  lava-like  dross,  while  hag- 
gard miners,  with  sallow  faces  and 
blackened  dress,  creep  about,  fit  deni- 
zens of  the  place  ;  the  green  coppery 
stream  which  winds  under  the  bank  of 
firs  is  the  tinged  river,  from  whence 
the  Tillage  takes  its  name :  flowing  out 
of  the  bowels  of  ^he  mountain,  it  is 
supposed  to  be  connected  with  some 
internal  undiscovered  ancient  conduit : 
the  purest  copper  is  obtained  from  it ; 
iron  bars  are  placed  in  wooden  troughs, 
which  are  immersed  in  the  waters ; 
the  cascara,  or  flake  of  metal,  deposited 
on  it  is  knocked  off*;  the  bar  is  then 
subjected  to  the  same  process  until 
completely  eaten  away.  The  water  is 
deadly  poisonous,  and  stains  and  cor- 
rodes everything  that  it  touches. 

These  mines  were  perfectly  well 
known  to  the  ancients,  whose  shafts 
and  galleries  are  constantly  being  dis- 
covered. The  Bomans  and  Moors 
appear  chiefly  to  have  worked  on  the 
N.  side  of  the  hill;  the  enormous 
accumulation  of  escoriales  show  to 
what  an  extent  they  carried  on  opera- 

The  village  is  built  about  a  mile 
from  the  mines,  and  was  raised  by  one 
Liberto  Wolters,  a  Swede,  to  whom 
Philip  V.  had  granted  a  lease  of  the 
mines,  which  reverted  to  the  orown  in 
1783.  Paralysed  bv  the  French  inva- 
sion, in  1829  it  was  farmed  to  Serior  Re- 
misa  for  20  years.  It  is  principally  oc- 
cupied by  the  miners,  but  the  empleados 
and  official  people  have  a  street  to 
themselves.  The  view  from  above  the 
church  is  striking ;  below  lies  the 
town  with  its  green  stream  and  orange- 
groves  J  to  the  1.  rises  the  ragged  copper- 
*hill,  wrapped  in  sulphureous  wreaths  of 
smoke;  while  to  the  rt.  the  magnifi- 
cent flat  fir  bank,  la  mesa  de  los  pinos, 
which  supplies  fuel  to  the  furnaces,  is 
backed  by  a  boundless  extent  of  dstus- 
clad  hills,  rising  one  over  another. 

A  proper  officer  will  conduct  the 
traveller  over  the  mines,  who  thus  fol- 
lows the  ore  through  every  stage  of  the 
process,  until  it  becomes  pure  copper ; 
visit  therefore  the  Castillo  de  Solomon 

Spain. — I. 

in  the  Caheza  Colorada.  Entering  the 
shaft,  you  soon  descend  by  a  well,  or 
pozo,  down  a  ladder,  to  an  under  gal- 
lery: the  heat  increases  with  the  depth, 
as  there  is  no  ventilation;  at  the  bottom 
the  thermometer  stands  at  80  Fahr., 
and  the  stout  miners,  who  drive  iron 
wedges  into  the  rock  previously  to 
blasting,  work  almost  naked,  and  the 
few  clothes  they  have  on  are  perfectly 
drenched  with  perspiration  ;  the  scene 
is  gloomy,  the  air  close  and  poisonous, 
the  twinkling  flicker  of  the  miners' 
tapers  blue  and  unearthly ;  here  and 
there  figures,  with  lamps  at  their  breasts, 
flit  about  like  the  tenants  of  the  halls 
of  Eblis,  and  disappear  by  ladders  into 
the  deeper  depths.  Melancholy  is  the 
sound  of  the  pick  of  the  solitary  work- 
man, who,  alone  in  his  stone  niche,  is 
hammering  at  his  rocky  prison,  like 
some  confined  demon  endeavouring  to 
force  his  way  to  hght  and  liberty. 

The  copper  is  found  in  an  iron 
pyrites,  and  yields  about  five  per  cent. 
The  stalactites  are  very  beautiful ;  for 
wherever  the  water  trickles  through 
the  roof  of  the  gallery,  it  forms  icicles, 
as  it  were,  of  emeralds  and  amethysts  ; 
but  these  bright  colours' oxidize  in  the 
open  air,  and  are  soon  changed  to  a 
dun  brown.  When  the  Zafra,  or 
rough  ore,  is  extracted,  it  is  taken  to 
the  Caicinacionf  on  the  brow  of  the 
hill,  and  is  there  burnt  three  times  in 
the  open  air ;  the  sulphur  is  sublimated 
and  lost,  as  it  passes  off  in  clouds  of 
smoke ;  the  rough  metal,  which  looks 
like  a  sort  of  iron  coke,  is  next  carried 
to  be  smelted  at  houses  placed  near  the 
stream,  by  whose  water-power  the 
bellows  are  set  in  action.  The  metal 
is  first  mixed  with  equal  parts  of  char- 
coal and  escoriales,  the  ancient  ones 
being  preferred,  and  is  then  fused  with 
brezo,  a  sort  of  fael  composed  of  cistus 
and  rosemaiy.  The  iron  flows  away 
Uke  lava,  and  the  copper  is  precipitated 
into  a  pan  or  copeUa  below.  It  is  then 
refined  in  ovens,  or  reverberos,  and 
loses  about  a  third  of  its  weight ;  the 
scum  and  impurities  as  they  rise  to  the 
surface  are  scraped  ofi*  with  a  wooden 
hoe.     The  pure  copper  is  then   sent 




Sect.  II. 

either  to  Seville  to  the  cannon-foundry, 
or  to  Segovia,  to  be  coined. 

There  is  a  direct  cross-ride  over  the 
wild  mountains  to  Quadalcanal  and 
Almaden.  Attend  to  the  provend  and 
take  a  local  guide.  It  is  lar  better  to 
make  a  detour  and  visit  Aracena,  5  L. 
and  6  hours'  ride,  over  trackless,  life- 
less, aromatic  ^ide  wastes  of  green  hills 
and  blue  skies  :  afber  Compo  FHo,  2  L., 
the  countiy  improves  and  becomes 
quite  park-hke  and  English.  Aracena 
is  seen  &om  afar  crowning  a  mountain 
ridge :  here  is  a  good  poaada ;  popu- 
lation about  5000,  which  is  swelled  in 
the  summer,  when  the  cool  breezes 
tempt  the  wealthy  £rom  Seville  to  this 
Corte  de  la  Sierra,  Ascend  to  the 
ruined  Moorish  castle  and  church, 
which  commands  a  splendid  moimtain 
panorama.  The  Arabesque  belfry  has 
been  capped  with  an  incongruous  mo- 
dem top.  It  was  to  Aracena  that  the 
learned  Arias  Montana  retired  after 
his  return  from  the  Council  of  Trent. 
IVom  hence  there  is  a  direct  bridle- 
route  to  Llerena^  12  L.,  turning  off  to 
the  rt.  to  Arroyo  MoHnos,  4i  L.,  and 
crossing  the  great  Badajoz  and  Seville 
road  at  Monasterio  3,  thence  on  to 
Montemolin  2,  Llerena  3.  There  is  a 
direct  road  from  Aracena  to  Badajoz, 
through  Xerez  de  los  Cahalleros,  a  pic- 
turesque old  town  with  Moorish  walls 
and  a  grand  tower ;  remembering,  on 
passing  Fre^fenaljto  observe  at  Higuera 
la  Eealy  ^  L.,  the  6  pictures  by  Morales 
in  the  parish  church. 

Let  us  first  mention  the  route  on  to 
Zqfra. '  The  country  is  charming. 
Leaving  Aracena,  5  L.  of  iniquitous 
l*oad  lead  to  Fuenfes  de  Leon:  the 
country  resembles  the  oak  districts  of 
Sussex,  near  Petersfield ;  in  these  En" 
cinares  vast  herds  of  swine  are  fattened. 
At  CarhoneraSy  1  L.,  the  route  enters  a 
lovely  defile,  with  a  clear  torrent;  all 
now  is  verdure  and  vegetation,  fruit 
and  flower.  The  green  grass  is  most 
refreshing,  while  the  air  is  perfumed 
with  wild  flowers,  and  gladdene